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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
The Correlation between TCI and BDI, STAI in Traffic Accident Patients
Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Ji-Hwon ; Jeong, Si-Yeong ; Myoung, Sung-Min ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 1~11
Objectives : The purpose of this study was investigated that correlation between Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI) and Beck Depression Inventory (EDI). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI) in traffic accident patients. Methods: We investigated 30 cases of traffic accident patients. The patients answered that questionnaire about temperament. character and depression. anxiety. TCI and BDI. STAI were used to get to know that answers. Results: Depression is positive correlated with novelty seeking and harm avoidance in temperament. In character. depression is negative correlated with self directedness, and positive correlated with self-transcendence. Anxiety is positive correlated with harm avoidance in temperament. and negative correlated with self directedness. Conclusions : The results of correlation between TCI and BD I. STAI in traffic accident patients were consistent with previous studies in general person.
Traditional Health Behavior(Yangseng) and Depression Level in the Rural People
Kim, Lak-Hyung ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Ahn, Ok-Hee ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 13~20
Objectives : Yangseng is a traditional healthcare regimen on the promotion of health and prevention of illnesses by means of specific principles and methods for the purpose of living a long and healthy life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of depression level and Yangseng in rural residents for the promotion of health and prevention of illness. Methods: The subjects of this study were 1205 rural residents who live in Wanju. Cheonbuk. Korea. Beck depression inventory and the Yangseng were assessed by survey personnels. Results: The total score of Yangsaeng was
, and the BDI score was
. Mild depression group was 5.03%. depression and severe depression group was 3.86%. Normal group in depression showed higher Yangsaeng score. and the high Yangsaeng score group showed lower BDI score. Conclusions : Above results suggest that there are signigicant relations between depression and Yangsaeng. These results could be used for planning the public healthcare programs and Yangseng promoting program based on Korean traditional medicine.
Study on the Characteristics of Heart Rate Variability, Body component analysis and accompanying symptoms in 175 Insomnia Patients
Ha, Ji-Won ; Kim, Bo-Kyung ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 21~39
Objectives : This study was to investigate the characteristics of the heart rate variability(HRV), types of insomnia and accompanying symptoms of 175 insomnia patients. Methods : For this study we carried out HRV, Inbody of 175 patients with insomnia who have come to Dongeui oriental hospital of Dongeui university from the period of Janaury 2008 to September 2010. We studied the association of the insomnia patients' age and gender with HRV, accompanying symptoms and the types of insomnia. The information of the accompanying symptoms and types of insomnia was based on each patients' progress note. Results : l. There was no significant differences in the characteristics of HRV between male and female. 2. The most frequent symptom shown among the insmonia patents' was headache(41.14%). 3. Comparing the symptoms between the gender, female patients had more dry mouth, alternative periodic chill and fever, and hot flush symptoms than the male patients. 4. Comparing the symptoms between the age groups(divided in two), the lower age group (20~59) had more dizziness and constipation symptoms than the higher age group (over 60). 5. Comparing the types of insomma between the age group, the higher age group (over 60) had more termination insomnia. 6. The types of insomnia of the entire insomnia patients were onset insomnia (73.1%), maintenance insomnia(20.6%), termination insomma(l7.1 %), shallow sleep (52.6%), listed by order of frequency. 7. The patients who takes hypnotics had more anorexia symptoms than the patients who doesn't take hypnotics. 8. There was no visible differences of the average fractal portrait between male and female. The age group of 20~30yrs. had the highest average fractal portrait, and the age group of 30~59yrs. the second highest, and the age group over 60yrs. the lowest. 9. The average of the regulation reserves of the autonomic nervous system(B2) - was lower than the regulation level of the ANS at the present (Bl). 10. When compared the priority of the function of the ANS, it showed that the proportion of HF(
)was the most, and than VLF(
) the least. 11. The average of the compensation level of the central nervous system at present(Cl) - was lower than the compensation reserves of the CNS(C2). 12. The average of the control reserves of the cerebrum(D2) - was lower than the control level of the cerebrum at the present (Dl). 13. There was no visible differences between different sexes and ages in pulse rate. 14. The abdomen fat ratio above the line of the insomnia patients was 77.97% in male and 93.1% in female. Both sexes showed that insomnia patients had more abdomen fat that the standard, and female patients had more abd. fat than male patients. Conclusions : This study shows that the HRV of insomnia patients had no significant differences between gender. Fractal portrait, HF, LF and VLF of the insomnia patients are in inverse proportion to the age. The study of the Body Component Analysis showed that female had more abdomen fat than male, and both gender showed more abdomen fat than the standard. When looked into the accompanying symptoms of the insomnia patients, the symptoms show differences according to gender, age and hypnotics taking, as shown as below. In the entire patients, Headache was the most accompanying symptom. Female had more dry mouth, alternative periodic chill and fever, and hot flush symptoms than male. Higher age groups had more dizziness and constipation as accompanying symptoms than lower age groups. Patients who takes hypnotics had more anorexia than those who dont.
Immuno stimulatory activities of Samul-tang, Sagunja-tang, Pamul-tang and Sipjeondaebo-tang in vitro
Lee, Ho-Young ; Ha, Hye-Kyung ; Jung, Da-Young ; Lee, Nam-Hun ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 41~51
Objectives : Samul-tang(SM). Sagunja-tang(SG). Pamul-tang(PM) and Sipjeondaebo-tang(SJ) was used many diseases such as sterility. menstrual disorder. general prostration. recruitment in Korea. We investigated the immune stimulatory activities of SG. SM. PM and SJ in in vitro. Methods: For comparision for effective of SM. SG. PM and SJ. this study examined anti-inflammation(NO. PGE2 assay). anti-oxidation(DPPH assay) and immune response in in vitro assay. For immune response activities. this study used NO synthesis on RAW 264.7 cells, splenocyte proliferation and cytokine assay(IL-2, IL-4) in splenocyte. Results: The results showed that SG. SM. PM and SJ were no significant effect anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effects. For immune response. they showed the splenocyte proliferation and macrophage proliferation. We confirmed that they synthesised NO a dose-dependent manner significantly and secreted the IL-4. Conclusions : These results suggested the SG, SM, PM and SJ had immune stimulatory activity. A efficacy of immune response in them had produced similar results.
Effect of SSEx on the Metabolic Syndrome in High-Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice
Kim, Bo-Kyung ; Oh, Young-Jin ; Chun, Young-Ho ; Ha, Ji-Won ; Lee, Hee-Young ; Jeong, Hae-Gyeong ; Shin, Soon-Shik ; Lee, Sang-Eon ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 53~68
Objectives : We investigated the effects of Sopungsungj-won(Shufengshunqjvuan) (SSEx1, SSEx2) on the metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Methods: 8 weeks old, high fat diet induced obese male mice were divided into 4 groups: C57BL/6 lean control, obese vehicle control, SSEx1, SSEx2. After mice were treated with SSExl, SSEx2 for 12 weeks, we measured body weight gain, food intake, feeding efficiency ratio, fat weight, plasma leptin, insulin, glucose and lipid levels. We also observe the morphology and count for the numbers of Adipocyte and evaluate the weight of organs and it's function. Results: 1. Compared to Obese Control Group, SSEx1 gained significantly lower body weight and showed lower Feeding Efficiency Ratio. 2. Compared to Obese Control Group, SSEx1 showed lower weights of epididymal adipose tissue, troperitoneal adipose tissue, inguinal adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue. SSEx2 showed higher weights of epididymal adipose tissue, troperitoneal adipose tissue, inguinal adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue. 3. Compared to Obese Control Group, the size of adipocytes was significantly decreased by SSEx1, whereas the number of adipocites per unit was significantly increased. Hepatic lipid accumulation was decreased significantly by SSEx1. 4. Concerning the weights of Liver, Heart, Spleen, Kidney and Pancreas, SSEx1, SSEx2 showed little differences with those of Lean Control, Obese Control. 5. Compared to Obese Control Group, SSEX1, SSEx2 showed lower level of plasma triglyceride, but SSEx1 had significance only. SSEx1, SSEx2 showed little lower level of plasma HDL-cholesterol. LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, but had no significances. 6. Concerning the levels of plasma glucose, insulin and leptin, SSEx1 and SSEx2 showed littele changes with those of Lean Control, Obese Control. 7. The leves of Plasma AST, AST, ALT, free fatty acid, BUN, creatinine were in the physiological range at 4 groups all: Lean Control, Obese Control, SSEx1, SSEx2. Conclusions : These results showed SSEx1 can be used as therapeutic agent for Obesity and metabolic syndrome caused by long-period high fat diet.
A Review of Electroacupuncture on Patients with Nocturnal Enuresis in Chinese Medicine
Sung, Won-Young ; Kim, Lak-Hyung ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 69~78
Objectives : The study was designed to evaluate the effect of electro acupuncture on patients with nocturnal enuresis in China. Methods: We performed systematic reviews of case reports and case-control studies of electroacupuncture on patients with nocturnal enuresis published from 1994 to 2010 in CNKI(中國知識基礎施設工程 http://www.cnki.net) at September, 2010. Results: 18 studies were selected. The electroacupuncture points frequently used were Chungguk (中極), Kwanwon(關元), Samumgyo(三陰交), Shinsu(腎兪). Bangkwangsu(膀曠兪), etc. G6805 electroacupuncture instrument was most frequently used in those studies and the treating methods of electro acupuncture were various according to each study. The combination of electroacupuncture and other therapy showed better results than the simple therapies such as simple electro acupuncture or acupuncture. western medicine. herbal medicine. auricular therapy. Conclusions : There have been 18 studies of electro acupuncture on patients with nocturnal enuresis in China and these studies can be applied to the clinical practices in Korea.
The effects of Jajun-maum-dom-movement program on the attention and hyperactivity of middle school students
Kim, Se-Won ; Jung, Young-Su ; Chu, Key-One ; Kim, Geun-Woo ; Kim, Seung-Hyeon ; Ko, Byung-Soo ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 79~97
Objectives : The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Jajun-maum-dom-movement program on the attention and hyperactivity of middle school students, Methods: Jajun-maum-dom-movement program was applied to 14 middle school students for 8 weeks, To measure the improvement of attention and decrease of hyperactivity, these tests were used - ADHD Diagnostic System(hereinafter ADS), Parent's Abbreviated Conners Rating Scale(hereinafter ACRS), Teacher's Korean ADHD Rating Scale(hereinafter K-ARS). For each variable in the 3 test methods, the results of before and after program were measured and then, the results were assessed by paired t-test, Interrelations between the resulted values of 10 variables were analyzed in these three groups: scores before program, scores after program, and change in scores before and after program, Among 10 variables, for variable showing significant difference by t-test, it was assessed by ANCOVA whether change in scores before and after program is affected by the grade and gender. Results: As for the changed score between before-the-program and after-the-program, in the ADS test, it was found that there is a significant effect in the "commission error" which is one of the indices showing the degree of hyperactivity, and "sensitivity(d')" which is one of the indices showing attention, and it was found that there is a significant effect in ACRS and K -ARSC total), Among the correlations of the 4 variables, "ACRS" and "K-ARSC total) ", which show the comprecessive criteria, have the positive correlation of significance in before-the-program, after-the-program and the changed score between before-the-program and after-the-program, However, there was no specific correlations among sub-variables about attention or hyperactivity, and in all of 4 variables, there was no significant degree of change according to grade or gender. Conclusions : As the results of assessment by ADHD Diagnostic System, Parent's Abbreviated Conners Rating Scale, Teacher's Korean ADHD Rating Scale to study the effects of Jajun-maum-dom-movement program on attention and hyperactivity, it is known that the program is helpful for improvement of attention and decrease of hyperactivity for the participated students.
Associations of PSI, WCC, and DSOM in Mothers of Elementary School Children
Lim, Jung-Hwa ; Lee, In-Sun ; Jung, In-Chul ; Hwang, Bo-Min ; Jeong, Min-Jeong ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 99~112
Objectives : This study was to investigate the associations of Parent Stress Index(PS]). Way of Coping Checklist(WCC). and Diagnostic System of Oriental Medicine(DSOM) in mothers of elementary school children. Methods: In the study. K-PSI-SF. WCC. and DSOM were carried out on 202 mothers of O Oelementary school children during June. 2010. Cross tabulation analysis was used to verify the association of PSI. WCC and DSOM. Results: 1. The most common pathogenic factor was Dampness(濕) in total subjects. 2. The score of problem-focused coping methods showed significant difference in PSI grades. 3. The zp and sc10 of Qi deficiency(氣虛), Blood deficiency(血虛), Qi-Stagnation(氣滯), Insufficiency of Yang(陽虛), Heat(熱), Dampness(濕), Dryness(燥), Liver(肝), Heart(心), and Kidney(腎) showed significant difference in PSI grades. 4. The score of total PSI and PSI subscale had negative correlations with problem-focused coping methods 5. The score of total PSI had positive correlations with Qi-Stagnation (氣滯), Dampness(濕), Dryness(燥), Heart(心), and Kidney(腎) in total subjects. Conclusions : This study provides insights on associations of parenting stress coping methods and diagnostic system in Oriental Medicine. Furthermore, the study shows positive correlations among Qi-Stagnation (氣滯), Dampness(濕), Dryness(燥), Heart(心), Kidney(腎) and PSI, and negative correlations between PSI and Problem-focused coping methods, all with statistical significance.
A Study on the Research Tendency in Traditional Chinese Medicine in Recent 5 Years
Lee, Seung-Gi ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 113~122
Objectives : This study was performed to review the research tendency in traditional medical journals of epilepsy in China. Methods: 26 studies were selected by searching CNKI(China National Knowledge Infrastructure) from 2006 to 2010. Results : Those were analyzed and classified into cause, symptoms, herbal therapy, acupuncture therapy, diagnosis, clinical trials, case studies and evalution of treatment in epilepsy. Conclusions : The results show that traditional medical researches of epilepsy are performed variously and actively in China and there are some differences comparing with Korea. I hope these results activate the studies on eilepsy in Korean traditional medicine.
Preliminary Study to Develop the Instrument of Oriental Medical Evaluation for dementia
Ryu, Chang-Hee ; Jung, In-Chul ; Cho, Seung-Hun ; Hwang, Wei-Wan ; Kang, Wee-Chang ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 123~135
Objectives : This study was performed to develop a standard instrument of oriental medical evaluation for dementia. Methods: The advisor committee on this study was organized by 17 neuropsychiatry professors of oriental medical colleges. The items and structure of the instrument were based on review of published literature. We took consultation twice from the advisor committee and we also took additional advices bye-mail. Results: We discriminated between bian-zheng and su-zheng from the answers of the advisor committee. We got the mean weight of each symptom and sign from the answers of the advisor committee. We got the final weight from the combination of the ratio of bian-zheng to the number of all answers of the advisor committee and mean weight. Conclusions : The instrument of oriental medical evaluation for dementia was developed through experts' discussion. If the validity and reliability of this instrument is confirmed through additional clinical trial. the instrument of oriental medical evaluation for dementia is expected to be applied to the subsequent research.
A Retrospective Study on Dementia Outpatients in Oriental Neuropsychiatry Clinic of One Medical Center
Cho, Hye-Young ; Hong, Soon-Sang ; Whang, Wei-Wan ; Cho, Seung-Hun ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 137~149
Objectives : The aim of this study was to describe the clinical aspects in dementia outpatients who visited oriental neuropsychiatry clinic and to analyze the efficacy of herbal medicine. Methods: We analysed medical records of dementia outpatients who visited oriental neuropsychiatry clinic of K medical center from August. 2000 to July, 2010 and matched our criteria. Results: Ninety-two subjects were selected for analysis and consisted of 77.3% dementia of Alzheimer type. 13.0% vascular dementia. and 9.8% mixed type of dementia. Herbal medicine prescribed mainly were Jowjseungchung-tang(Tiaowejshengqing-tang). Kunneo-tang(Jjannao-tang) and Chenwangbosim-dan(Tianwangbuxin-dan) for dementia of Alzheimer type, and Sunghyangjungki-san(Xjngxjangzhengqi-san) and Upung-dan (Yufeng-dan) for vascular dementia. Scores of K-DRS were not changed for some subs cales and decreased but less than natural decline of Alzheimer disease. Score on the Memory subscale in group of Kunneo-tang(Jjannao-tang) increased significantly. Conclusions : These results suggest that the herbal medicine may be effective for dementia. More prospective studies are needed to assess the efficacy and prognosis of herbal medicine for dementia. Clinical guideline is needed for systematic data accumulation.
A Systematic Review of Clinical Studies for Herbal Medicine of Dementia - based on Korean Literature -
Kwon, Yong-Ju ; Cho, Hye-Young ; Whang, Wei-Wan ; Cho, Seung-Run ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 151~161
Objectives : This study aimed to evaluate any clinical studies regarding the herbal medicine for dementia focusing on Korean literature for future rigorous clinical research. Methods: Every article relevant to dementia was initially obtained from oriental medical related journals by electronic search at journal web sites or manual searches. Journals were limited to those registered with the Korea Research Foundation. From initial findings. two independent reviewers selected clinical articles and these articles were further analyzed separately by predefined criteria according to prospective and retrospective studies. For randomized controlled trial and non randomized controlled trial. quality assessment was also conducted. Results: From ninety seven patients initially obtained articles. twenty three patients were finally analyzed. One article was randomized controlled study. Four articles were prospective whereas eighteen patients were retrospective. In the qualitative evaluation of prospective articles. there was deduction regarding pre-calculated study size and prospective data collecting. Assessment measurement most frequently used was Mini Mental State Examination. The order of frequency of use herbs were identified. Conclusions : According to our study. the herbal medicine for dementia in general showed a positive effect in the cognitive aspects of dementia patients. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies should be conducted.
Effects of LI4, Liv3 Acupuncture for Mental Stress on Short-term Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Park, Eun-Young ; Jang, Jeong-A ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Han, Hyo-Jung ; An, Tae-Han ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Seo, Ho-Seok ; Kim, Jin-Yi ; Lee, Jin-Hwan ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 163~173
Objectives : The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acupuncture applied at 114 and Liv3 points on heart rate variability (HRV) in normal subjects under mental stress. Methods: 36 healthy male and female subjects were recruited and randomized to a treatment group(18 subjects) or a control group (18 subjects). After 10-minutes rest period and instrumentation, both groups performed a mental stress test(Stroop color word test, Arithmetic test. four rule of arithmetic task) for l6-minutes. HRV was recorded before and after the mental stress. And then acupuncture needles were inserted on 114 and Liv3 for the study group. In the control group, they rested for l5-minutes. And Heart rate variability(HRV) was measured. Results: In the both groups, low frequency(LF) power, normalized low frequency power(LF(norm)) and ratio of low frequency to high frequency(LF/HF) was significantly increased after mental stress. Acupuncture induced significant decrease in low frequency(LF) power, normalized low frequency power(LF(norm)) and ratio of low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) which was increased after mental stress test. In contrast, control group induced no changes. Conclusions : Acupuncture on 114 and Liv3 could be useful to decrease sympathetic activity and prevent the alteration of autonomic nervous system due to mental stress.
The Relationships between stress, anger, anxiety, depression and neck pain
Lee, Kyung-Won ; Choi, Woo-Jin ; Son, In-Bong ; Lee, Seung-Gi ; Sun, Seung-Ho ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 175~185
Objectives : The objective of this study was to observe the relationships between neck pain and psychological factors such as stress, anger, anxiety and depression. Methods: Under mental stress. the 31 patients with neck stiffness and 32 control subjects with no neck stiffness were measured by using NDI, BEPSI, GARS, STAXI, STAI, and BDI scales. The psychological scales between the patients and the controls were taken to observe the average results by comparing between the two groups. Also NDI and psychological scales of correlation analysis was performed. Results: 1. The mean scores of NDI, BEPSI, GARS, State-Anger, Trait-Anger, Anger-out, Anger-In, Sate-Anxiety, TraitAnxiety, and BDI under patients group were significantly higher than those in control group. 2. The value of NDI comparing to the values of BEPSI, GARS, State-Anger, Trait-Anger, Anger-out, Anger-In, Sate-Anxiety, Trait-Anxiety, and BDI in this study resulted in high correlation among each others which showed statistically significant. Conclusions : It has the possibility that the neck pain with stress. anxiety. anger and depression might be related highly in correlation. especially in stress and anxiety which showed the most high correlation.
A Clinical Report of Two Patients with Poststroke Depression by Korean Traditional Treatment and Roger's Person-centered Counseling
Kim, Jin-Yi ; Lee, Jin-Hwan ; Kim, Soo-Jung ; Seo, Joo-Hee ; Yoon, In-Ae ; Park, Eun-Young ; Sung, Woo-Yong ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 187~206
Objectives : This study was designed to report the effect of korean traditional treatment and person-centered counseling for poststroke depression Methods : We treated two patients who scored 37 point and 32 point at Beck's depression inventory each, and 23 point and 22 point at Hamilton rating scale for depression each by korean traditional treatment and person-centered counseling, Results : After treatment, the clinical symptoms were improved and Beck's depression inventory, Hamilton rating scale for depression score were decreased, Conclusions : The result suggest that korean traditional treatment and person-centered counseling is effective in patients with poststroke depression.
A Case of a Panic Disorder(with Agoraphobia) Patient Improved by Herbal Extracts - Gyejigayonggolmoryo-tang(Guizhijialonggumuli-tang) and Jakyakgamcho-tang(Shaoyaogancao-tang) -
Suh, Hyun-Uk ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Jung, Sun-Young ; Kim, Jong-Woo ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 207~218
Objectives : This case report presents a 33-year-old male patient who complained chest pain and anxiety. diagnosed with panic disorder with agoraphobia improved by Herbal Extracts. SRP(Stress Reduction Program) and Acupuncture treatment. Methods : In early treatment period. we evaluated his general psychological state through interview and self-questionnaires(STAI, SCL-90-R, STAXI, BDI) for treatment planing. And then we had prescribed herbal extracts for 20 weeks with applying SRP and acupuncture treatment. After 20 weeks we assessed his psychological symptoms with same evaluation tools. Results : After 20 weeks. We found that patient's somatic and psychological symptoms(anxiety, depression, anger) were alleviated. Frequency and severity of panic attacks were reduced also. Conclusions : Herbal extracts. especially Gyejigayonggolmoryo-tang(桂枝加龍骨牡蠣湯) and Jakyakgamcho-tang(芍藥甘草湯), may be useful therapeutic tool for control of panic attack symptoms and anxiety.
A Research of School Refusal on Adolescent with Psychiatric Disorders
Heo, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Sang-Eon ; Lyu, Heui-Yeong ;
Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry, volume 21, issue 4, 2010, Pages 219~231
Objectives : School refusal is usually considered as individual's behavioral problem. These days. however. the adolescents' school refusal needs some kind of medical approaches because it is related to mental disorder of the adolescents. Due to too much pressure and stress from the competition between classmates and from good performance in school. the number of adolescents who refuse to go to school is increasing. Despite this circumstance. school refusal is neither regarded as a single independent disorder nor endorsed as an officially classified disease. which makes difficult to conduct research on this issue and to establish standardized treatment for it. In addition. there is a lack of research on this topic. especially in oriental medicine. so there is no a case report or study on school refusal. This study is trying to comment on school refusal from the perspective of oriental medicine. Methods : We tried to examine the effect of oriental medicine treatment for school refusal with four adolescent cases. The patients commonly have at least more than one mental disorder (including depression disorder. anxiety disorder. and anorexia nervosa). have some problem with the relationship with their family. in particular with mother. do not have father or not be loved by their father. and have irregular eating habits. Thus. we diagnosed them as qi transforming into fire (氣鬱化矢) spleen-stomach deficiency cold (脾胃虛寒) and heart blood deficiency (心血虛) due to stress from the family issues and unhealthy eating habits. The patients received supportive therapy. family therapy. etc among many oriental mental treatments and their progress had been observed through hospitalization and outpatient treatment. Results : All four cases were reported positive progress on their symptoms and started coming back to school. We also examined whether they were well fitting into the school while they received outpatient treatment. and the results show that all four patients continue to settle down in normal school life. Conclusions : This study closely reviewed the mental disorder of school refusal cases and showed that the Oriental medical treatment was effective in helping the patients come back to school. More future research is required to better treatment for school refusal cases in oriental medicine.