Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
International Journal of Highway Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Safety Analysis on Pedestrian Crossings in Urban Corridors with Bus Rapid Transit System
Han, Sang-Jin ; Kim, Kewn-Jung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 1~8
Seoul metropolitan government has introduced Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems in some major urban corridors on July 1st, 2004, and has reported that it was successful on the ground that bus speed has been increased in the corridors with BRT system and that it has also resulted in the increase of bus patrons. However, there comes a negative claim that BRT has increased the number of fatalities in the same corridors. This study first aims at developing safety evaluation indicators of pedestrian crossings, then compares values of those indicators from pedestrian crossings with and without BRT systems. The safety evaluation indicators of pedestrian crossing are developed as: the number (or ratio) of conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, the number (or ratio) of vehicles violating pedestrian signals, the number (or ratio) of pedestrians remaining crossings at red signals, and the number (ratio) of pedestrians walking beyond crossing areas. When we compare values of these indicators for both pedestrian crossings with and without BRT system, it has turned out that crossings with BRT systems has more number of conflicts than the crossings without BRT systems, but it cannot be said that the ratio of conflicts will be different between two crossing types. It means that the number of conflict will increase as the number of pedestrians and vehicles in the crossings. When we note that BRT system intrinsically attract more number of pedestrians who get-in or get-off bus stops, we cannot said that BRT system will be safer for pedestrians.
Development of Extraction Method of Slab Curling Shape of jointed Concrete Pavement Using Profile Data
Chon, Beom-Jun ; Lee, Seung-Woo ; Mun, Sung-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 9~18
Curling is caused by the difference in the temperature and humidity by the depth of the slab in Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement. Slab curvature shape and size change due to curling exert a profound influence on the internal stress and roughness of the pavement, affecting structural and functional performance of the pavement. Direct measurement of the slab curvature entails many problems. Many measuring instruments have to be installed at the early-stage of the pavement construction, and the behavior of the slab curvature needs to be measured accurately from the early-stage. Moreover, the cost and technical difficulty are very formidable to measure the slab curvature. This study develops a measurement method for slab curvature in jointed concrete pavement at any given time by applying Power Spectrum Density Analysis and Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation to the profile data, that can be easily obtained at the construction field site. The effectiveness of this developed method is verified by measuring the profile data of the test road of jointed concrete pavement at an inland central expressway by the hour and by examining the result of extracting the slab curvature shape from this profile data. Additionally, the profile data of CRCP(Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement) sections on the same expressway were obtained and analyzed at the same time. The validity of the method developed for the slab curvature shape extraction is verified by comparing the result from the analysis of the profile data of CRCP sections with that from the analysis of the prof1Ie data of jointed concrete pavement sections.
Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Mixtures with Foaming Technology and Additives Using New Simple Performance Testing Equipment
Kim, Yong-Joo ; Im, Soo-Hyok ; Lee, David ; Hwang, Sung-Do ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 19~29
To produce asphalt mixtures at temperature significantly below
, called "Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)", new technologies are currently being developed worldwide. To produce WMA mixtures in this research, foaming technology is adopted to effectively disperse asphalt binder at lower temperature than hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field. The main objectives of this study are to develop WMA process using foaming technology (WMA-foam) and evaluate its performance characteristics under various temperatures and loading conditions. WMA-foam mixtures were produced by injecting PO 64-22 foamed asphalt into warm aggregates whereas WMA mixtures were produced by adding PO 64-22 asphalt (without foaming) in the warm aggregates. Both dynamic modulus and flow number of WMA-foam mixtures were higher than those of WMA mixtures. Based on the limited dynamic modulus and repeated load test results, it is concluded that the WMA-foam mixtures using warm aggregates at
are more resistant to fatigue cracking and rutting than WMA mixtures.
Application of Modified Ramberg-Osgood Model for Master Curve of Asphalt Concrete
Kweon, Gi-Chul ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 31~40
The dynamic moduli of asphalt concrete are very important for the analysis and the design of asphalt pavement systems. The dynamic modulus master curve is usually represented by a sigmoidal function. The Ramberg-Osgood model was widely used for fitting of normalized modulus reduction curves with strain of soils in soil dynamic fields. The master curves were obtained by both sigmoidal functions and modified Ramberg-Osgood model for the same dynamic modulus data set, the fitting abilities of both methods were excellent. The coefficients in sigmoidal function are coupled. Therefore, it is not possible to separate the characteristics of the master curve with absolute value and shape. However, the each fitting coefficient in the Ramberg-Osgood model has a unique effect on the master curve, and the coefficients are not coupled with each other.
Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility on Asphalt Mixtures mixing Anti-Stripping Agent
Yang, Sung-Lin ; Hwang, Sung-Do ; Kim, Yeong-Min ; Jeong, Kyu-Dong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 41~52
This study is to evaluate the property for the moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures using anti-stripping agent. Asphalt mixtures using lime, hydrated lime and liquid anti-stripping agent are evaluated through the three types of modified moisture conditioning(
, F-T). Indirect Tensile Test, that is recommended by AASHTO TP-9, which includes creep test, resilient modulus test and strength test is used to estimate moisture susceptibility. Analysis method through Energy Ratio(ER) that is proposed by Roque at University of Florida is used to evaluate moisture susceptibility and moisture resistance effects of asphalt mixtures using anti-stripping agent. As a test result, material property of asphalt mixtures was changed by moisture conditioning methods and the types of anti-stripping agent. Also, cracking resistance of accumulated moisture damage was changed by moisture conditioning methods and the types of anti-stripping agent. Based on test result, it was found that cracking resistance using Energy Ratio was differed from 10% to 30%.
Development of Traffic Accident Frequency Model for Evaluating Safety at Rural Signalized Intersections
Kim, Eung-Cheol ; Lee, Dong-Min ; Kim, Do-Hoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 53~63
Even though accident frequencies in roadway segments have been decreasing since 2000, there has been increasing the number of vehicle crashes at intersections. Due to this increase, safety problems at intersection recently started to be regarded as significant issues. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of road conditions, traffic operational conditions, and other influencing condition on intersection safety. Then a traffic accident frequency prediction model to evaluate the safety at intersections was developed based on the correlations between influencing factors and vehicle crashes. In this research, critically significant factors affecting vehicle crashes at rural four-legs signalized intersections were investigated. It was found that Poisson regression was the best fit method to developing a accident frequency modeling using the collected data in this study. Through this study, it was concluded that exclusive left turn lane, crosswalk, posted speed, lighting, angle, and ADT are significant influencing factors on the intersection safety.
An Analysis of influencing factors to perceived LOS of Drivers in Urban Arterial
Kim, Tae-Ho ; Lee, Yong-Taeck ; Ko, Jun-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 65~77
LOS(Level of Service) concept are popularly used in many countries as the MOEs to evaluate the road construction and operation plans. However, MOEs such as travel time and delay only measure quantitative factors describing traffic flow, although qualitative factors such as scenic, comfort and reliable factors are very important for roadway drivers to define the LOS. Therefore, this paper are focusing on verifying the difference between perceived LOS and LOS in KHCM, and proving qualitative factors affecting Drivers' Perceived LOS in Urban Arterial. As a result, following outputs are obtained; (1) verifying the difference between perceived LOS(PLOS) and LOS in KHCM (2) proving that qualitative factors such as scenic and driver behavior factors affects PLOS (3) suggesting that qualitative factors should be considered in MOEs of LOS
Development of Rutting Model for Asphalt Mixtures using Laboratory and Accelerated Pavement Testing
Lee, Sang-Yum ; Lee, Hyun-Jong ; Huh, Jae-Won ; Park, Hee-Mun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 79~89
The pavement performance model is the most important factor to determine the pavement life in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG). As part of Korean Pavement Research Program (KPRP), the Korean Pavement Design Guide (KPDG) is currently being developed based on mechanistic-empirical principle. In this paper, the rutting prediction model of asphalt mixtures, one of the pavement performance model, has been developed using triaxial repeated loading testing data. This test was conducted on various types of asphalt mixtures for investigating the rutting characteristics by varying with the temperature and air void. The calibration process was made for the coefficients of rutting prediction model using the accelerated pavement testing data. The accuracy of prediction model can be increased when by considering the effect of individual rutting properties of materials rather than shear stresses with depths.
Development of Multi Layered Elastic Pavement Analysis Program Package Considering Temperature Nonlinearty of Asphalt Layer on GUI Environment
Choi, Jun-Seong ; Seo, Joo-Won ; Park, Keun-Bo ; Kim, Soo-Il ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 91~101
A multi layered elastic analysis program, IDYSPAP, was developed. The objective of this study was to develop the IDYSPAP program on Graphic User Interface environment for field engineers using Visual Basic, which was considered span of multi-wheels and maximum 4 axles using superposition of linear elastic theorem. It is suggested that this study considers algorithm with dynamic properties of asphalt layer on various temperature and non-linear properties of subbase and subgrade on stress non-linearity for asphalt pavement structure. This Program was modified to divide asphalt layer automatically according to layer division concept. The developed program was verified with initial measuring data in test road sections of KEC (Korea Expressway Co.) using laboratory test results.
Fundamental Study on Establishing the Subgrade Compaction Control Criteria of DCPT with Laboratory Test and In-situ Tests
Choi, Jun-Seong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 103~116
In this study, in-situ testing method, Dynamic Cone Penetration Test(DCPT) was presented to establish a new compaction control criteria with using mechanical property like elastic modulus instead of unit weight for field compaction control. Soil chamber tests and in-situ tests were carried out to confirm DCPT tests can predict the designed elastic modulus after field compaction, and correlation analysis among the DCPT, CBR and resilient modulus of sub grade were performed. Also, DCPT test spacing criteria in the construction site was proposed from the literature review. In the result of laboratory tests, Livneh's equation was the best in correlation between PR of DCPT and CBR, George and Pradesh's equation was the best in the predicted resilient modulus. In the resilient modulus using FWD, Gudishala's equation estimates little larger than predicted resilient modulus and Chen's equation estimates little smaller. And KICT's equation estimates the modulus smaller than predicted resilient modulus. But using the results of laboratory resilient modulus tests considering the deviatoric and confining stress from the moving vehicle, the KICT's equation was the best. In the results of In-situ DCPT tests, the variation of PR can occur according to size distribution of penetrate points. So DCPT test spacing was proposed to reduce the difference of PR. Also it was shows that average PR was different according to subgrade materials although the subgrade was satisfied the degree of compaction. Especially large sized materials show smaller PR, and it is also found that field water contents have influence a lot of degree of compaction but a little on the average PR of the DCPT tests.
A Study on Bicycle Accident Patterns at Urban Intersections
Kim, Do-Hoon ; Cho, Han-Seon ; Kim, Eung-Cheol ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 117~125
Recently, users of bicycles as a green mode are rising sharply, but there are few efforts to increase bicycle safety and to decrease the number of accidents between vehicles and bicycle users. Therefore, this research seeks to improve bicycle safety at intersections by analysing causation factors of bicycle accidents pattern and providing optimal intersection design guidelines. For this study, real bicycle accident data of fifty six occurred in the Incheon metropolitan area in the year of 2005 were collected and field surveys were conducted. In addition, this research developed a bicycle accident pattern model with using multinomial logit model. The model results showed that presence of fatality, presence of traffic islands on the minor road, highway_type, weather, presence of traffic bus_stop on the major road, minor road lane width, victim induce factor are significant for bicycle safety.
Analysis of Car controls and Perclos by Normal and Fatigue driving
Oh, Ju-Taek ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Young-Sam ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 127~138
Vehicles have recently become one of the main factors affecting our quality of life, and the needs of vehicles are still increasing. As a result, the growth of vehicles generate more crashes every year. One main factor for vehicle crashes is uncareful driving behaviors. Especially, drowsy or fatigue driving behaviors explain about 10-20% of the crashes, and they cause serious results because of the delay of response time and the decrease of object-recognition. Therefore, this research conducted real time image processing tests in order to study how cellular phone usages and drowy(or fatigue) drives affect driving behaviors. A vehicle simulator was used for this research, and the faceLAB 4.5 of Seeing Machines for eye image tracking tests using a small camera was installed in the front of the simulator, and normal and drowsy(or fatigue) driving patterns were analyzed.
Development of Traffic Accident Rate Forecasting Models for Trumpet IC Exit Ramp of Freeway using Variables Transformation Method
Yoon, Byoung-Jo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 139~150
In this study, It is focused on development of the forecasting model about trumpet InterChange(IC) ramp accident because of the frequency of accident in ramp more than highway basic section and trend the increasing accident in ramp. The independent variables was selected through statistical analysis(correlation analysis, multi-collinearity etc) by ramp types(direct, semi-direct and loop). The independent variables and accident rate is non-linear relationship. So it made new variables by transformation of the independent variables. The forecasting models according to exit-ramp type (direct, semi-direct and loop) are built with statistical multi-variable regression using all possible regression method. And the forecasts of the models showed high accuracy statistically. It is expected that the developed models could be employed to design trumpet IC ramp more cost-efficiently and safely and to analyze the causes of traffic accidents happened on the IC ramp.
Methodology to Predict Service Lives of Pavement Marking Materials
Oh, Heung-Un ; Lee, Hyun-Seock ; Jang, Jung-Hwa ; Kang, Jai-Soo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 151~159
Performances of retroreflectivity vary place to place, according to traffic volumes and time lengths after striping, depending on pavement marking materials and colors. The present paper uses the nation wide data of retroreflectivity, which has been collected from freeways and then tries to develop the regression curve setting traffic volume and service life as independent variables and retroreflectivities as dependent variables. The DB system includes two year's measurement in
over Korean freeway pavement marking at an interval of three months for the period. The mobile measurement system, a laserlux, was employed for the purpose. The DB has provided a lot of information about materials and performance of the specific pavement marking such as geometric features, traffic volumes, material characteristics and the installation date. This study provides the comparison of pavement marking performances under diversified conditions. Based on accumulated pavement marking performances, this study provides performance curves based on the diversified factors. The goal of the retroreflectivity modeling is to develop equations that can be used to estimate an average retroreflectivity of pavement markings as a function time since application and traffic volume. After representing the variation of retroreflectivities and estimating regression curves by linear, exponential, logarithmic and power function, the regression curve which had the highest coefficient of determination and the value similar to the last field measurement was regarded as the retroreflectivity decay model. As a result of verification, the decay model showed the signification within the 90% confidence level and especially showed the clear relation with field data according to increase of cumulative vehicle exposure. Accordingly, these models can be used to determine service lives, retroreflectivity degradation rates, and retroreflectivity of new markings.
Accident Models of 4-Legged Signalized Intersections by Vehicle Type in the Case of Cheongju
Park, Byung-Ho ; Park, Gil-Soo ; In, Byung-Chul ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 161~170
This study deals with the accident models by vehicle type. The goal is to develop the accident models by vehicle type using the data of 143 4-legged signalized intersections in Cheongju. In pursuing the above, this study gives the particular attentions to explaining the relationships between the values of EPDO(equivalent property damage only) and the traffic and geometric elements. The main results analyzed are the followings. First, 6 negative binomial models are developed, which are all significant at the 90% confidence level. Second, the values of
by vehicle type are 0.14307(auto), 0.35556(large van), 0.21684(small van), 0.205152(motocycle), 0.32338(light-duty truck) and 0.29046(heavy-duty truck), that are all analyzed to be statistically significant. Finally, the common variable included in all models is ADT(average daily traffic), and the specific variable(SV) of auto is analyzed to be the sum of lane width of main road, SV of large van is the average yellow time, and SV of small van is the difference in the number of lane between main and minor road.
Experimental Analysis of Curling Behavior of Concrete Slabs on Grade under Temperature Loading and Underlying Layers' Effects
Kim, Seong-Min ; Park, Hee-Beom ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 171~180
This study was conducted to analyze the curling behavior of concrete slabs on grade under temperature loading through the laboratory tests and to investigate the effects of the support conditions of underlying layers on the curling behavior of the slab on grade systems. For the laboratory tests, the concrete slabs were fabricated and the temperature measurement sensors were installed. The temperature loading was applied intentionally and the time histories of the vertical displacements of the slab at several different positions were measured. One-layered underlying layers were made using different materials and different thicknesses. Two-layered underlying layers were also made to have the same composite stiffness each other, but the material of the upper layer was designed to be different The experimental analysis results showed that the trend of the displacement time histories of the slab was basically the same as that of the temperature gradient time histories. The characteristics of the curling behavior of the slab were analyzed by separating the regions of curling up and curling down. The difference in the vertical displacements at the center and comer decreased as the stiffness of the underlying layer became larger, and the upper layer's material of the underlying layers affected the curling behavior of the slab.
Effects on the Inclusion of the Pigment in Performance of Color Asphalt Mixture
Park, Tae-Soon ; Jeon, Man-Sik ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 181~187
This paper presents the results of the effects on the inclusion of the pigment in the color asphalt mixture. The particle size of the pigment is extremely finer than that of the filler and should be reduced the amount of the filler used. It was found in the present practise that the total weight of 2% of the pigment in the weight of the total aggregate was used during the mix design. The extra inclusion of the pigment in the mixture increased the amount of the filler and affected on the volumetric properties such as void ratio and VMA. It has related with the performance and distress of the pavement and found that the mechanical properties have decreased.
Material Property Evaluation for UFFA Rapid Setting Concrete including Calcium Hydroxide
Jeon, Sung-Il ; Nam, Jeong-Hee ; An, Ji-Hwan ; Kwon, Soo-Ahn ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 189~198
Generally, UFF A(Ultra Fine Fly Ash) has merit that advances a greater concrete workability and activates a greater pozzolanic reaction than common fly ash due to its ultra fine particle size. These properties enhance concrete durability by reducing permeability and increasing resistance of alkali silica reaction(ASR) and sulfate attack, etc. Due to these reasons, UFFA can be used in a rapid setting concrete. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the rapid setting concrete with UFF A as a repair material for early-opening-to-traffic. In previous studies, if only UFFA is added to the rapid setting concrete mixture, pozzolanic reaction doesn't happen actively. Therefore, in this study, the chemical and physical tests were performed for rapid setting concrete with UFFA including calcium hydroxide and the activity of pozzolanic reaction was evaluated. Finally, the effectiveness of this mixture on enhancing concrete durability was investigated. As results, adding UFF A decreased the water/cement ratio of concrete, and compensated the reduced portion of the early strength of concrete. Also, rapid setting concrete with UFFA including calcium hydroxide activated a greater pozzolanic reaction than normal-UFF A concrete. As calcium hydroxide increases, electrical indication of concrete's ability to resist chloride ion penetration is promoted significantly.
Characteristics and Severity of Side Right-Angle Collisions at Signalized Intersections
Park, Jeong-Soon ; Park, Gil-Soo ; Kim, Tae-Young ; Park, Byung-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 199~211
This study deals with the side right-angle collisions of 4-legged signalized intersections in Cheongju. The goals are to analyze the characteristics of accidents and to find out the accident factors that affect severity using ordered probit model. In pursuing the above, the study uses the data of 580 side right-angle collisions occurred at the 181 intersections(2004-2005). The analyses show that more accidents were occurred in the nighttime and in going straight. The main cause was analyzed to be the red-light violation. Also, the main results of modeling are the following, First, the likelihood ratio index is 0.094 and t-ratio values that explain goodness of fit are significant. Second, minor road traffic volumes, minor road lanes, major road left-turn lanes, major road left-turn signal, major road yellow signal time, cross angle, major and minor road speed limits are significant factors affecting crash severities at signalized intersections.
Appropriate Boundary Conditions for Three Dimensional Finite Element Implicit Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Pavement
Yoo, Pyeong-Jun ; Al-Qadi, Imad L. ; Kim, Yeon-Bok ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 213~224
Flexible pavement responses to vehicular loading, such as critical stresses and strains, in each pavement layer, could be predicted by the multilayered elastic analysis. However, multilayered elastic theory suffers from major drawbacks including spatial dimension of a numerical model, material properties considered in the analysis, boundary conditions, and ill-presentation of tire-pavement contact shape and stresses. To overcome these shortcomings, three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) models are developed and numerical analyses are conducted to calculate pavement responses to moving load in this study. This paper introduces a methodology for an effective 3D FE to simulate flexible pavement structure. It also discusses the mesh development and boundary condition analysis. Sensitivity analyses of flexible pavement response to loading are conducted. The infinite boundary conditions and time-dependent history of calculated pavement responses are considered in the analysis. This study found that the outcome of 3D FE implicit dynamic analysis of flexible pavement that utilizes appropriate boundary conditions, continuous moving load, viscoelastic hot-mix asphalt model is comparable to field measurements.
Determination of Proper Loading Speed for Deformation Strength Test of Asphalt Concretes
Cho, Byung-J. ; Park, Tae-W. ; Doh, Young-S. ; Kim, Kwang-W. ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 225~234
This study was carried out to select proper loading speed for deformation strength (
) of asphalt mixtures. Kim test using loading head of diameter(40mm) with radius(10mm) was conducted to measure
in different loading speed (10mm/min, 30mm/min, 50mm/min, 70mm/min) and wheel tracking test was also conducted. The regression analyses between the So values and WT results were carried out by loading speeds. Higher
was observed as increasing loading speed. This means that loading speed is a high influencing factor on
. The loading speed of 30mm/min was found as an optimum for better correlation with WT results than any other speeds from the regression analysis between
and wheel tracking test results.
value measured at other loading speed than 30mm/min has to apply the conversion coefficients.
A Study on Safety Improvement of Safety Devices at Entrance of Expressway Tunnels
Lee, Jeom-Ho ; Kim, Jang-Wook ; Kim, Deok-Soo ; Lee, Soo-Beom ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 235~245
Since rapidly increase of tunnel with increasing of expressway, the study on safety improvement of safety device at entrance of expressway tunnels is necessary. The existence of tunnel occurs more speed reduction than an upward slope by itself, the collision accident of tunnel entrance causes heavier damage than that of general accident on the road. So, many kinds of safety devices such as poly-ethylene barrier, guard-rail are placed on the road side. But these devices affect the drivers as an obstacle. Although there are various safety devices that are placed at tunnel entrance, this study is related to following 2-cases. One is that the poly-ethylene barrier is placed and the other is that a safety devices is not placed. The reason that these two cases are selected, is that poly-ethylene barrier is usually placed at many tunnel entrances and safety devices can affect the drivers as an obstacle. This study is related to the difference of right-hand side clearance between inside tunnel and outside tunnel, too. The average difference observed car speed and VDS(vehicle detect system) speed nearby the tunnel is analysed. Through the statistical analysis of the average difference, this study suggests an alternatives on safety improvement of safety devices at entrance of expressway tunnels. It is concluded that the small difference of right-hand side clearance is desirable to drivers when a poly-ethylene barrier is placed. And when the difference of right-hand side clearance is large, no safety devices is desirable, and when the difference of right-hand side clearance is small, poly-ethylene barrier should be placed to improve safety.
Development of Standard of Highway Curve Geometric Considering 3-D Acceleration
Park, Jung-Ha ; Park, Je-Jin ; Park, Tae-Hoon ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 247~255
According to "A guide Book to Highway Design", most road elements are chosen based on a certain design speed in order to ensure obtaining safe and smooth traffic operating. However, road safety in practical way is corelative to not only all element of roads but also road shape, for example, between straight line and curves line and between curved lines. Also, it is relates to alignments such as horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, and cross section. That is, the practical road design should be examined in both sides of 3 dimension and consecutiveness as the practical road is a 3-dimensional successive object. The paper presents a concept for acceleration to evaluate consistency of road considering actual road shape on 3-dimension. Acceleration of vehicle is influential to road consistency based on running state of vehicle and state of drivers. Especially, the magnitude of acceleration is a quite influential element to drivers. Based on above, the acceleration on each point 3-D road can be calculated and then displacement can be done. Computation of acceleration means total calculation on each axis.
Numerical Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Pavements Subjected to Transverse Post Tensioning
Kim, Seong-Min ; Yoon, Dong-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 257~267
This study was conducted to investigate the stress distribution in the prestressed concrete pavement (PSCP) when the transverse post tensioning was applied. By performing the structural analyses using a finite element model of PSCP, the effect of anchor spacing and the relationship between the longitudinal and transverse post tensioning were evaluated. The analysis results showed that as the anchor spacing became smaller, the stresses were more uniformly distributed and the ranges of the stress losses were reduced; however, the economy should be considered. As the anchor spacing became larger, the difference between the average transverse stress and the transverse stresses at various locations such as shoulder, wheel pass, and center of the slab, increased. The transverse post tensioning induced the additional tensile forces in the longitudinal tendons, but the magnitude was negligibly small, and the longitudinal and transverse post tensioning could be designed independently. The use of the transverse stress distribution for the design of the post tensioning was also discussed in this paper.
Design Methodology of Transverse Post-Tensioning for Prestressed Concrete Pavements
Kim, Seong-Min ; Yoon, Dong-Joo ; Bae, Jong-Oh ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 269~279
This study was conducted to develop the design methodology of transverse post-tensioning for the prestressed concrete pavement (PSCP). The transverse stress distribution was analyzed when the transverse anchor spacing changed. The tensile stress distribution in the PSCP slab due to the environmental and vehicle loads was also investigated. The reasonable methods were discussed to determine the design loads including environmental and vehicle loads and the PSCP allowable tensile stress used for the basis of the selection of the stress application amount from the tensioning. The results of this study showed that as the transverse anchor spacing increased, the range of the stress loss became larger and the stress loss was significant near the shoulder. The design of the transverse post-tensioning can be performed by obtaining the stresses under the design loads and by considering the allowable tensile stress; however, the tensile stresses at different locations such as the shoulder, wheel pass, and slab interior should also be checked and kept below the allowable tensile stress.
LTPP-SPS : Evaluation of Structural Capacity on Asphalt Pavement Reinforced with Glass Fiber
Jeon, Sung-Il ; Kim, Boo-Il ; Kim, Jo-Sun ; Lim, Kwang-Soo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 10, issue 4, 2008, Pages 281~292
In Korea-LTPP(Long Tenn Pavement Performance) project, the full depth asphalt pavement test sections are constructed on the national highway to evaluate the structural capacity of asphalt pavement reinforced with glass fiber. Truck loading test and FWD test were performed to measure the structural capacity of test sections. Test results showed that the reinforcement of glass fiber installed at between surface and intermediate asphalt layer decreased the strain at the bottom of surface layer and moved up the stress neutral axis in asphalt layer. As a result, the tensile stress was developed at the bottom of intermediate asphalt layer of reinforced asphalt pavement, while the compressive stress was developed at the bottom of intermediate asphalt layer of unreinforced asphalt pavement. On the other hand, the tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt base layer didn't show a difference between glass fiber reinforced and unreinforced pavements. From the FWD test, it was shown that the surface deflection of asphalt pavement reinforced with glass fiber decreased 24 percents comparing to that of unreinforced asphalt pavement. This shows that the reinforcement with glass fiber appears to improve the rutting resistance of asphalt pavement.