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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Traffic Assignment Considering Unsignalized Intersection Delay
Park, Byung-Ho ; Park, Sang-Hyuk ; Hong, Yung-Sung ; Kim, Jin-Sun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 1~7
This study deals with the unsignalized intersection delay in the urban transportation demand forecasting. The objectives are to develop the unsignalized intersection delay models and to comparatively analyze the applicability of the above models. In pursuing the above, this study gives particular attentions to simulating by KHCS program and implementing the case study of Cheongju using EMME/2. The major findings are the followings. First, the 8 unsignalized intersection delay models were developed through 480 simulating results, which are all statistically significant. Second, the estimates by the unsignalized delay models were analyzed to be most fitted to the observed traffic volume data.
Development of Roughness-Model for Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements in Express Highway
Park, Young-Hoon ; Chon, Beom-Jun ; Kim, Young-Kyu ; Lee, Seung-Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 9~16
Roughness is the most important factor to maintain the road performance, and affects greatly on the design life in Jointed Plain Concrete pavements. Also, the factors the evaluate pavement‘s commonality is the three method such as functionality, safety and structural performance. In evaluating function of road, representative factors is the roughness, which has been used to determine maintenance time as key standard. As research for roughness is absence in pavement design. Applied roughness-model had a low-reliability in Korea. Therefore, it is needed to develop reliable model in road roughness. In this research, uniform specific is applied to distribute them after selecting the concrete pavements. Concrete pavement is divided by sections of 238. Total length of this sections has 281km and account for 16% of total road length in korean concrete pavements for selected sections. Considering the korean roughness-model, the evaluation of roughness is performed for the freezing index, average annual rainfall, condition for the base, the amount of traffic as well as spalling(%), cracking(%), age(year) at the selected section at the selected section. Also, additional sections is selected to evaluate various age which affects on the roughness. As a result of the analysis, it showed that spalling(%), cracking(%), age(year), and the condition of the base affected road roughness. When the correlation with the road roughness was analyzed, the reliable model for road roughness was proposed, and the ratio that can explain road roughness was R2-68.8% and P value-0 which is statistically meaningful.
Binder Stiffness Effect on Permanent Deformation and Tensile Strength of Asphalt Concretes
Kim, Hyun-Hwan ; Yoo, Min-Yong ; Kim, Jin-Chul ; Kim, Kwang-Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 17~23
Since the relatively stiff binder shows a higher tensile strength as well as higher rutting resistance, it is believed that the binder stiffness is an important factor for rutting and tensile strength of asphalt mixtures. The typical tensile property is measured by indirect tensile strength (ITS) test at
and the rutting resistance is most widely measured by wheel tracking (WT) test at
. The deformation strength (
) is newly developed property to estimate rut resistance of asphalt concretes at
. The ITS and
are very simple to measure by static test techniques, but the WT is measured by repeated loading procedure which requires relatively longer time and more efforts. Since these three properties are highly dependent upon the binder stiffness, it may be possible to estimate one property from another. Therefore, this study investigate the possibility of estimating the rutting characteristics (measured by WT test) by ITS or
test, and the ITS by
. Because of binder stiffness effect, in the WT estimation by ITS, a tendency was observed for the higher ITS mixture to have the lower rut depth, giving
0.6, on the average. The ITS estimation by
0.64, and the WT estimation by SD showed
0.84, which is highest correlation among the three. Therefore, it was concluded that there is relatively good possibility of estimating WT result by
, and even though
is somewhat low, there is some correlation between WT and ITS.
A Need of Management of Horizontal Alignment Design at Rural Roads
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Cho, Won-Bum ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 25~31
Road design guideline provides the directions on how to design a road alignment based on design speed, and this guideline has a design expectation in that design speed is supposed to be equal to the operating speed of drivers. Horizontal curve design is also based on design speed, and minimum radius is derived based on the drivers comfort while negotiating the curve. However, side friction reflecting drivers comfort is lower than a physical friction measured on wet road surface, therefore, it is reasonable to regard the criterion on minimum radius has a safety margin. Futhermore, the practical preference of choosing the larger radius than minimum leads to a noticeable gap between design speed and operating speed, so links to the violation of design expectation implicated in the guideline. In order to review this assumption, friction and operating speed at rural roads was measured and observed. As the results, a safety margin brought out by the gap between comfort-based friction and measured friction is qualitatively derived. Also, the gap between design speed and operating speed presumably caused by the safety margin and practical preference is analysed. By this, it is suggested that current design guideline should provides not only the minimum radius but also the management of road alignment design to minimize the gap between the design speed and operating speed.
The Selection of Optimal Interchange Types by Quantifying the User Costs and Construction Costs of Ramps
Kim, Sang-Youp ; Choi, Jai-Sung ; Min, Kyung-Chan ; Choi, Hyun-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 33~41
It is stated in the highway geometric design guide that expressway interchange types should be selected considering a set of input variables including travel demand, topography, construction cost and interchange spacing. However, this selection method has a problem of providing different interchange types even for the same input variables depending upon different applications of engineers discretion. A procedure that produces consistent results is necessary and this paper presents the development of an efficient and reliable procedure based on the quantification of road user costs and construction costs on interchanges. To develop this procedure, a survey of existing expressway interchange types in South Korea was made and 10 basic interchange types and 52 supplementary interchange types were identified. To relate road user costs and construction costs to these interchange types, this research uses two method. First, interchange types were expressed by a set of ramp configurations. Second, road user benefits and construction costs associated with these different interchange types were formulated based on the current national guide of the expressway economical analysis. As a result, it was proved that an interchange type to provide minimum costs could be selected consistently and this research result should be useful for future expressway geometric designs.
Developing the Accident Models of Cheongju Arterial Link Sections Using ZAM Model
Park, Byung-Ho ; Kim, Jun-Yong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 43~49
This study deals with the traffic accident of the Cheongju arterial link sections. The purpose of the study is to develop the traffic accident model. In pursuing the above, this study gives particular attentions to developing the ZAM(zero-altered model) model using the accident data of arterial roads devided by 322 small link sections. The main results analyzed by ZIP(zero inflated Poisson model) and ZINB(zero inflated negative binomial model) which are the methods of ZAM, are as follows. First, the evaluation of various developed models by the Vuong statistic and t statistic for overdispersion parameter
shows that ZINB is analyzed to be optimal among Poisson, NB, ZIP(zero-inflated Poisson) and ZINB regression models. Second, ZINB is evaluated to be statistically significant in view of t,
(0.63) values compared to other models. Finally, the accident factors of ZINB models are developed to be the traffic volume(ADT), number of entry/exit and length of median. The traffic volume(ADT) and the number of entry/exit are evaluated to be the '+' factors and the length of median to be '-' factor of the accident.
Abstraction Method of Sensibility Factors for Streetscape Design
Lee, Byung-Joo ; Kim, Myung-Soo ; Jo, Kyung-Do ; NamGung, Moon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 51~61
According as the quality of life is improved along with economic growth, in the road plan and design sector also, it is now progressed that function oriented design is changed into the landscape oriented design that considers eyesight and emotion, which are psychological properties of users. Accordingly this study tries to come up with reasonable and objective methods to extract various emotional adjectives, which were found by the survey, while minimizing difference among characteristics of emotion and cognition of individuals. First, given semantic differential, based on various emotional adjectives that were found through the survey with the scale up to five points, the author extracted representative emotional adjectives through an element analysis, which is a conventional method of the previous research, and through an identification analysis which is suggested by this study, and then established model I of Quantification. And by using the established quantification model, the author presumed satisfaction degree, and through verifying pair wise comparison with actual satisfaction degree, the author found the results from identification and correlation analysis methods are most similar to actual satisfaction degree. As a result, the author could check the above emotional and correlation analyses were appropriate methods for comprehending which emotional elements are applicable when a continuous road landscape is designed by identification and correlation analyses.
The Characteristics of Vehicle Speed Violation in School Zones
Park, Jae-Young ; Kim, Do-Gyeong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 63~69
Since speed limit enforcement in school zones is the most important to reduce the occurrence of severe child related accidents, school zones typically have a speed limit of 30km/h. However, it is found that the majority of vehicles passing school zones are traveling over 30km/h. This indicates that school zones are not being effectively operated to achieve the main objective which is the reduction of child related accidents. This study aims to identify the factors affecting the violation of speed limits in school zones through the results of field survey from 8 elementary schools. The results showed that time period, the number of lanes, the width of sidewalks, and the status of colored pavement were found to be highly associated with the violation of speed limits in school zones at the 95% significance level. The results of this study may provide some insights for making safe environments around schools.
The Frost Heaving Characteristics of Subgrade Soils Using Laboratory Freezing System
Shin, Eun-Chul ; Ryu, Byung-Hyun ; Park, Jeong-Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 71~79
The influence of fines of the frost susceptibility of subgrade soils were established by laboratory freezing system test simulating closely the thermal conditions in the field. During the winter season, the climate is heavily influenced by the cold and dry continental high pressure. Because of siberian air mass, the temperature of January is
on average. This chilly weather generate the frost heaving by freezing the moisture of soil and damage potential of the road structure. In the freezing soil, the ice lenses increase the freeze portion of soil by absorbing the ground water with capillary action. However, the capillary characteristics differ from the sort of soil on the state of freezing condition. In the current design codes for anti-freezing layer, the thickness of anti freezing layer is calculated by freezing depth against the temperature condition. Therefore, they have a tendency of over-design and uniform thickness without the considerations of thermal stability, bearing capacity and frost susceptibility of materials. So, it is essential for studying the appropriateness and bearing capacity besides the seasonal and mechanical properties of pavement materials to take a appropriate and reasonable design of the road structure. In this Paper, the evaluation of frost susceptibility was conducted by means of the mechanical property test and laboratory freezing system apparatus. The temperature, heaving amount, heaving pressure and unfrozen water contents of soil samples, the subgrade soils of highway construction site, were measured to determine the frost susceptibility.
Development of High Viscous Modified Asphalt Binder for Porous Asphalt Pavement
Kim, Hyeong-Seok ; Lee, Hyun-Jong ; Lee, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Hyung-Bae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 81~90
This paper describes the results of laboratory and field performance tests on the polymer modified asphalt binder and mixtures developed in this study for porous asphalt pavements. Various physical and mechanical laboratory tests including DSR and BBR tests are performed for two types of modified binders, and one type of binder is selected based on the binder testing results. Mix designs are conducted for the selected asphalt binder and a Japanese modified binder, respectively. Various performance tests including fatigue tests, wheel tracking tests, and moisture susceptibility tests are conducted for the domestic and Japanese porous asphalt mixtures. Test results indicate that the overall performance characteristics of the domestic mixture are similar to or better than those of the Japanese mixture. Based on the laboratory testing results, the domestic porous mixture is applied to a field test section. Periodic field investigations are conducted to evaluate the changes in noise level and air voids with time. The road noise analysis shows that the noise levels of the porous pavement keep increasing and, after two years, are similar to those of SMA pavements.
Effectiveness Analysis of Improved Passing Method Considering Traffic Pattern on Climbing Lane
Lee, Eui-Joon ; Park, Kwon-Je ; Han, Ki-Hwan ; Baek, Kyong-Min ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 91~97
This study started from the problem recognition of climbing lane installed in Korea roads. Because design standards of climbing lane installed don't match traffic pattern of korean drivers, coefficient of utilization of climbing lane is low and merging section between climbing lane and main lane has traffic accident possibilities. For this, brand-new design standards developed from the present lane design criterion, taper lenghs, and traffic signs, then field adoption test was carried out to prove the effectiveness. As a result, coefficient of utilization of climbing lane and average traffic velocity in climbing section are improved and the economic analysis also shows that brand-new standards has high feasibility for low cost. In case of broad application to not only expressway but national and local road based on the study, it could be a significant contribution to traffic flow improvement.
Structural assessment of Anti-Freezing Layer with use of Falling Weight Deflectormeter Deflection
Lee, Moon-Sup ; Kim, Boo-Il ; Jeon, Sung-Il ; Park, Hee-Mun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 99~106
Until now, the thickness design of anti-freezing layer has been empirically conducted using the frost depth determined from the freezing index. This approach cannot consider the structural properties of anti-freezing layer, which can cause the over-design of pavement structure. This paper presents results of structural evaluation of anti-freezing layer using the Falling Weight Deflectormeter (FWD) deflections. The FWD testing was directly conducted on top of the subbase layer located at the embankment, cutting, and boundary area of each section. It is observed from this testing that the center deflections of pavement structure with anti-freezing layer are smaller than those without anti-freezing layer. The deflection reduction rates are 15~55% in the embankment, 11~64% in the cutting, and 2~38% in the boundary, respectively. It was also found that the use of antifree zing layer enables to reduce the Surface Curvature Index (SCI) values up to 24 percent. Fatigue lives show that pavement structure with antifreezing layer are about two times higher than the those without anti-freezing layer. This fact indicates that the anti-freezing layer should be considered as a structural layer in the asphalt pavement system.
Effect of Air Contents, Deicing Salts, and Exposure Conditions on the Freeze-Thaw Durability of the Concrete
Lee, Byung-Duk ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 107~113
In this study, the relative effects of low-chloride deicier(LCD) and two other deicing agents on the scaling of concrete were conducted in a series of tests at laboratory accordance with the ASTM C 672. The solutions concentration of deicers tested included 1, 4, 10%. Tap water was used as control. The amount of scaling was evaluated gravimetrically. As test result of deicer solution types, when applied to 4% solutions, surface scaling of concrete after 56 freeze-thaw cycles was produced significantly as about 9 times on LCD solution, as about 18 times on
solution, and as about 33 times on NaCl solution comparing with tap water. As test result of deicer solution concentrations, relatively low concentrations (of the 4% by weight) of deicer were produced more surface scaling than higher concentrations (of the 10% by weight) or lower concentrations (of the 1% by weight) of deicer. It show that the damaging concentration is of the order of 3~4% for previous research result. It appears that the mechanism of surface scaling is primarily physical rather than chemical. Also, the effect of chloride deicier types, freeze-thaw cycling, and air contents on the performance of concrete was experimentally investigated. The results show that the concrete specimens subjected to freeze-thaw cycling scaled more severely in exposure to deicing salt than those in non-exposure to deicing salt, weight losses of the specimens tested in exposure to deicing salt were twice as much as those tested in non-exposure to deicing salt. Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete specimens decreased more quickly in exposure to deicing salt than in non-exposure to deicing salt. Also, relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete specimens in exposure to sodium chloride deicing salt was decreased more quickly comparing with exposure to LCD salt. It is also shown that the chloride contents according to concrete specimen depths was more largely in exposure to LCD salt. When concrete specimen is exposed to chloride deicing salts and freeze-thaw cycling, performance degradation in the entrained air concrete(AE concrete) retarded more considerably comparing with non-entrained air concrete(Non-AE concrete).
Evaluation of Engineering Characteristics of Aggregate Base Materials and Developing the Empirical Correlation Model
Kweon, Gi-Chul ; Lee, Seung-Jun ; Lee, Ung-Se ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 115~121
To evaluate the engineering characteristics of aggregate base materials, cyclic triaxial, CBR and permeability tests were performed for 15 samples. The CBR values of aggregate base materials have wide range from 32 to 110(average 81) and the amount of swelling in submerged conditions has below 0.04mm. The Modulus of aggregate base materials were significantly affected by volumetric stress, linear volumetric model was best for fitting. The modulus of aggregate base materials were determined within range of 100MPa~600MPa, 80~270 and 0.1~0.6 for model coefficient
respectively. The empirical correlation model was suggested that prediction the modulus from the basic properties obtained from particle size distribution test and compaction test. The coefficient of determination of the proposed correlation model was 0.423 for model coefficient
, 0.920 for model coefficient
and 0.872 for modulus with stress level.
Evaluation of Pavement Smoothness on Optimized Rehabilitated Section
Park, Dae-Wook ; Jin, Jung-Hoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 123~127
In this study, the profiles of optimized rehabilitated section was measured by a lightweight inertial profiler, and pavement smoothness was evaluated. To analyze the repeatability of the used lightweight profiler, two repeatable measurements were conducted. The agreement between two repeatable measurements were evaluated by Cross-correlation function. Pavement smoothness of the optimized rehabilitated pavement section and existing area was compared in terms of International Roughness Index and Profilograh Index. In general, the pavement smoothness of the rehabilitated sections was not good compared to the existing pavement sections. The analysis results could be used for the evaluation of pavement smoothness of the optimized rehabilitated pavement sections.
A Study on Industrial Site Annexed Parking Unit Calculation Method by Considering Facility Use and Scale Characteristics
Ahn, Woo-Young ; Lee, Seon-Ha ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 129~136
The present annexed parking lot standards for buildings in Parking Act are categorized in 9 groups in terms of recreation, culture and assembly, housing, factory, and so on, in which same grouped facilities have uniform parking standards. The local governments have authority to itemize groups and adjust parking standards within
ranges. These days diversity in building types and functions need more fractionated parking standards; however, most local governments focusing merely on applying strengthened parking standards in general without systematic rules of consistency. The current problem of parking standards being used is lack of regarding facility characteristics; expecially, a large sized high-tech manufacturing facility located in industrial site is still applied by same parking standards as normal manufacturing facility, even though most part of manufacturing process is automated and hence less manpower is employed. This paper presents a systematic method of analyzing parking generation unit for factory facilities in industrial site in terms of facility use and scale characteristics.
Design Methodology of Gap Slab for Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete Pavement
Park, Hee-Beom ; Kim, Seong-Min ; Shim, Jae-Soo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 12, issue 2, 2010, Pages 137~146
This study was conducted to develop the design methodology of gap slabs for the post-tensioned concrete pavement (PTCP). The gap slabs were considered as unbonded, half bonded, and bonded types. According to the types of the gap slabs, the curling stresses were investigated first under the environmental loads. The stresses due to the vehicle loads were analyzed considering both the single and tandem axles. The method to calculate the prestressing amount was suggested by comparing the combined stresses due to both loads and the allowable tensile stress of concrete. The prestressing amount for the unbonded type gap slab could be designed by considering only the gap slab; however, for the half bonded and bonded gap slabs, the whole PTCP slab should be analyzed to properly design the prestressing amount.