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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 1998
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 1998
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A SURVEY OF EXTRAFAMILIAL CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE BY PHYSICIANS' REPORTS
Hong, Kang-E ; Kang, Byung-Goo ; Kwack, Young-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 127~137
The authors surveyed extrafamilial sexual abuse in the children under 15years old by the physician's reports. We sent the semi-structured child sexual abuse questionnaires to 7055 board certified pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine and emergency medicine. Total respondents were 1205. The results from these respondents were as followings. 1) The number of respondents who have had the experience of treating victims of extraf/amilial child sexual abuse were 641(53.2% of total respondents). 2) 338(52.7%) of the perpetrators were known persons and 277(43.2%) were strangers, the most common age bracket were 20s, 30s and 10s, and almost all(99.8%) of the perpetrators were male. 3) The mean age of victims was
years old, and almost all(98.6%) of the victims were female. 4) The ways by which extrafamilial child sexual abuses were found were victim’s own reports：273(62.6%), pain complaint, 156(24.3%) and abnormal behavior 96(15.0%), other person’s report 72(11.2%), detection during examination 19(3.0%), and pregnancy 4(0.6%). 5) Time lags between extrafamilial child sexual abuses and hospital visits were within 24 hours 332 (51.8%) and from 1 day to 1 week 232(36.2%), victims were rather quickly 6) Physical complications were perineal wound 571(89.1%), hymen rupture 349(54.4%), wound of other part of body 124(19.3%), pregnancy 37(5.8%), and sexually transmitted disease 18(2.8%), and other serious complications such as vaginal-rectal lacerations 8, intastinal bleeding 7, death 2, hypotensive shock 1. These results suggest considerable numbers of physicians have had the experience of treating victims of extrafamilial child sexual abuses, and extrafamilial child sexual abuses are the major medical as well as social issue in children in Korea.
A SURVEY OF INTRAFAMILIAL CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE BY PHYSICIANS' REPORTS
Hong, Kang-E ; Kang, Byung-Goo ; Kwack, Young-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 138~147
Authors surveyed intrafamilial child sexual abuse in the children under 15years old in clinical. We sent the semi-structured child sexual abuse questionnaires to 7055 board certified pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine and emergency medicine. Total respondents were 1205. The results from these respondents were as follows. 1) The numbers of respondents who have had the experience of treating victims of intrafamilial child sexual abuses were 157(13.0% of total respondents). 2) Among the perpetrators, 58(36.9%) were siblings and 32(20.4%) 26(16.6%) were step-fathers, and respectively. The most common age bracket was 10s(39.5%), and the next was 40s and 50s (33.7%) Almost all(98.7%) of the perpetrators were male. 3) The mean age of victims was
years old, and all of the victims were female, and the number of victims who had previous mental or physical handicaps and behavior problems were 5(3.2%) and 8(5.1%) respectively. 4) The ways by which intrafamilial child sexual abuses were found were abnormal behaviors 45(28.7%), victim's own report 40(25.5%), pregnancy 18(11.5%), pain complaint 13(8.3%), other person's report 13(8.3%), and detection during examination 12(7.6%). 5) Time lags between intrafamilial child sexual abuses and hospital visits were after 1 month 97(61.8%), from 1 day to 1 week 29(18.5%), within 1 day 21(13.4%), and from 1 week to 1 month 10(6.4%). 6) Physical complications were perineal wound 93(59.2%), hymen rupture 90(57.3%), pregnancy 68(43.3%), wound of other part of body 11(7.0%), and sexually transmitted disease 4(4.5%). 7) Treatment for victims were discharge 92(58.6%), admission, operation or transfer to a bigger hospital 25(15.9%), psychiatry consult 19(12.1%), report to police(10.9%) and social work consult 3(1.9%). These results suggest that considerable numbers of physicians have had the experience of treating victims of intrafamilial child sexual abuses, and intrafamilial child sexual abuses are the major medical as well as social issue in children in Korea.
CORRELATION BETWEEN DEPRESSION OF MOTHERS WITH AUTISTIC CHILDREN AND SEVERITY OF AUTISTIC SYMPTOMS OF THEIR CHILDREN
Kwak, Young-Sook ; Lee, Soo-Kyung ; Kang, Kyung-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 148~153
Objectives：This study investigated the severity and frequency of depression in mothers with autistic children and the correlation between K-BDI score of mothers with autism and severity of autistic symptoms of their children. Methods：The subjects for this study consisted of 45 autistic children and their mothers. The severity of autistic symptoms of children were evaluated by K-CARS and severity of depressive symptoms of mothers with autistic children evaluated by the K-BDI. Results：1) Total K-BDI scores of mothers with autistic children were
and this score was belonged to subclinical depression on the K-BDI STEN score. There were significant differences of total KBDI score between in mothers with autistic children and in those of normal control. The 26.7% of 45 mothers with autistic children were depression. 2) There was no correlation between total K-BDI score and each factor of mothers with autistic children and K-CARS score of the their children. Conclusion：There were many depression in mothers with autistic children than in those of normal control. This result suggested that the education and the supportive psychotherapy for mothers with autistic children is as important as the treatment for autism.
EFFECT OF THE SOCIAL SKILL TRAINING IN ADHD CHILDREN
Park, Soon-Young ; Kwack, Young-Sook ; Kim, Mi-Koung ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 154~164
Medication is widely accepted as an effective method to reduce the problem of attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsivity, resistance and violence of ADHD children. However, it does not provide us with the solution on the conflicting routinized behavioral patterns to gain a high level of self-control and acceptable behavior. As a way of replacing medication, this study applies the social skills training program for ADHD children and measures the level of improvement of social skills and the change of the behavioral patterns. The experiment is carried out on 16 children ranged from 6 to 13 years of age for 10 weeks. The patients are divided into three groups：a pure ADHD group, an ADHD group with conduct disorder, an ADHD group with mental retardation and other symptoms. The change of symptoms and the change of social skills are measured by the Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL), the ADD-H Comprehensive Teacher’s Rating Scale(ACTeRS) and the Social Skills Rating Scale(SSRS), and finally Mastson Evaluation of Social Skills for Youth(MESSY). Wilcoxon signed ranks test is used to evaluate the effect of the treatment, and Kruskal-Wallis test is also used to measure the change after the treatment in each of the three groups. In the ADHD group with conduct disorder, the examination of the effect of the treatment shows a significant reduction of violence in the area of behavior(p<.05), and a significant difference of activity and social skills in the area of social competent(p<.001). In the ADHD group with mental retardation and other symptoms, a significant rise of social skills is found in the area of social skills evaluation (p<.05). However, there is no significant difference of effect by the treatment among the three groups. In addition, the current examination shows that the social skills training program does not make a statistically significant contribution to the social skills of the ADHD children. On the other hand, the training helps some children, when it is suitable for the characteristics and accompanying symptoms of the children：it reduces the level of violence in the ADHD group with conduct disorder, and it raises the social skills in the ADHD group with mental retardation. In other words, the social skills training program will reduce the conduct disorder and helps peer relation for ADHD children.
COMPARISON OF KEDI-WISC AND BGT PERFORMANCE BETWEEN THE ASPERGER' DISORDER AND PDD NOS CHILDREN
Yang, Yoon-Ran ; Shin, Min-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 165~173
Objectives：This study was conducted to compare the cognitive characteristics and visual-motor coordination ability of children with Asperger’s disorder and with those of children with PDD NOS. Methods：27 children(13 in AS group and 14 in PDD NOS group) were individually assessed using the K-WISC and BGT, and the results of those tests were analyzed. Results：The mean FSIQ of the AS group was significantly higher than that of the PDD NOS group. There was also a large discrepancy between VIQ and PIQ in the PDD NOS, while there was not significant discrepancy in the AS. The AS was distinguished from PDD NOS group by significantly higher scores in Vocabulary and Comprehension subscales and lower score in Block design. Also, when compared with the PDD NOS, the AS showed more difficulties in visual-motor coordination. Conclusion：The AS showed relatively good verbal and learning ability, while the PDD NOS relatively superior ability in visuospatial function and visual-motor coordination. The findings indicated that the K-WISC and BGT might be useful assessment tool to differentiate the AS from PDD NOS.
RELATIONSHIP OF MOTHERS' SELF-PERCEPTION WITH PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN'S PROBLEMS - FOCUSING ON VALIDITY SCALES OF MMPI & KPI-C -
Kim, Keun-Hyang ; Jung, Yoo-Sook ; Hong, Sung-Do ; Kim, E-Yong ; Kim, Ji-Hae ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 174~179
Objective：Present study investigated the relationship between mothers' self-perception and perception of children's problems. Method：Subjects were 63 children, mothers, who visited child & adolescent psychiatric clinic. Their mothers completed Minnesota Mulpiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI) & Korean Personality Inventory for Children(KPI-C). Correlation between validity scales of mothers' MMPI and validity scales of KPI-C was analysed, and then we divided subjects into two group(High & Low Group) according to the MMPI validity scales, and compared KPI-C's validity scales by student t-test. Result：There were significant positive correlation(r=.30) between K scale of MMPI and L scale of KPI-C, significant negative correlation(r=-.32) F scale of MMPI and L scale of KPI-C. The Means of T scores did show significant difference according to MMPI F, K scales in KPI-C L scale, to MMPI L scale in KPI-C F scale. Conclusion：These results indicated that defensive mothers tend to perceive her child's problems more defensively. However mothers who exaggerate their problem more severely, do not exaggerate their children's problem. Therefore, these result suggested that we should be careful not to underestimate children's problem whose mother elevated in K scale of MMPI.
REARING PATTERN OF SCHIZOPHRENIC MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS
Kang, Kyung-Mi ; Kwack, Young-Sook ; Lee, Sung-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 180~189
Objects：This study is investigated to compare psychopathology and their perceived parental rearing pattern of the children of schizophrenic mother with those of normal control group. The correlation were also assessed between perceived parenting style and problem behaviour Method：Thirty children(age 12-18) of schizophrenic mother and normal control subjects completed self-report questionnaires containing child·adolescent behaviour problem check list(K-CBCL) and Parental bonding instrument(PBI). Result：The result were as follow in the children of schizophrenic mother：1) the mean score of problem behaviour significantly higher than normal control group. 2) Parenting style was perceived to be less caring and more overprotective than in the control subject. 3) there was positive correlation between maternal overprotection and problem behaviour and negative correlation between maternal care and problem behaviour. Conclusion：We succeed in identify that the children of schizophrenic mother have more problems in social adjustment than normal control subjects. Parental rearing style are thought to be significantly negativistic in the children of schizophrenic mother. It is guessed that less caring and more overprotective rearing style of schizophrenic mother could have influence on problem behaviours of their children.
THE DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF THE RORSCHACH SCHIZOPHRENIA/DEPRESSION/COPING DEFICIT INDEX IN CHILD-ADOLESCENT PARENT GROUPS
Seo, Soo-Gyoon ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Kim, Zoong-Sool ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 190~197
Objectives：This study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic utility of the Rorschach schizophrenia/depression/coping deficite index in child-adolescent parent groups(schizophrenia, depression,depressive conduct disorder). Methods：Three child-adolescent parent groups(schizophrenia(18), depression(20), depressive conduct disorder(19)) were individyally assessed using the Rorschach test and schizophrenia/depression/coping deficite index scores were analyzed. Results：The results showed significant difference among three groups on only SCZI and significantly higher SCZI score of schizophrenia group than other two groups. When the critical value of SCZI was 4, diagnostic hit rate was 96.5%, and when the critical value of DEPI was 3, diagnostic hit rate was 57.9%, and when the critical value of CDI was 4, diagnostic hit rate was 66.6%.
A STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF KOREAN CHILD REARING INVENTORY FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA
Oh, Kang-Seob ; Lee, Si-Hyung ; Huh, Myo-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 198~208
The purpose of this study was to develop a 'Korean Child Rearing Attitudes Inventory', in order to understand the effects of parents rearing attitudes on social phobia. The total subjects were 392 high school students in Seoul. The scales wwereadministered to the subjects and we examined the reliability and validity. The results were as follows. According to the factor analysis, six factors abstracted from the father's rearing attitudes：rejection, high expectation, anxious, control, emotional care and overconcern of other's opinion. By the method of reliability analysis and factor analysis, finally selected items were 60. The reliability of the factors ranged from .76 to .90 by Cronbach
. Five factors abstracted from the mother's rearing attitudes：anxious, high expectation, rejection, emotional care and overconcern of other's opinion. And total selected items of mother's rearing attitudes were 61. The reliability of the factors ranged from .72 to .91 by Cronbach
. The construct validity and reliability of this inventory were supported.
TIC SYMPTOM EXACERBATION ASSOCIATED WITH STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION IN TOURETTE'S DISORDER
Joung, Yoo-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 209~217
Object：The purpose of this study was to investigate that infection with group
hemolytic streptococcus may associate the mechanisms that cause or exacerbate the tic symptoms in some cases of Tourette's disorder Method：Fourteen cases with abrupt worsening of tics participated in this study：10 males,4 females. The subjects were divided into two groups composing of the group with increasing level of ASO titer and the group with normal level of ASO titer. The subjects were administered Yale Global Tic Severity Scale(YGTSS). Result：The global severity scores and overall TS impairment rating scores of YGTSS in the group with increasing level of ASO titer were more higher than in the group with normal level of ASO titer Conclusion：These results suggest that increasing level of ASO titer, resulting from group
hemolytic streptococcal infection has affected worsening the tic symptoms in Touette's disorder.
EFFECT OF METHYLPHENIDATE ON FUNCTIONAL CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION DURING ATTENTIONAL TASKS IN BOYS WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Shin, Dong-Won ; Yook, Ki-Hwan ; Jon, Duk-In ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Min, Sung-Kil ; Song, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 218~226
This study aims at investigating the effects of psychostimulant on functional cerebral localization during the attentional tasks in ADHD. Inclusional subjects were 13 boy between 6-12 years old who met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. In each patient, there was a drugfree period(without methyphenidate) and a drug-loaded period(with oral methylphenidate administration), and within each period there was a resting state and a stimulated state with TOVA. Comparisons were made by measuring the amplitudes of four bands(
) of quantitative EEG to see if there were any differences between the drug-free period(resting and stimulated) and the drug-loaded period(resting and stimulated). In the resting state, there was no difference between the drug-free and drug-loaded periods. In the stimulated state with TOVA, the presence of methylphenidate induced significant changes in the theta to beta ratio(
) in the right frontal, right parieto-occipital, and left temporal-parietal areas in contrast to the drugf-ree period. These data suggest that methylphenidate shows electrophysiological influences on cerebral topographical activities during the attentional tasks in ADHD.
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CONDUCT PROBLEMS ADMITTED INTO A PSYCHIATRIC UNIT
Pyo, Kyung-Sik ; Kang, Yun-Hyong ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Lee, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 227~236
Objectives：Conduct disorder is one of the most frequent diagnosis in outpatient and inpatient mental health facilities for children and adolescents. This study investigated the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with conduct disorder. Methods：The study employed a retrospective review of 45 inpatients diagnosed with conduct disorder by DSM-IV criteria at SNUH Child Psychiatric Unit from 1993, March to 1998, September. Results：The results were as follows：1) The sex ratio was 2：1, male dominant. Mean age on admission was
). The mean age of male subjects was significantly lower than that of female subjects(p<.05). 2) We classified all subjects according to child- or adolescent-onset type by DSM-Ⅳ. Childhoodonset type was 42.2%, and adolescent-onset, 57.8%. The onset of male subjects were significantly earlier than that of female subjects(p<.05). 3) The most common complaint was 'serious violation of rules'(77.8%) by DSM-Ⅳ dimensions, while the most common single symtom was 'run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home'(48.9%). 4) The comorbid psychopathology of the subjects were frequently described as follows, in order of frequency：substance use(42.2%), ADHD(35.6%), depression(20.0%), tic disorder(11.1%), bipolar disorder(4.4%). 5) On MMPI, both Pd and Ma subscales got the highest scores. The mean of total IQ by KEDIWISC was
. Female subjects' IQ was higher than that of male subjects. 6) Regarding the number of visits to the OPD after discharge, many subjects(33.3%) had visited OPD fewer than four times. Conclusions：In this study, the male to female ratio of adolescent type showed a decreasing trend. An interesting finding was the fact that socio-economic circumstances, as well as the level of education among patients, were higher than those of previous studies. The subjects' problem were also principally self contered and posed no threat to others.
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS WITH PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER
Pyo, Kyung-Sik ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ; Hong, Kang-E ; Park, Tae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 237~246
Objectives and Methods：This study investigated clinical characteristics, treatment modality, outcome of 57 children and adolescent inpatients(male 53, female 4) who were diagnosed as pervasive developmental disorder(PDD) by DSM-Ⅳ criteria recent five years. Results：1) The mean age at admission was
months, and the mean age at which they first visited treatment facility was
months. The mean hospitalization period was
days. 2) Diagnosis：Twenty-seven(47.4%) of subjects met DSM-Ⅳ criteria for PDD NOS. Fifteen (26.3%) met for autistic disorder, nine(15.8%) met for Asperger's syndrome, and two(3.5%) met for childhood disintegrative disorder. 3) Comorbid diagnosis：The most common comorbid dignosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(23.8%). 4) IQ test：IQ test for twenty-eight subjects was possible. The Average of the subjects was
. Fifteen(53.6%) of the subjects were approximate or under 70. 5) Neurology Abnormality：EEG findings of eleven(21.2%) subjects were abnormal, brain CT or MRI findings of eight subjects(21.6%) were abnormal. 6) Family Hx：Depressive disorder were found in Eight mothers(14%). Familial loading was found in twenty families(35.1%), and familial loading of PDD was found in three(5.3%). Conclusion：The most important thing for the management of PDD is early detection and early treatment. To do so, multidisciplinary team approach should be emphasized.
A CASE OF CLOZAPINE TRIAL FOR A MANIC EPISODE SUFFERED BY AN ADOLESCENT RECOVERING FROM NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME
Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hong, Kang-E ; Kim, Yong-Sik ; Chung, Sun-Ju ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, issue 2, 1998, Pages 247~252
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome(NMS) is an acute, potentially fatal, idiosyncratic reaction to neuroleptic medication. Early recognition and intensive care are crucial. An important issue is whether NMS will recur after initial recovery and subsequent use of neuroleptic medication. The authors presented with a male adolescent who had suffered a bipolar disorder manic episode and been taking clozapine after recovering from MNS. He had been admitted into a psychiatric ward once before and similarly diagnosed. On the second admission, he showed muscle rigidity, autonomic instability, mild fever, severe diaphoresis, and altered mental status on the fourth hospital day following a haloperidol injection. He was diagnosed with NMS, according to the clinical signs and laboratory data. After the use of antipsychotics was discontinued, he was moved to intensive care unit and given dantrolene. His condition began to improve about 48 hours after the onset of NMS. Due to manic behavior, he returned to the psychiatric ward. On the 21 st hospital day, clozapine was administered to counter the manic symptoms. The final dose was 350mg and showed good remission signs without further recurrence of NMS.