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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Determination of Dynamic Modulus of cold In-place Recycling Mixtures with Foamed Asphalt
Kim, Yong-Joo Thomas ; Lee, Ho-Sin David ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~12
A new mix design procedure for cold in-place recycling using foamed asphalt (CIR-foam) has been developed for Iowa Department of Transportation. Some strengths and weaknesses of the new mix design parameters were considered and modified to improve the laboratory test procedure. Based on the critical mixture parameters identified, a new mix design procedure was developed and validated to establish the properties of the CIR-foam mixtures. As part of the validation effort to evaluate a new CIR-foam mix design procedure, dynamic moduli of CIR-foam mixtures made of seven different reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) materials collected throughout the state of Iowa were measured and their master curves were constructed. The main objectives of this study are to provide: 1) standardized testing procedure for measuring the dynamic modulus of CIR-foam mixtures using new simple performance testing (SPT) equipment; 2) analysis procedure for constructing the master curves for a wide range of RAP materials; and 3) impacts of RAP material characteristics on the dynamic modulus. Dynamic moduli were measured at three different temperatures and six different loading frequencies and they were consistent among different RAP sources. Master curves were then constructed for the CIR-foam mixtures using seven different RAP materials. Based upon the observation of the constructed master curves, dynamic moduli of CIR-foam mixtures were less sensitive to the loading frequencies than HMA mixtures. It can be concluded that at the low temperature, the dynamic modulus is affected by the amount of fines in the RAP materials whereas, at the high temperature, the dynamic modulus is influenced by the residual binder characteristics.
A Development of concrete Pavement Material with Low Shrinkage and Reflection, High Strength and Performance
Kim, Hyo-Sung ; Nam, Jeong-Hee ; Eum, Ju-Yong ; Cho, Yoon-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 13~24
This study developed a high strength and performance concrete pavement material with low shrinkage and reflection of sunlight. Based on the literature review, a new mix-design of applying flash ash to improve the strength and performance of the concrete as well as to reduce the dry shrinkage is suggested. In addition, adding black pigment to reduce the reflection and technique of applying OAG (Optimized Aggregate Gradation) is also included. The result of the laboratory experiment indicates that the brightness and the reflection, which depends on the ratio of black pigment addition, did not deviate from the normal range. When OAG is considered for the mix-design, the strength and performance of the concrete improved greatly. In addition, the mix-design using fly ash reduced the dry shrinkage of concrete and improved the resistance to the permeation of chloride ion. Furthermore, the mix-design, which uses fly ash (25% replacement) and black pigment (3% addition) with the application of OAG, is found to be the most effective mix to reduce the shrinkage and reflection as well as improving the strength and performance of the concrete. The result of an economic analysis indicates that the initial construction cost of this proposed mix is more expensive than that of normal concrete pavement material. However, it can be more economic in the long run because the normal concrete pavement material is likely to cost more due to higher probability of maintenance and repair and higher social cost due to traffic accident, etc.
Development of Estimation Method for Degree of Congestion on Expressway Using VMS Information
Lee, Seung-Jun ; Park, Jae-Beom ; Kim, Soo-Hee ; Bok, Ki-Chan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 25~36
Everyday congestion length (distance) and duration (time) data are collected and recorded in Expressway Traffic Information Center. These records are based on the information that the operators watch CCTV and decide traffic condition in order to present information about congestion on VMS. Using VMS message has some merits like that it doesn't need a great lot of cost to construct hardware such like FTMS because operators can check traffic condition by watching CCTV only. Of cause in the aspect of accuracy, using VMS message has the limitation that it is based on subject decision compared with FTMS. However, it can be said that the value of using VMS message is very large. The object of this study is to use the VMS information record (log file) usefully to provide information of traffic condition on expressway for users (drivers) without keeping the VMS information record in dead storage. To do so, in this research, congestion calculation method able to understand traffic congestion condition on expressway was developed.
Experimental Study on Minimum Distance between Tunnel and Interchange by Driving Simulator
Lee, Jong-Hak ; Noh, Kwan-Sub ; Kim, Jong-Min ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 37~45
The minimum distance between tunnel and interchange has several steps to go through for road users; when road user comes out of tunnel, he/she reads information on road sign and tries to change the lane, and then reaches the destination (interchange). So that's why that minimum distance between tunnel and interchange has to be designed to reflect human factors sufficiently for road's users. This study aims to set for minimum distance between tunnel and interchange with involved human factors. People aged from their twenties to their seventies took part in this experiment by using driving simulator. As a result, the minimum distance between them was loom long. When it comes to this study for minimum distance between tunnel and interchange, this study will be significant in some ways reason why this method can be applied to all road facilities for road safety on scientific basis. In the near future, It will make a recommendation concerning the most suitable data for road safety by contributing better guideline.
Methods of computing Toll Road Weights when Calibrating Road Networks in a Transportation Planning Model
Kim, Eung-Cheol ; Kim, Do-Hoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 47~58
Calibrating toll roads of highway networks needs additional weights within volume delay functions not like other general highway lints. However, current methods assigning additional weights in the volume delay function of toll roads are not sufficiently enough to predict real toll road volumes measured, since it does not consider discounting rates and an extra charges. This study develops methods to improve relevant and reliable volume delay functions. Suggested ideas include a method of weighting volume delay functions considering a value of time of vehicle types, a method of weighting volume delay functions considering lane distributions of vehicles, and a method of weighting volume delay functions considering percentages of link lengths per a number of lanes of toll roads. It is found that the method of weighting volume delay functions considering lane distributions of vehicles show most reliable and appropriate results, while the first method shows overestimation and the third method does underestimation of highway link volumes. In terms of assignment methods, total OD equilibrium assignment shows better results than PCU based assignment.
Developing a method to estimate vehicle speeds in a low-cost vehicle detector with an inclined sensor
Kim, Hyoung-Soo ; Oh, Ju-Sam ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 59~67
With the development of high-cost vehicle detectors, low-cost detectors have also been studied due to the advantage that more detectors are provided within limited budgets. This study proposed a method to estimate vehicle speeds using vehicles' track data from auto manufacturers and time stamps obtained when vehicles' tires pass an inclined sensor (here, a tape switch sensor). In speed estimation, small vehicles and large vehicles is distinguished according to the ratio of time stamps for a wheelbase and a rear track obtained from a tape switch sensor. In particular, speed estimation can be adjusted through a parameter to determine vehicles' size so as to take into account location properties such as vehicles' classification ratio. The low-cost vehicle detector with an inclined sensor proposed in this study is expected to be widely utilized to monitor traffic conditions thanks to low cost.
Development of a Critical Value According to Dangerous Drive Behaviors
Oh, Ju-Taek ; Cho, Jun-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Young-Sam ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 69~83
According to the accident statistics of 2006, it can be recognized that drivers' characteristics and driving behaviors are the most causational factors on the traffic accidents. At present, many recording tools such as digital speedometer or black box are distributed in the market to meet social requests of decreasing traffic accidents and increasing safe driving behaviors. However, it is also true that the system preventing any possible vehicle accidents in advance has not been developed. In this study, we developed critical value for deciding dangerous driving behaviors. The developed critical value could be used to contribute to safety driving management systematization and safety driving behaviors.
A Study on the Standard of Cost Estimation in the Construction of Pavement and Maintenance
Jung, Dae-Kwon ; Tae, Yong-Ho ; Ahn, Bang-Ryul ; Cho, Yoon-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 85~94
In cost estimation of construction, several methods including quantity-per-unit costing, job costing, unit cost estimation and lumpsum estimation are being utilized in Korea. Among them, a Quantity-per-unit Costing Method is used as a standard of cost estimation in public and private works. This paper presents the realistic job-costing method on all road construction tasks through statistical analyses with field survey data to solve the problems induced by the existing quantity-per-unit costing method. Furthermore, it was found that the newly developed job costing method is able to produce a simple costing procedure and a more actual construction cost estimation by a case study, which was performed to compare particular construction costs produced by two different methods, existing quantity-per-unit costing and newly developed job costing. These methods is compared by Case-study about sub-base. In the case of Job costing method, the estimate is shorter than the other case about 50% and can make up for the weak point about instrument in the current Standard of cost estimation. And it can be depict by Job Costing method about progress of work for using by a plan about construction management.
Evaluation and Determination of Air Void for Asphalt Concrete using a dielectric constant measurement
Kim, Boo-Il ; Kim, Yeong-Min ; Cho, In-Sun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 95~104
This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the dielectric constant and air void of asphalt concrete. Standard specimens that have air voids of various range
were used to measure the dielectric constant using parallel plate method that measures low frequency dielectric constant. From the tests, dielectric constant of asphalt concrete was tend to decrease as the frequency was increased, and the decrement slope was varied with the types of asphalt binders. Dielectric constant was decreased linearly as air void was increased from zero to twenty percent. Consequently, the effect of temperature and moisture content on dielectric constants of asphalt concrete was evaluated to develop the standard curve between dielectric constant and air void of asphalt concrete. The standard curve developed in this study can be used to calibrate or develop the algorithm of non-destructive density gauge.
A Study of the Weight value to Risky Driving Type
Oh, Ju-Taek ; Lee, Sang-Yong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 105~115
According to the accident statistics published by the National Police Agency in 2007, the number of commercial vehicle(city, suburb and other buses) accidents consumes 3.5 percent of the total number of traffic accidents in this year. Since the commercial vehicles are responsible for not only the drivers but also the passengers, it leads more serious social and economic problems. There have been various forms of systems such as a digital speedometer or a black box to meet the social requirement for reducing traffic accidents and safe driving. however the system based on the data after accident control the driver by analyze dangerous drive behaviors, so there is a limit to control driver in real-time. Also speedometer currently managed provide the driver warning information in real-time, but using only the speed of vehicle and RPM information regardless of actual dangerous drive behaviors, disappear the effectiveness. In this study performed a simulation for drivers in general using a simulator programed with dangerous driving types we had developed in the previous study and judging the types. It'd be more effective system to provide the drivers warning information using weight valued in this study. However in this study is limited to apply weight as a result of simulation of drivers in general in actual situation should be made up the deficit based on information of driving type of actual commercial vehicles.
Socio-Economic Impacts of an Unscheduled Event: A Case in Korea
Lee, Seong-Kwan ; Kang, Seung-Lim ; Kim, Tschang-Ho John ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 117~126
Total number of recorded earthquakes in Korea is more than 2,000 of which 48 were catastrophic. The impacts from infrastructure damage due to an earthquake to production facilities and lifelines may spread across boundaries of several regions via import-export relationships and can bring serious economic impact to other regions. The economic impacts from unscheduled events stem not only from the damage and direct losses, but also from the indirect losses during the recovery and reconstruction periods. To recover and reconstruct the facilities and lifelines damaged by unexpected events through investment or government financial aid, both the direct and the indirect economic impacts from an event need to be measured in regional and interregional contexts. Direct economic impact is the direct change of production and demand due to the disruption of production facilities and lifelines from an unexpected event, and indirect economic impact is the change in other sectors due to inter-industry relationships. The purpose of the paper is to analyze various economic impacts of an earthquake, especially impacts on transportation networks in Korea. We collected spatial and economic data from Korea, and analyzed and estimated final demand loss and commodity flows from the unscheduled event.
Statistical Inference for Process Mean of Deformation Strength of Asphalt Mixtures
La, Il-Ho ; Kim, Jin-C. ; Doh, Young-S. ; Kim, Kwang-W. ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 127~134
This study was performed to establish the process mean which is statistically satisfying the critical limit of deformation strength
, which is found to reflect rutting characteristics of asphalt mixture relatively well. The process means were determined using the critical
values (3MPa for local highway and 4MPa for arterial highways), which were obtained from correlation analysis of APA and
test data of actual highway projects, and coefficient of variation of 32 combinations of domestic mixtures. The process means of 3.2 MPa for local highway and 4.25 MPa for arterial highways were suggested when using 3 specimens (diameter of 100mm). However, since these values are based on the loading speed of 30mm/min, the higher values, 3.5 MPa for local highway and 4.5 MPa for arterial highways, were suggested, respectively, if the loading speed of 50mm/min is applied using the old Marshall machine, which should give higher test values.
Development of Fracture Energy Measurement System of Asphalt Mixture Using Marshall Tester
Kim, Boo-Il ; Lee, Moon-Sup ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 135~144
The purpose of this study is to develop a simple and rational crack evaluation system using Marshall tester. Fracture energy were used as a parameter to evaluate the crack resistance of asphalt mixtures. Marshall tester basically measures the vertical deformation obtained from the linear variable differential transformer(LVDT) attached on the specimen's exterior, which can cause a measurement error due to the local deformation near the loading head. Therefore, the validity of the measurement system of Marshall tester should be tested to use it in calculation of fracture energy. Two types of indirect tensile strength tests were performed using four types of asphalt mixtures at two temperature conditions. From the tests, it was shown that local deformation near the loading head had not occurred before a specimen was fractured, so that it did not cause the measurement error of fracture energy. And also from the statistic analysis, the coefficient of variation of vertical deformation measurements obtained on specimen's exterior is less than 15%. Thus, vertical deformation measurements obtained on the specimen's exterior can be used in crack evaluation system using Marshall tester.
Determination of Deceleration Lane Length in Interchange with Shock-Wave Theory
Kim, Jeong-Hyun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 145~151
Current highway design standards is based on the safety under the free flow condition. The length of deceleration lane is also determined in terms of the deceleration distance which is necessary for the driers to adjust the vehicle speed from the speed limit on the main road to that on the exit ramp of the interchange. However, the queues are frequently developed on the deceleration, and the following vehicles to exit must decelerate on the main road. It may cause delay on the main road and traffic accidents. This study is to suggest a methodology to minimize such problems with the shock-wave theory. The queue length of exiting vehicles can be estimated by the design speeds, traffic volumes of main road and the exiting ramp, and the countermeasures to the operational problems. According to the results, the queue length can be shortened to 80% by upgrading the design speed of exit ramp as the amount of 10km/h. Fifty percent of queue length can be shortened by adding an additional lane on the ramp to two lanes.
Severity Analysis of the Pedestrian Crash Patterns Based on the Ordered Logit Model
Choi, Jai-Sung ; Kim, Sang-Youp ; Hwang, Kyung-Sung ; Baik, Seung-Yup ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 153~164
This Paper presents the severity analysis result of the year 2006 national pedestrian crashes using the data base of 37,589 records prepared for the National Police Bureau. A set of attributing factors considered to affect pedestrian crash patterns were selected, and their contributing effects were investigated by applying the Ordered Logit Model. This model was selected because this model has been able to afford satisfactory results when the dependent variable involved ordered severity levels; fatal, injury, and property- damage-only in this investigation. The investigation has unveiled the followings; First, the pedestrian crash patterns were dependent upon human -drivel and pedestrian- characteristics including gender, age, and drinking conditions. Second, other contributing factors included vehicle, roadway geometric, weather, and hour of day characteristics. Third, seasonal effect was not contributive to crash patterns. Finally, the application of the Ordered Logit Model facilitated the ordered severity level analysis of the pedestrian crash data. This paper concludes that conventional wisdom on the pedestrian crash characteristics is largely truthful. However, this conclusion is limited only to the data used in this analysis, and further research is required for its generalization.
The Response Prediction of Flexible Pavements Considering Nonlinear Pavement Foundation Behavior
Kim, Min-Kwan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 165~175
With the current move towards adopting mechanistic-empirical concepts in the design of pavement structures, state-of-the-art mechanistic analysis methodologies are needed to determine accurate pavement responses, such as stress, strain, and deformation. Previous laboratory studies of pavement foundation geomaterials, i.e., unbound granular materials used in base/subbase layers and fine-grained soils of a prepared subgrade, have shown that the resilient responses followed by nonlinear, stress-dependent behavior under repeated wheel loading. This nonlinear behavior is commonly characterized by stress-dependent resilient modulus material models that need to be incorporated into finite element (FE) based mechanistic pavement analysis methods to predict more realistically predict pavement responses for a mechanistic pavement analysis. Developed user material subroutine using aforementioned resilient model with nonlinear solution technique and convergence scheme with proven performance were successfully employed in general-purpose FE program, ABAQUS. This numerical analysis was investigated in predicted critical responses and domain selection with specific mesh generation was implemented to evaluate better prediction of pavement responses. Results obtained from both axisymmetric and three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear FE analyses were compared and remarkable findings were described for nonlinear FE analysis. The UMAT subroutine performance was also validated with the instrumented full scale pavement test section study results from the Federal Aviation Administration's National Airport Pavement Test Facility (FAA's NAPTF).
A study to improve the existing rumble-strip
Ryu, Sung-Woo ; Lim, Kwan ; Park, Kwon-Je ; Cho, Yoon-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 177~186
Rumble strip was introduced in highway pavement for driver's safety in Korea on 2000. With proving its effectiveness, total length of highway with rumble strip has increased. This research team suggested a modified form of the existing rumble strip, which was placed on new concrete pavement during construction. The modified construction equipment was applied on test section at PyungTeak-Eumsung highway with some performance experiments. Through the equation of stopping sight distance proposed AASHTO, the modified form is safer than the existing one due to 0.65m of extra width. The indoor noise test showed that the modified form
noisier than the main pavement, which wasn't applied by rumble method. Therefore, it was one of alternatives to prevent sleeping. The modified form made the frequency effected on man's eye. There were no differences of the noise and vibration between modified form and existing one. However, that driver who participated on operating test on that section felt that the former was safer than the latter. It can be concluded that modified form can be applied to the new concrete pavement, that will decrease traffic accident.
Influence of Anisotropic Behavior of Aggregate Base on Flexible Pavement Design Life
Kim, Sung-Hee ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 187~194
This paper presents the development of transfer function accounting for cross-anisotropic behavior of aggregate base material for the pavement thickness design. The stress distributions predicted by nonlinear cross-anisotropic finite element program were realistic by eliminating excessive tensile stress at the bottom of the base layer and the critical pavement responses predicted by nonlinear cross-anisotropic model are higher than those predicted by linear or nonlinear isotropic models (Kim, 2004, Kim et at., 2005). Since the previously developed transfer functions such as Asphalt Institute and Chevron models, etc. were based on the critical responses obtained from linear isotropic model, those equations are not appropriate for the thickness design nonlinear cross-anisotropic base behavior. Therefore, the development of usable transfer functions for nonlinear cross-anisotropic model is ever more important. When the newly developed transfer functions were compared with AASHTO method for the thickness design, the newly developed transfer functions produce approximately 25mm reduced UAB thickness in AASHTO thickness design and this illustrates that linear isotropic model results in more conservative pavement design.
Analysis of Aggregate Base Behavior Using Layered Elastic and Finite Element Methods
Kim, Sung-Hee ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 195~201
In this paper, the critical strains for pavement design were calculated from both Layered Elastic Program (LEP) and Finite Element Method (FEM) and the case studies which give similar critical responses were compared. Although FEM has been realized as a superior model, LEP is more favorable to pavement design due to its simplicity and thus, the technique to calculate the correct critical responses using LEP is significant. This study showed that KENLAYER can possibly estimate the critical responses close to ones obtained from TTIPAVE, which considers nonlinear cross-anisotropic behavior of unbound base materials, by adjusting the stress point locations.
Design Methodology of Longitudinal Post Tensioning for Post-Tensioned Concrete Pavement
Yun, Dong-Ju ; Kim, Seong-Min ; Bae, Jong-Oh ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 203~215
This study was conducted to develop the design methodology of longitudinal post tensioning for the post-tensioned concrete pavement (PTCP). The longitudinal stress distribution in the PTCP slab was analyzed when post tensioning was applied. Then, the tensile stress distribution in the PTCP slab due to the environmental and vehicle loads needed for the design was investigated. In addition, prestress losses were calculated considering the losses due to the frictional resistance between the slab and underlying layer and due to various reasons related to tensioning. The tensile stresses used for the design were obtained by adding the stresses from the critical conditions under both the environmental and vehicle loads. The prestress losses were obtained by considering actual field conditions. The effective post tensioning amount was determined by considering the design loads including environmental and vehicle loads and various losses, and the effect of the allowable tensile stress on the post tensioning amount was investigated. The initial stage of the design of the longitudinal post tensioning is to obtain the stresses under the design loads and the required prestress determined by subtracting the allowable tensile stress from the design stress. Then, the optimal tendon spacing and the tensioning amount can be obtained by comparing with the effective tensioning amount including various stress losses.
Developing and Utilizing Transportation Disaster Prevention System Considering Regional Characteristics
Son, Young-Tae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 217~231
In order to manage traffic operations efficiently, it is required to establish evacuation strategies, including path, disaster prevention, and signal control. This is because the delayed response of operators would cause dreadful loss of our community. Therefore, it is very important to do the research related to traffic disaster prevention system. In this paper, we select the City of Cheongju as a study area since lots of damage resulting from natural disaster such as storm and flood have been frequently taken place. In addition, this paper suggest traffic disaster prevention measures and analyzed its effect on signal operation to achieve high level of traffic efficiency. As a result, traffic flow is similar to normal condition when we applied developed signal operation method. It is also demonstrated if disaster information is spread out as fast as it can be, and signal operation is managed properly in case by case, we conclude that user safety has to be secured.
Static and Dynamic Stability Evaluation of Model Guardrail Posts Based on Geotechnical Properties
Lim, Yu-Jin ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 233~245
Availability of pressuremeter test for evaluation of geotechnical properties of foundation soil into which guardrail post is to be installed is investigated in this study. First, an analysis method of the post based on the pressuremeter test is proposed that can obtain bending moment and load-deformation profiles of the post. Then static horizontal load test onto a small scale guardrail post is performed in order to get bearing capacity and load-deformation pattern of the model post. The obtained results are compared with the load-deformation curves and bearing capacity of the post obtained from the pressuremeter method. In addition horizontal impact test to the post is performed using a model bogie car in order to check failure pattern around the model foundation and to investigate dynamic bearing capacity due to deceleration and inertia force of the soil. It is verified that the pressuremeter test is so useful and reasonal technique to analyze road foundation-post interaction.
Field Measurement and Analysis of Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete Pavement Behavior under Tensioning
Park, Hee-Beom ; Kim, Seong-Min ; Kim, Dong-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 247~256
This research was conducted to analyze the behavior of PTCP (Post-Tensioned prestressed Concrete Pavement) under tensioning by performing field tests when the experimental PTCP slab was being constructed. The displacements in the slab under the environmental loading and tensioning were measured using temperature measurement sensors and displacement transducers. Tensioning was performed three times and appropriateness of tensioning could be determined by investigating the relationship between temperature and displacement, behavior of transverse crack, and daily change in displacement. The results of this study showed that under the first tensioning at very early age, large displacements were observed only near the joints because of the friction between slab and underlying layer and concrete inelasticity. Under consecutive tensioning, displacements were clearly observed all over the slab, but still affected by the friction. In addition, appropriate tensioning ensured the one-slab behavior of the PTCP slab even though cracks existed.