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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Fundamental Study of Alkali Activated Cement Mortar for Evaluating Applicability of Partial-Depth Repair
Jeon, Sung Il ; An, Ji Hwan ; Kwon, Soo Ahn ; Yun, Kyung Ku ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.001
PURPOSES : This study is to evaluate the feasibility of using the alkali activated cement concrete for application of partial-depth repair in pavement. METHODS : This study analyzes the compressive strength of alkali activated cement mortar based on the changes in the amount/type/composition of binder(portland cement, fly ash, slag) and activator(NaOH,
). The mixture design is divided in case I of adding one kind-activator and case II of adding two kind-activators. RESULTS : The results of case I show that
based mixture has superior the long-term strength when compared to other mixtures, and that
based mixture has superior the early strength when compared to other mixtures. But the mixtures of case I is difficult to apply in the material for early-opening-to-traffic, because the strength of all mixtures isn't meet the criterion of traffic-opening. The results of case II show that NaOH-
based mixtures has superior the early/long-term strength when compared to NaOH-
based mixtures. In particular, the NaOH-
based some mixtures turned out to pass the reference strength(1-day) of 21MPa as required for traffic-opening. CONCLUSIONS : With these results, it could be concluded that NaOH-
based mixtures can be used as the material of pavement repair.
Estimation of Tire-Pavement Noise for Concrete Pavement by using Mean Profile Depth
Hong, Seong Jae ; Hyun, Tak Jib ; Lee, Seung Woo ; Kim, Hyung Bae ; Kwon, Oh Sun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.009
PURPOSES: There is a need to develop a method to incorporate tire-pavement noise in the pavement management system. Tire-pavement noise highly depends on the characteristics of pavement texture. Therefore, estimation of texture characteristics may give useful information to predict tire-pavement noise. This study aimed to find the relationship between tire-pavement noise and MPD(Mean Profile Depth) for concrete pavement. METHODS: MPD and tire-pavement noise were collected on the number of expressway sections including Central Inland Test Road in Korea. Statistical analysis was performed to find the correlationship between MPD and tire-pavement noise. In addition, multiple regression analysis to find the tire-pavement noise based on MPD and type of concrete pavement texture. RESULTS: Linear relationship between MPD and tire-pavement noise is observed for concrete pavement. Furthermore, a forensic equation to estimate tire-pavement noise based on MPD and texture types of concrete pavement is suggested. CONCLUSIONS: Tire-pavement noise on concrete pavement can be predicted based on the consideration of texture type and MPD estimation.
The Effects of the Aspect Ratio on Natural Frequency of the Advanced Composite Materials Road Structures
Han, Bong Koo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.017
PURPOSES: Current theories for composite structures are too difficult for design engineers for construction. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate to the practicing engineers, how to apply the advanced composite materials theory to the road structures. METHODS: Some laminate orientations have decreasing values of
stiffnesses as the ply number increases. The plate aspect ratio considered is from 1 to 5. In order to study the effect of
on the equilibrium equations, two cases are considered.
term is considered or neglected. RESULTS: Most of the road structures have high aspect ratios, for such cases further simplification is possible by neglecting the effect of the longitudinal moment terms. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the road structures have plate aspect ratios higher than 2. It is concluded that, for all boundary conditions, neglecting the longitudinal moment(
) terms is acceptable if the aspect ratio (a/b) is equal to or higher than 2. This conclusion gives good guide line for design of the road structures.
The Effects of Different Cross Section on Natural Frequency of the Advanced Composite Materials Road Structures
Han, Bong Koo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.023
PURPOSES: This paper aims to give a guideline and the way to apply the advanced composite materials theory to the road structures with different cross sections to the practicing engineers. METHODS: To simple but exact method of calculating natural frequencies corresponding to the modes of vibration of road structures with different cross sections and arbitrary boundary conditions. The effect of the
stiffness on the natural frequency is rigorously investigated. RESULTS: Simple method of vibration analysis for calculating the natural frequency of the different cross sections is presented. CONCLUSIONS: Simple method of vibration analysis for calculating the natural frequency of the different cross sections is presented. This method is a simple but exact method of calculating natural frequencies of the road structures with different cross sections. This method is extended to be applied to two dimensional problems including composite laminated road structures.
A Noise Investigation of Transverse Rumble Strip at Toll Plaza of Highway
An, Deok-Soon ; Suh, Young-Chan ; Kwon, Soo-Ahn ; Lee, JaeJun ; Eom, Byeong-Sik ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.031
PURPOSES: This study is to investigate a generated traffic noise when vehicle pass over a transverse rumble strip at toll plaza of highway. METHODS: To investigate traffic noise at toll plaza of highway, Pass-by method which is the most common used for measuring traffic noise was adopted and the traffic noise at toll plaza was measured for 10 min per hour for 11hours(13:00~24:00). RESULTS: The measured traffic noise by pass-by method was changed as function of the transverse rumble strip configuration. Generally, the maximum difference among three noise measurement sections was 7 dB(A). It might be related with traffic speed. Also, the measured traffic noise was strongly generated from a passenger car which was 2 axle. It means that the most of traffic noise on the road is generated at tire/pavement interface of the passenger car. CONCLUSIONS: The traffic noise was strongly related with vehicle speed and transverse rumble strip configuration on the road. For driver safety, the transverse rumble strip is definitely necessary. However, the complaints from residents near highway was increased by traffic noise from transverse rumble strip. Therefore, To satisfy both safety and reduction of traffic noise, the development of configuration of transverse rumble strip is necessary in the further study.
Development of Deduct Value Curves for the Pavement Condition Index of Asphalt Airfield Pavement
Lee, Kang-Jin ; Seo, Young-Chan ; Cho, Nam-Hyun ; Park, Dae-Wook ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.037
PURPOSES: This study is to develop the deduct value curves for the calculation of pavement condition index of asphalt airfield pavement. METHODS: To develop the deduct value curves of asphalt airfield pavement, panel rating was conducted to decide the pavement condition based on pavement distress type, severity, and density. RESULTS: Results show that standard deviation of deduct values by panel rating is increased at higher severity level and as damage density increases. The deduct value of alligator cracking show the highest. CONCLUSIONS: The deduct value curves based on panel rating could be used without existing problems which were occurred in Shahin's method.
Proposal for the Estimation of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Asphalt Concrete Pavement using Regression Analysis
Jang, Yeongsun ; Kim, Dowan ; Mun, Sungho ; Jang, Byungkwan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 45~52
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.045
PURPOSES : This study is to construct the regression models of drainage asphalt concrete specimens and to provide the appropriate coefficients of hydraulic conductivity prediction models. METHODS: In terms of easy calculation of the hydraulic conductivity from porosity of asphalt concrete pavement, the estimation model of hydraulic conductivity was proposed using regression analysis. 10 specimens of drainage asphalt concrete pavement were made for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivity model proposed in this study was calculated by empirical model based on porosity and the grain size. In this study, it shows the compared results from permeability measured test and empirical equation, and the suitability of proposed model, using regression analysis. RESULTS: As the result of the regression analysis, the hydraulic conductivity calculated from the proposal model was similar to that resulted from permeability measured test. Also result of RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) analysis, a proposed regression model is resulted in more accurate model. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed model can be used in case of estimating the hydraulic conductivity at drainage asphalt concrete pavements in fields.
Evaluation for Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Mixtures using Non-Destructive Impact Wave
Jang, Byung Kwan ; Kim, Do Wan ; Mun, Sung Ho ; Jang, Yeong Sun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 53~63
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.053
PURPOSES : This study is to evaluate moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures by using non-destructive impact wave and to determine durability so as to decrease the gap between before and after freezing in the future. METHODS : Using non-destructive impact wave, this study is to determine the dynamic modulus of asphalt specimen. Furthermore, the results obtained from two experiment accelerometers are used for the dynamic modulus determination. The dynamic moduli of specimens are compared with those of the freezing-thawing specimens. RESULTS : Test results showed that the dynamic modulus before freezing and thawing environment loads at each temperature dropped about 3.7% after the environmental loads. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicates that transition of dynamic modulus at each point is about 89.59%. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of asphalt mixtures using non-destructive impact wave has excellent repeatability and simple equipment for the test. Consequently, the method in the study will be useful for evaluating the characteristics of a various asphalt mixtures.
Study for Dynamic Modulus Change Measurement of Permeable Asphalt Mixtures with Various Porosity using Non-Destructive Impact Wave
Jang, Byung Kwan ; Yang, Sung Lin ; Mun, Sung Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 65~74
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.065
PURPOSES: This study is to evaluate the dynamic modulus changes of permeable asphalt mixtures by using non-destructive impact testing method and to compare the dynamic moduli of permeable asphalt mixtures through repeated freezing and thawing conditions. METHODS: For the study, non-destructive impact testing method is used in order to obtain dynamic modulus of asphalt specimen and to confirm the change of dynamic modulus before and after freezing and thawing conditions. RESULTS : This study has shown that the dynamic moduli of asphalt concrete specimens consisting of 10%, 15% and 20% porosity are reduced by 11.851%, 1.9564%, 24.593% after freezing and thawing cycles. CONCLUSIONS : Non-destructive impact testing method is very useful and has repeatability. Specimen with 15% porosity has high durability than others.
An Analysis of Flood Mitigation Effect Applying to LID in Mokgamcheon Watershed using SWMM Model
Jang, Yeongsun ; Mun, Sungho ; Yang, Sunglin ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.075
PURPOSES: In this study, flood mitigation effect of drainage asphalt concrete pavement were analyzed by a SWMM 5.0 program in order to evaluate the low impact development (LID) based on the drainage asphalt concrete pavements. METHODS: In order to determine the porosity parameters of drainage asphalt concretes, the specimen mixtures were manufactured using the conditions presented in the previous study. The numerical simulation was conducted using the SWMM 5.0 program considering the flood mitigation effect of drainage asphalt concrete pavements. The effect of flood reduction can be observed when drainage asphalt concrete pavements were applied to Mokgamcheon watershed. The flood mitigation effect analysis of Mokgamcheon watershed as well as continuous simulation of subwatershed runoff were performed through this study. RESULTS : The analysis of drainage asphalt concrete pavements was carried out for evaluating the effect on runoff, resulting in: the peak flow decreases up to 1.26~9.53% after drainage asphalt concrete pavements applied in the SWMM 5.0 program furthermore, the discharge decreases up to 0.55~4.11%. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, the reduced peak flow and discharge were found through the SWMM 5.0 program. It can be concluded that the flood is effectively reduced when the drainage asphalt concrete pavements are used.
Evaluation of 2+1 Roads Application to Improve Rural Two-lane Highway in Korea
Chae, Chan Dle ; Lee, Dong Min ; Cho, Han Seon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.085
PURPOSES: The purpose of this paper is to estimate expected effects on traffic operational and economic aspects of 2+1 roads application in Korea. METHODS : Micro simulation study using VISSIM 5.0 was used to analyze the operation efficiency of 2+1 roads compared to two-lane highways and four-lane highways. Some scenarios for various traffic volumes were set up in order to analyze the effect of 2+1 roads under various traffic situations. Also imaginary road networks were set up for each type of roads. The MOEs to measure the operation efficiency were selected with average travel speed and delay. For analyzing economic effect of 2+1 roads, construction cost of a specific imaginary 2+1 road was compared to construction cost of a four-lane highway with same conditions. RESULTS: The results of study show that a 2+1 road is more effective with 19 percents higher average travel speed and 39 percents lower average delay than a two-lane highway. In the economic analysis, construction costs to construct a 2+1 road are saved as approximately 26.4~40.7 percents when compared to construction of four-lane highway. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that 2+1 roads can improve the traffic operational level of service for two-lane highways and 2+1 roads can be applied as an effective design alternative for higher-volume two-lane highways in Korea.
A Model to Calibrate Expressway Traffic Forecasting Errors Considering Socioeconomic Characteristics and Road Network Structure
Yi, Yongju ; Kim, Youngsun ; Yu, Jeong Whon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 93~101
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.093
PURPOSES : This study is to investigate the relationship of socioeconomic characteristics and road network structure with traffic growth patterns. The findings is to be used to tweak traffic forecast provided by traditional four step process using relevant socioeconomic and road network data. METHODS: Comprehensive statistical analysis is used to identify key explanatory variables using historical observations on traffic forecast, actual traffic counts and surrounding environments. Based on statistical results, a multiple regression model is developed to predict the effects of socioeconomic and road network attributes on traffic growth patterns. The validation of the proposed model is also performed using a different set of historical data. RESULTS : The statistical analysis results indicate that several socioeconomic characteristics and road network structure cleary affect the tendency of over- and under-estimation of road traffics. Among them, land use is a key factor which is revealed by a factor that traffic forecast for urban road tends to be under-estimated while rural road traffic prediction is generally over-estimated. The model application suggests that tweaking the traffic forecast using the proposed model can reduce the discrepancies between the predicted and actual traffic counts from 30.4% to 21.9%. CONCLUSIONS : Prediction of road traffic growth patterns based on surrounding socioeconomic and road network attributes can help develop the optimal strategy of road construction plan by enhancing reliability of traffic forecast as well as tendency of traffic growth.
A Study for Distribution Methods Between Superelevation and Side Friction Factor Reflecting Ergonomic Characteristics by Increasing Design Speed
Jeong, Seungwon ; Kim, Sangyoup ; Choi, Jaisung ; Kim, Hongjin ; Jang, Taeyoun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 103~115
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.103
PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to develop a method for distribution between superelevation and side friction factor by increasing design speed. METHODS: First of all, a method for distribution between superelevation and side friction factor and a theory for the functional formula of side friction factor in compliance with horizontal radius applied in South Korea and the United States are considered. Especially, design speed of 140km/h and numerical value of design elements are applied to the theory for the functional formula of side friction factor in AASHTO's methods. Also, the anxiety EEG upon running speed is measured to reflect ergonomic characteristics through field experiments at seven curve sections of the West Coast Freeway, and this data is applied to graph for the functional formula of side friction factor. RESULTS : Matching side friction factor against the anxiety EEG, the results that a critical points of driver's anxiety EEG sharply increase locate under existing parabola are figured out. CONCLUSIONS : Therefore, we could get a new type of the functional formula that driver's driving comfortability is guaranteed if the existing the functional formula of side friction factor goes down under boundary of the critical points of the anxiety EEG.
Landscape Preference of the Guide Coating in the Median Barrier on the Expressway by Win-Road Simulation
Kim, Tae Gyun ; Choi, Jae Young ; Lee, Mun Young ; Kum, Ki Jung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 117~125
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.117
PURPOSES: By conducting the landscape survey that considered landscape factors of the Guide Coating in the Median Barrier that applied of the various level by simulating of the Guide Coating in the Median Barrier on the expressway, they showed the quantitative standard of landscape preference factors that the Guide Coating gives. METHODS: The shape of the Structural Equation Modeling used AMOS program and made a shape that is made of landscape preference for the Guide Coating in the Median Barrier on the expressway a dependent variable. RESULTS: Result in this, they showed that functionality and emotionalism are the factors that affect the landscape preference. CONCLUSIONS: In the main study, not only showing the Guide Coating in the Median Barrier on the expressway landscape valuation but also embodying the Structural Equation Modeling(SEM) of each group, knowing the Guide Coating and unknowing the Guide Coating. By embodying this, they could study that the drivers' quantitative standard is different when the Guide Coating become first applied and being changed after.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Water-Reservoir Measuring Equipment for Highway Safety Analysis
Lee, Jin Kak ; Yun, Duk Geun ; Joh, Young-Oh ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 127~135
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.127
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is development of automatic equipment to measure the road water-reservoir which can be one of factors for road traffic safety inspection and its application to safety analysis. METHODS : The scopes of this study are the examination of the riskiness and location of road water-reservoir through literature review, development of appropriate sensor and automatic equipment to survey the road water-reservoir and evaluation of field application. RESULTS: The laser lighting and IR camera were selected to develop the equipment. It was found from the field calibration that there is a high correlation between rutting and road water-reservoir and road water-reservoir caused by rutting can be correctly calculated. About 20.2km of national highway were inspected for case study and field application. It was found from correlation of traffic incident that 2.08km of the latent length for water-reservoir which is related to 12 traffic incidents were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS : This technique can be utilized evaluation method for road condition such as road water-reservoir for conventional evaluation system such as road traffic safety assessment and safety analysis and it can be use to new evaluation system to apply various road condition and traffic condition.
Contribution of Road Capital in Industry and Optimal Level of Road Capital in South Korea
Kook, Woo Kag ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 137~149
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.137
PURPOSES: This study is to suggest the Contribution of Road Capital in Industry and Optimal Level of Road Investment in South Korea METHODS: Based on the literature review, This research is empirically estimated using disaggregate and disaggregated data composed of 10-sectors covering the entire korea economy for the period 1970~2000. The relevant policy questions addressed in this report are : cost reduction and Scale elasticities of road, effect of road capital stock on demand for labor, capital and materials, marginal effect of road, industry TFP growth decomposition, Net Social Rates of Returns, optimal of road capital. RESULTS : The marginal benefits of the road capital at the industry level were calculated using the estimated cost elasticities. Demand for the road capital services varies across industries as do the marginal effects. The marginal benefits are positive for the principal industries. This suggests that for these industries the existing stock of road capital may be under supplied. CONCLUSIONS: This results emerges is that the ratio of the optimum to actual road capital, measured by road, was high at beginning of the period 1970s and declined 1990s. There appears to be evidence of under-investment in road capital. That is continuous and premeditated investment for road which lead to saving time and finance.
The Optimal Spacing of Speed Humps in Traffic Calming Areas
Yeo, Insoo ; Baek, Jung-Gil ; Choi, Jang-Won ; Kim, Yong Seok ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 151~157
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.151
PURPOSES : This study aims to suggest the optimal spacing between speed humps which is placed at traffic calming areas including pedestrian priority zones, school zones, and residential areas. METHODS: The study measured the operating speed of vehicles passing through two successive humps by using laser gun in 0.2 seconds interval, and analysed the basic statistical characteristics of speeds data to have an insight on the relationship between spacing and speed. Assumption was made to derive the maximum spacing within which two successive humps influence each other. RESULTS: The statistically significant model explaining the relationship between spacing and 85th percentile speed of vehicles was derived as well as the maximum spacing maintained in order to take the benefits of successive installation of humps. CONCLUSIONS: Spacing of 20 meters was suggested to achieve the widely accepted target speed of 30 km/h in traffic calming zone, and spacing of 70 meters was suggested as a maximum spacing. The comparison across the studies were made and empirical reasoning the difference of results between studies was discussed as well as the future studies.
A Study of Effectiveness Analysis Method of Exclusive Median Bus Lanes Considering Number of People in Buses
Cho, Hanseon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 159~167
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.159
PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to develop an effectiveness analysis method of exclusive median bus lanes, which is necessary in order to improve operation efficiency of exclusive median bus lanes. METHODS : The operation characteristics of "signalized intersection including exclusive median bus lanes" and "normal signalized intersection" were investigated and the existing capacity analysis method was also reviewed to analyze the effectiveness of exclusive median bus lanes. Delay reduction of passengers using exclusive median bus lanes which can be considered as the benefit of exclusive median bus lanes and the number of people in buses were included in the proposed effectiveness analysis method. RESULTS : It was found that the proposed method expresses properly the effectiveness of exclusive median bus lanes through performing sensitivity analysis and analyzing with the real data of the number of people in buses and passenger cars. It was also found that the proposed method demonstrates the effectiveness that measure of effectiveness of signalized intersections is changed to "sec/person". CONCLUSIONS : It was concluded that the method is a proper effectiveness analysis method because it can reflect the benefit of passengers in buses.
Development of the Analysis Methodology for Interrelationship between Transportation Facilities
Namkung, Baekkyu ; Chung, Sungbong ; Chang, Yu-Jin ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 169~176
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.169
PURPOSES : Lots of criticism such as over/duplication investment, inconsistency of the policies among local governments and national plans etc. has been aroused due to the policy of supply-driven construction for transportation facilities. Recently, according to the environmental-friendly transportation policy, the investment of railroad has been expanded gradually, however the duplication with existing road facility makes it difficult to construct railroad. Thus it is necessary to evaluate the interrelationship between new project and existing facilities in the planning stage. However the method and the criteria for analyzing the duplication and over-investment of projects are not established in the manual, thus the feasibility of these projects are carried out from the economic point of view. METHODS: First, It reviewed about interrelationship criteria(domestic, overseas) and proposed implications and this study directions. Next, It developed the methods of evaluating independency, competitiveness and complementarity. RESULTS : In this study, the methods of evaluating independency, competitiveness and complementarity etc. are suggested to analyze the interrelationship between transportation facilities. The case study was carried out to examine the applicability of the methods. CONCLUSIONS: The methods raise rationality of decision-making compared to existing one. In the future, these methods are introduced into the manual of pre-feasibility study and feasibility study, more efficient decision-making and investment are expected.
A Study on Efficient Management of Bicycle Traffic Flow at Four-Legged Intersections
Mok, Sueng Joon ; Kim, Eung Cheol ; Heo, Hee Bum ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 177~189
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2013.15.3.177
PURPOSES: This study aims to suggest a proper left-turn treatment method for the bicycle traffic flow at four-legged intersections. METHODS: Four types of crossing methods are proposed and analyzed : (1) indirect left turn, (2) direct left turn, (3) direct left turn on a Bike Box, and (4) direct left turn on bike left turn lane. The VISSIM simulation tests were conducted based on forty-eight operation scenarios prepared by varying vehicle and bicycle traffic volumes. RESULTS : The results from the four-legged signalized intersections suggest that (1) the indirect left turn is appropriate when vehicle demand is high, (2) the direct left turn is efficient on most traffic situation but the safety is a concern, (3) the direct left turn on a Bike Box is appropriate when bicycle demand is high while vehicle demand is not, and (4) the direct left turn on a bike left turn lane is appropriate when both vehicle and bicycle demand are low. CONCLUSIONS : The direct left turn of bicycle provides more efficiency than the indirect left turn at the four-legged intersections but to apply the methods and to study more, advanced evaluation methods, related law, and insurance programs are needed.