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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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A Study to Evaluate Performance of Poly-Urethane Polymer Concrete for Long-Span Orthotropic Steel Bridge
Park, Heeyoung ; Lee, Junghun ; Kwak, Byeongseok ; Choi, Iehyun ; Kim, Taewoo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.001
PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate physical properties, durability, fatigue resistance, and long-term performance of poly-urethane concrete (PU) which can be possible application of thin layer on long-span orthotropic steel bridge and to check structural stability of bridge structure. METHODS : Various tests of physical properties, such as flexural strength, tensile strength, bond strength and coefficient of thermal expansion tests were conducted for physical property evaluation using two types of poly urethane concrete which have different curing time. Freezing and thawing test, accelerated weathering test and chloride ion penetration test were performed to evaluate the effect of exposed to marine environment. Beam fatigue test and small scale accelerated pavement test were performed to assess the resistance of PU against fatigue damage and long-term performance. Structural analysis were conducted to figure out structural stability of bridge structure and thin bridge deck pavement system. RESULTS: The property tests results showed that similar results were observed overall however the flexural strength of PUa was higher than those of PUb. It was also found that PU materials showed durability at marine environment. Beam fatigue test results showed that the resistances of the PUa against fatigue damage were two times higher than those of the PUb. It was found form small scale accelerated pavement test to evaluate long-term performance that there is no distress observed after 800,000 load applications. Structural analysis to figure out structural stability of bridge structure and thin bridge deck pavement system indicated that bridge structures were needed to increase thickness of steel deck plate or to improve longitudinal rib shape. CONCLUSIONS: It has been known that the use of PU can be positively considered to thin layer on long-span orthotropic steel bridge in terms of properties considered marine environment, resistance of fatigue damage and long-term performance.
Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Fiber Dispersing Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Lean Concrete Using Fly Ash and Reject Ash
Jang, Young Jae ; Park, Cheol Woo ; Park, Young Hwan ; Yoo, Pyeong Jun ; Jung, Woo Tae ; Kim, Yong Jae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 11~21
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.011
PURPOSES: As pavement generally provides service shorter than an expected life cycle, maintenance cost increases gradually. In order to help extending the service life and reduce maintenance cost, a new multi-functional composite pavement system is being developed in Korea. METHODS: This study is a part to develop the multi-functional composite pavement and is to investigate the mechanical performances of fiber-reinforced lean concrete for pavement subbase. The inherent problem of fiber reinforced concrete is dispersion of fibers in concrete mix. This study additionally evaluated fiber dispersion characteristics with respect to different fiber types. RESULTS: From the test results, the compressive strengths of the concretes satisfied the required limit of 5MPa at 7days. The standard deviation of the measured number of fibers were lower in the order of nylon, steel fiber and polypropylene. CONCLUSIONS: Reject ash was shown to be satisfactory as a replacement material to Portland cement in lean concrete base. The fiber volume fraction is suggested to be 0.4% even though the fracture toughness did not vary significantly with respect to fiber types. However, fracture energy absorbed up to complete failure increased with the increased fiber volume fraction increment.
Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Alternative Dowel Bar for Jointed Concrete Pavements
Park, Seong Tae ; Park, Jun Young ; Lee, Jae Hoon ; Kim, Hyung Bae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 23~36
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.023
PURPOSES: The problem under this circumstance is that the erosion not only drops strength of the steel dowel bar but also comes with volume expansion of the steel dowel bar which can reduce load transferring efficiency of the steel dowel bar. To avoid this erosion problem, alternative dowers bars are developed. METHODS: In this study, the bearing stresses between the FRP tube dowel bar and concrete slab are calculated and compared with its allowable bearing stress to check its structural stability in the concrete pavement. These comparisons are conducted with several cross-sections of FRP tube dowel bars. Comprehensive laboratory tests including the shear load-deflection test on a full-scale specimen and the full-scale accelerated joint concrete pavement test are conducted and the results were compared with those from the steel dowel bar. RESULTS: In all cross-sections of FRP tube dowel bars, computed bearing stresses between the FRP tube dowel bar and concrete slab are less than their allowable stress levels. The pultrusion FRP-tube dowel bar show better performance on direct shear tests on full-scale specimen and static compression tests at full-scale concrete pavement joints than prepreg and filament-winding FRP-tube dowel bar. CONCLUSIONS: The FRP tube dowel bars as alternative dowel bar are invulnerable to erosion that may be caused by moisture from masonry joint or bottom of the pavement system. Also, the pultrusion FRP-tube dowel bar performed very well on the laboratory evaluation.
Study on Design Vehicle Loads of South and North Korean Highway Bridges
Han, Eui Seok ; Lee, In Keun ; Park, Sun Kyu ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 37~45
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.037
PURPOSES: This study is to analyze different vehicle load effects for a bridge design of South and North Korea in order to prepare a common design specification and to secure the safety of transportation when the highway bridges of South and North Korea use together. METHODS: Based on the literature review, this study considers vehicle load effects by comparing different characteristics of the standard vehicle and other differences of the bridge design specification between South and North Korea. And structural modeling of three-span continuous PSC Beam Bridge are analyzed and the bridge capacity according different vehicle loads of South and North Korea is evaluated. RESULTS: The result of this study indicates that the bridge capacity and the design vehicle weight of North Korea are smaller than the bridge capacity and the design vehicle weight of South Korea. Also this study demonstrates that the design vehicle array and other characteristics of North Korea are very different than the design vehicle array and other characteristics of South Korea. CONCLUSIONS: It is expected that the outcomes of this study can be useful in the set-up of South-North Bridge Specification because similar previous studies are rarely found.
Evaluation of Ground Water Level Effect on Frost Heaving in Road Pavements
Kweon, Gichul ; Lee, Jaehoan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 47~56
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.047
PURPOSES: This study is to evaluate a ground water level effect on frost heaving in road pavements. METHODS: The effects of water table on frost heaving in pavement systems were evaluated from the mechanical analysis using FROST program. The input parameters and boundary conditions were determined by considering climates, pavement sections, and material properties specially subgrade soil types in Korea. RESULTS: When the water table located above the freezing depth, amount of frost heaving caused by freezing the water in pavement itself was big enough to damage in pavement system, although pavement system consists of fully non-frost-susceptible materials with sufficient thickness of anti-freezing layer. The amount of frost heaving was decreased rapidly with increasing the distance between the water table and freezing depth. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that there is no engineering problems related with frost heaving in practical sense when the distance between freezing depth and water table is over 1.5m for having subgrade soils less than 50% of #200 sieve passing to meet specification on quality control in Korea.
A Case Study of Hot In-Place Recycling Asphalt Mixture in Korea
Kwon, Sooahn ; Yang, Sunglin ; Lee, Jaejun ; Hong, Jaecheong ; Lim, Jaekyu ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.057
PURPOSES: This study is to investigate the Hot In-Place recycling asphalt mixture in Korea using field produced materials. METHODS: Hot In-Place reclaimed asphalt mixture was investigated to evaluate the mixture properties based on various test results such as Marshall Test, Indirect Tensile Test, TSR, and Wheel Tracking Test. These test values were compared with domestic standard specification. RESULTS: The result of the laboratory experiment indicates that the Hot In-Place Reclaimed(HIR) asphalt mixture produced at the field constrution site was satisfied all of the test criteria such as Indirect tensile test, Marshall and TSR test, and wheel tracking test. During the test, the research team found that current HIR system is required an extention of mixing time to improve quality and to reduce variation of sample to sample. Although the current HIR mixture was passed the test criteria, there is a potential capability to enhance the mixture properties as extend mixting time. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these laboratory test results, It would be concluded that domestic HIR mixture`s properties were satisfied all standard specification related with evaluation of recycling asphalt mixtures. Based on this case study result, there is a chance to save construction cost and increase the usage of reclaimed asphalt concrete in the future.
Occupant Risk Analysis of Safety Roller Guardrail with Energy Absorption Capability
Lee, Dong Woo ; Woo, Kwang Sung ; Chae, Jong Sool ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 65~73
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.065
PURPOSES: This paper presents the results of computer simulations of roadside safety barrier, called by safety roller guardrail, consisting of rotational roller, rotation control plate, post and subsidiary members. The rotation roller and rotation control plate are made by EVA(ethylene vinyl acetate), and PE(polyester), respectively. METHODS: The occupant risk analysis has been carried out under vehicle crash condition for high containment level of SB-4 for the purpose of local road. Simulations are performed with the finite element code LS/DYNA-3D. RESULTS: The numerical results obtained by LS/DYNA-3D software from the viewpoints of vehicle stability, vehicle trajectory, occupant risk, etc. CONCLUSIONS: It is noted that not only impact severity is drastically reduced but also vehicle trajectory is improved due to the characteristics of energy absorption and rotation pattern of EVA rollers connected by control plates.
A Study of the Surface Temperature Reduction Using Pipe Cooling System in Asphalt Pavement
Yoon, Yong Kyu ; Park, Kyung Won ; Lee, Suk Keun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 75~86
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.075
PURPOSES: The purpose of asphalt pavement reducing surface temperature by using Pipe cooling system is to make pleasant city life environment. METHODS: We considered building condition to lay the pipes under asphalt pavement and figured out that temperature reducing effect with pipe cooling system. In addition, we guessed rutting through wheel tracking test with a laid the pipes under asphalt mixture and performed fatigue cracking through a flexural fatigue test for performance evaluation of pipe cooling system. RESULTS: When pipe cooling system worked, the temperature of pavement model reduced quickly in test. The system can turn down the degree by 4 or 5 quickly as well. It didn`t affect rutting to lay the pipes under the pavement, but it can get damaged to asphalt pavement in early stage by the result of performance evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: We figured out that pipe cooling system can turn down the temperature of aspalt pavement surface through tests. We suggest that pipe cooling system should be considered one of the effective way to solve urban heat island problem.
Characteristics of Dynamic Shear Modulus Mastercurve of Aged or Unaged Asphalt Binders
Yun, Tae Young ; Ham, Sang Min ; Yoo, Pyeong Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 87~94
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.087
PURPOSES: To characterize the aging effect on asphalt binder, dynamic shear modulus mastercurve of two typical asphalt binders are developed. METHODS: To develop dynamic shear modulus mastercurve, dynamic shear modulus at high temperature and creep stiffness at low temperature are measured by temperature sweep test and bending beam rheometer test, respectively. RESULTS: It is observed that the aging effect on asphalt binder can be clearly observed from dynamic shear modulus mastercurve and the mastercurve can be utilized to predict behavior of asphalt binder at wide range of temperature. CONCLUSIONS: It is confirmed that SBS 5% modified binder has more desirable mechanical property at low and high temperature as a pavement material comparing to PG64-22 binder and the mastercurve is an effective tool to evaluate the property of asphalt binder.
A Method for Evaluation of Hollow Existence in Sublayers of Concrete Pavement Considering Pavement Stiffness
Sohn, Dueck Su ; Lee, Jae Hoon ; Jeong, Ho Seong ; Park, Joo Young ; Jeong, Jin Hoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.095
PURPOSES: The existing method evaluating the existence of the hollows in concrete pavement does not consider the stiffness of pavement. In addition, the method uses unreasonable logic judging the hollow existence by the deflection caused by zero loading. In this study, the deflection of slab corner due to heavy weight deflectometer (HWD) was measured in concrete pavement sections where underground structures are located causing the hollows around them. METHODS: The modulus of subgrade reaction obtained by comparing the actual deflection of slab to the result of finite element analysis was calibrated into the composite modulus of subgrade reaction. The radius of relative stiffness was calculated, and the relationship between the ratio of HWD load to the radius of relative stiffness and the slab deflection was expressed as the curve of secondary degree. RESULTS: The trends of the model coefficients showing width and maximum value of the curve of secondary degree were analyzed by categorizing the pavement sections into three groups : hollows exist, additional investigation is necessary, and hollows do not exist. CONCLUSIONS: The results analyzed by the method developed in this study was compared to the results analyzed by existing method. The model developed in this study will be verified by analyzing the data obtained in other sections with different pavement structure and materials.
An Evaluation of Orthotropic Steel Bridge Deck Pavement Behavior Using Wheel Load Testing and 3D Finite Element Analysis
Kim, Tae Woo ; Choi, Ji Young ; Lee, Hyun Jong ; Baek, Jongeun ; Ohm, Byung Sik ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 103~110
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.103
PURPOSES: The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the behavior of orthotropic steel bridge deck pavement using three-dimensional finite element analysis and full-scale wheel load testing. METHODS: Since the layer thickness and material properties used in the bridge deck pavement are different from its condition, it is very difficult to measure and access the behavior of bridge deck pavement in the field. To solve this problem, the full-scale wheel load testing was conducted on the PSMA/Mastic bridge deck pavement and the deflection of bridge deck and horizontal tensile strain on top of pavement were measured under the loading condition. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted to predict the behavior of bridge deck pavement and the predicted deflection and tensile strain values are compared with measured values from the wheel loading testing. RESULTS: Test results showed that the predicted deflections are 10% lower than measured ones and the error between predicted and measured horizontal tensile strain values is less than 2% in the critical location. CONCLUSIONS: The fact indicates that the proposed the analysis is found to be accurate for estimating the behavior of bridge deck pavements.
An Analysis of Roundabout Application Effects Based on Before and After Field Studies
Lee, Dongmin ; You, Jungho ; Kim, Dohoon ; Lee, Sukki ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 111~119
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.111
PURPOSES: Though the situation that the roundabouts are actively constructed, researches on the effect of the roundabouts focus mainly on the analysis of the expected effects of using only traffic simulation on the operation. Considering such problems, this study is conducted to analyze the effects of the various aspects based on field observation studies. METHODS: This study evaluated and analyzed the effects from the aspects of traffic operation, traffic safety, and traffic behavior by performing field observation studies with six roundabouts with/without signal controls on the pilot project areas for the roundabouts installed in 2010. RESULTS: Through the study results, it was found that the average travel time decreases by 14.7% and 2.4% on the signalized intersections and unsignalized intersections, respectively. The average travel speed increases by 9.7 and 5.8km/h on the roundabouts with/without signal lights. Regarding traffic safety, the speed deviation among individual vehicles decreases by approximately 18.4 to 32.7km/h, thus confirming the safety effects. As the decrease of the number of conflicts, it might be explained that car crashes and collision with pedestrians decreased by 62.2% and 66.7%. Also the result shows that the lowest point of speed in roundabouts appears near the yield line on the entry area on the roundabouts. When passing through the roundabouts, vehicles enter at a speed of 20-30km/h, which is the design speed of the circulatory lane and drive out the roundabout with a higher speed than the entry speed. CONCLUSIONS: When a roundabout is introduced at the intersections below certain traffic volume there are effects of traffic operation, traffic safety, and traffic behavior.
Road Safety Assessment by Using Integrated Evaluation Methods of Road Design Consistency
Ko, Chun-Soo ; Lee, Jong-Hak ; Ku, Ji-Sun ; Noh, Kwan-Sub ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 121~126
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.121
PURPOSES: Road Design Consistency Evaluation can guarantee road alignments with safety factors, however it can be hard work to deal with general car accident factors in only this evaluation index. Ideal Road Design Consistency Evaluation is show the mutual balance of road alignment and human factors with a variety of factors for road safety. METHODS: This study carried out overall road safety evaluations which are methods of running speeding consistency and car platoon safety analysis (driver`s behaviors factors) as well. RESULTS: Out of 13 sections in a experimental road layout, safety factors of 8 sections showed `Good` or `Fair` status. However, `Poor` results were found out in 5 sections. Particularly, it showed the different outcomes among the 4 evaluation methods used in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Road safety countermeasures were proposed for the potentially dangerous sections in road which failed to identify in the other methods. This study will contribute toward future study of more reliable Road Design Consistency Evaluation in the future for road safety.
The Effects of Pavement Markings on High-risk Drivers` Speeds
Lee, Jong Hak ; Noh, Kwan Sub ; Kim, Jong Min ; Choi, Jai-Sung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 127~134
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.127
PURPOSES: Speeding is often the primary contributor to fatal crashes. Surprisingly, driving behaviors are indirectly affected by personal factors such as law-abidance, risk sensitivity, and situational adaptability. This research aims to verify the effectiveness of pavement markings at reducing the speeds of high-risk drivers. The purpose of this study is to establish how drivers (including law-abiding or law-breaking, high-risk or low-risk) react to different pavement markings in a driving simulator. METHODS: The five different pavement markings were selected from markings used in other nations. The forty-two drivers were then surveyed, via questionnaires, and placed into the corresponding groups. Finally, statistical analysis was conducted to determine the extent of speed reduction for each pavement marking. RESULTS: Higher speeds were linked to the high-risk drivers. Furthermore, after analysis of the mean difference of average speeds by pavement marking, it was determined that Dragon`s Teeth had the greatest speed reducing effect on these drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Perceptual countermeasures are unlikely to strongly affect high-risk drivers` perception of speed on the curves. This statistically demonstrates that Dragon`s Teeth have a subtle effect on reducing speeds in the driving simulator. This study`s significance lies in the improved understanding of high-risk drivers in terms of road facilities. It approaches the effects of various patterns of pavement markings for high-risk drivers.
The Decision of Order Priority of HUD Contents for Public Transit
Park, Bumjin ; Kang, Weoneui ; Kim, Taehyeong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 135~141
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.135
PURPOSES: In this study, as part of an effort to develop HUD for public transit, it is proposed that the decision of order priority of contents which will be disposed to bus drivers through HUD for public transit using AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) technique. METHODS: In AHP analysis method brainstorming, factor analysis, hierarchical structuring, and weighting analysis were performed by applying a classical analysis method. RESULTS: By the result of analysis it is shown that unlike car drivers, bus drivers prefer information related to bus intervals, bus stop, and door open and close to information related to vehicle running. Also, bus stop information and bus interval information were ranked as first and second place in order priority of HUD contents for public transit by experts. CONCLUSIONS: This method of selecting order priority of HUD contents for public transit can provide a basic foundation for selecting order priority of traffic information contents as well as other HUD contents.
A Development of the Design Guidelines for Connecting Roads in Highway Rest Area
Lee, Choulsoo ; Won, Jaimu ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 143~154
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.143
PURPOSES: Design of approach roads of rest areas in highway has many drawbacks such as geometric design elements. There has been traffic accidents occured in these approach roads of rest areas. Thus, design criteria is required in order to protect accidents from being occurred. In case of Korea, geometric structure design criteria of entry facilities, such as toll-gate, interchange, junction etc was established. However there are no presence in a detailed standards for geometric structure of the rest area which affiliated road facilities. METHODS: In this study, analytic on accidents was carried out in regards to the entry of geometric structure of resting areas by utilizing a sight survey and an investigation research of traffic accidents. The survey was targeting 135 general service areas. Collisions with physical channelization and safety facilities occurred due to speeding, rapid entry, and etc at the entrance nose section. At the entrance connector roads, accidents caused by speeding, negligence, over-operation of handle of drivers were main reason of accidents. Discriminant analysis were conducted about geometric elements to distinguish influencing factors for traffic accidents. the lengths and access angles of the entrance connector roads were regarded as to have the high relation with traffic accidents. RESULTS: After classifying the design section of resting areas` entry as well as derive design elements on each section, a speed measurement by targeting entry of rest areas and car behavior surveys were performed, then each element`s minimum standard was derived through the analyses. According to the speeds at the starting/end point of entrance connector road, the range of the junction setting angle of the entrance connector road is defined as
and the connector length model was suggested. CONCLUSIONS: Suggest improvement plans for existing rest areas that can be applied realistically. This should be corresponded to the standards of entry and exit of developed rest areas.
The Road Traffic Sign Recognition and Automatic Positioning for Road Facility Management
Lee, Jun Seok ; Yun, Duk Geun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 155~161
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.155
PURPOSES: This study is to develop a road traffic sign recognition and automatic positioning for road facility management. METHODS: In this study, we installed the GPS, IMU, DMI, camera, laser sensor on the van and surveyed the car position, fore-sight image, point cloud of traffic signs. To insert automatic position of traffic sign, the automatic traffic sign recognition S/W developed and it can log the traffic sign type and approximate position, this study suggests a methodology to transform the laser point-cloud to the map coordinate system with the 3D axis rotation algorithm. RESULTS: Result show that on a clear day, traffic sign recognition ratio is 92.98%, and on cloudy day recognition ratio is 80.58%. To insert exact traffic sign position. This study examined the point difference with the road surveying results. The result RMSE is 0.227m and average is 1.51m which is the GPS positioning error. Including these error we can insert the traffic sign position within 1.51m CONCLUSIONS: As a result of this study, we can automatically survey the traffic sign type, position data of the traffic sign position error and analysis the road safety, speed limit consistency, which can be used in traffic sign DB.
A Study on Characteristics of Driver`s Visual Time-varying on the Message Disply Form
Kim, Myung Soo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 1, 2013, Pages 163~169
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.1.163
PURPOSES: The urban traffic problems can be defined as general problems for smooth traffic flow including maintenance of mass transportation system according to suddenly increased population, traffic regulations for vehicles and pollution problem. As a method for solving traffic jams, one of the traffic problems of late, interest in Intelligent Traffic System(ITS) is increasing sharply, which is a system managing traffic demand by providing passers with information on traffic state of path and road conditions before they pass the road through ATIS, a field of ITS. METHODS: Variable message signs(VMS) is used on the roads as a method for providing information to promote smooth traffic flow and safety and prevent traffic accidents in advance by providing drivers with various information while driving. RESULTS: Recently, as ITS industry has been vitalized and technical factors of VMS have developed, various kinds of information is provided but the effect of VMS has not been maximized due to its limited type. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this study intends to provide methods for effective information transfer by analyzing driver`s visual behavior characteristics for VMS and presenting a basis for maximizing VMS effect after considering read by expression type.