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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
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The Effect of Texture Wavelength on the Tire-Pavement Noise in Asphalt Concrete Pavement
Hong, Seong Jae ; Park, Sung Wook ; Lee, Seung Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.001
PURPOSES : Recently, attempts have been made to evaluate tire-pavement noise based on a measure of Mean Profile Depth (MPD). However, equivalent values of MPD appear to correspond to different levels of tire-pavement noise, which indicates that other factors such as texture wavelength need to be included to improve the accuracy of noise prediction. A single index to represent texture wavelength is proposed in this study. A consistent relationship between tire-pavement noise and texture wavelength on asphalt concrete pavement is observed. METHODS : Profile data and tire-pavement noise data were collected from a number of expressway sections in Korea. In addition, texture wavelength was defined by a Peak Number (PN), which was calculated using profile data. Statistical analysis was performed to find the relationship between the PN and tire-pavement noise. RESULTS : As a result of this study, a linear relationship between PN and tire-pavement noise is observed on asphalt concrete pavement. CONCLUSIONS : Tire-pavement noise on asphalt concrete pavement can be predicted from PN information.
Measurement for Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Concretes Made with Recycled Concrete Aggregates
Yang, Sung Chul ; Lee, Hwal Ung ; Kim, Namho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 7~16
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.007
PURPOSES : This study was performed to determine a systematic approach for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion (COTE) of concrete specimens. This approach includes the initial calibration of measurement equipment. Test variables include coarse aggregate types such as natural aggregate, job-site produced recycled concrete aggregate, and recycled aggregate processed from an intermediate waste treatment company. METHODS : First, two cylindrical SUS-304 specimens with a known COTE value of
. were used as reference specimens for the calibration of each measurement system. The well-known AASHTO TP-60 COTE apparatus for concrete measurement was utilized in this study. Four different measurement apparatuses were used with each LVDT installed and a calibration value was determined using each measurement apparatus. RESULTS : In the initial experimental stage, calibration values for each measurement apparatus were assumed to be almost identical. However, using the SUS-304 samples as a reference, the calibration values for the four different measurement apparatuses were found to range from 3.49 to
. Using different adjusted values for each measurement apparatuses, COTE values for the three different concrete specimens were obtained. The COTE value of concrete made with natural coarse aggregate was
, that of job-site produced recycled coarse aggregate was
, and that of recycled aggregate processed from the intermediate waste treatment company was
. CONCLUSIONS : We observed that the COTE value of concrete made from recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) was higher than that of concrete made from natural coarse aggregate. This difference is due to the fact that the total volumetric mortar proportion in the RCA mix is higher than that in the concrete mix made with natural coarse aggregate.
Field Performance Evaluation of Micro-surfacing Method and Polymer Slurry Seal Method Used in National Highway
Son, Hyeon Jang ; Kim, Yong Joo ; Baek, Jong Eun ; Lim, Jae Kyu ; Kim, Boo Il ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.017
PURPOSES : Recently, crack, rutting, and stripping problems from the surface of asphalt pavements in National highway are observed and they affect the drivers to feel uncomfortable on the road. Surface treatments are recommended to use in distressed pavements due to cost-effective, and improvement of surface performance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments for distressed asphalt pavements. METHODS : Surface conditions and friction resistance are evaluated for asphalt pavements treated with micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal mixes in National highway 30 line and 34 line. Visual observation is conducted and surface performance is measured by PES (Performance Evaluation Surveyor) in terms of crack ratio, rutting and IRI(International Roughness Index). BPN(British Pendulum Number) is measured by BPT(British Pendulum Tester) to evaluate the friction resistance in the field. RESULTS : The surface evaluation results are presented for asphalt pavement treated with micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments in National highway 30 line and 34 line. Based on the visual observation, micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments show better improvements in terms of cracks and stripping. Based on the surface conditions measured by PES vehicle, the surface performance of micro-surfacing treatments improves from 53.3% to 54.2% and the surface performance of polymer slurry seal treatments improves from 21.6% to 59.7%. However, the friction resistance of both micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments decreases from 2.5% to 6.7%. Further, it should be verified to produce the surface exposed with aggregates during the construction process of both treatment methods in the field. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the performance evaluation results in the filed, the surface performance of asphalt pavement treated with micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments improves from 21.6% to 59.7%. While, the friction resistance of asphalt pavement treated with micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments does not improve. It can be concluded that current micro-surfacing and polymer slurry seal treatments would improve surface performance but would not improve the friction resistance.
Remarks on the use of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steel Slag in Asphalt Mixtures for Flexible Pavements
Falchetto, Augusto Cannone ; Moon, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 25~33
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.025
PURPOSES : This paper, presents the results of a laboratory study aimed to verify the suitability of a particular type of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag to be recycled in the lithic skeleton of both dense graded and porous asphalt mixtures for flexible pavements. METHODS : Cyclic creep and stiffness modulus tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical performance of three different asphalt mixtures (dense graded, porous asphalt, and stone mastic) prepared with two types of EAF steel slag. For comparison purposes, the same three mixtures were also designed with conventional aggregates (basalt and limestone). RESULTS : All the asphalt mixtures prepared with EAF steel slag satisfied the current requirements of the European standards, which support EAF steel slag as a suitable material for flexible pavement construction. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the experimental work, the use of waste material obtained from steel production (e.g. EAF steel slag) as an alternative in the lithic skeleton of asphalt mixtures can be a satisfactory and reasonable choice that fulfills the "Zero Waste" objective that many iron and steel industries have pursued in the past decades.
A Study to Analyze Service Life of Expressway Pavement according to Traffic Volumes and De-icing Chemicals
Kim, Chan-Woo ; An, Soo-Han ; Park, Hee-Young ; Lee, Jung-Hun ; Jung, Chul-Ki ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.035
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to analyze the service life of expressway pavement based on both traffic volumes and use of deicing chemicals. METHODS : A database was built using expressway rehabilitation history information from over the last decade. In order to estimate the service life of expressway pavement, various analysis methods were considered, and a decision was made to perform analysis using a method based on an accumulated rehabilitation ratio. The service life of expressway pavement was then analyzed by classifying the scale of traffic volume and extent of de-icing chemicals used. RESULTS : The service life of PMA and SMA ranged from 7.8 to 10.6 years and from 9.9 to 12.0 years, respectively. The service life of JCP ranged from 16.0 to 22.2 years, and the service life of CRCP was 33.5 years on average. Results of assessing service life according to traffic volumes and de-icing chemicals showed that the lower the traffic volumes were, the greater the service life of PMA and JCP, and the less that de-icing chemicals were applied, the greater the service life of JCP. CONCLUSIONS : The dependence of expressway pavement service life on traffic volumes and de-icing chemicals makes it possible to apply LCCA for regional maintenance plans and cost-effective selection of expressway pavement type.
Evaluation of Emergency Pothole Repair Materials using Polyurethane-Modified Asphalt Binder
Kim, Yeong Min ; Im, Jeong Hyuk ; Hwang, Sung Do ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 43~49
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.043
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to develop new pothole repair materials using polyurethane-modified asphalt binder, and to evaluate them relative to current pothole repair materials in order to improve the performance of repaired asphalt pavement. METHODS : In the laboratory, polyurethane-modified asphalt binder is developed, and then asphalt binder is added to produce pothole repair materials. In order to evaluate the properties of this new pothole repair material, both an indirect tension strength test and a direct tension strength test are performed to measure the material strength and bond strength, respectively. Additionally, the basic material properties are evaluated using the asphalt cold mix manual. The strength characteristics based on curing times are evaluated using a total of 7 types of materials (3 types of current materials, 2 types of new materials, and 2 types of moisture conditioned new materials). The indirect tension strength tests are conducted at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 days of curing time. The bond strength between current HMA(Hot Mix Asphalt) and the new materials is evaluated by the direct tension strength test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Overall, the new materials show better properties than current materials. Based on the test results, the new materials demonstrate less susceptibility to moisture, faster curing times, and an improved bond strength between HMA and the new materials. Therefore, the use of the new materials reported in this study may lead to enhanced performance of repairs made to asphalt pavement potholes.
Evaluation of Field Compaction Density by Non-nuclear Density Gauge
Kim, Yeong Min ; Im, Jeong Hyuk ; Yang, Sung Lin ; Kim, Ki Hyun ; Hwang, Sung Do ; Jeong, Kyu Dong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.051
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to compare the densities of asphalt pavements measured both in the field and in the laboratory, and also to evaluate the applicability of field density measuring equipment, such as the pavement quality indicator (PQI), by using statistical analysis. METHODS : For the statistical analysis of the density measured from asphalt pavement, student t-tests and a coefficient of correlation are investigated. In order to compare the measured densities, two test sections are prepared, with a base layer and an intermediate layer constructed. Each test section consists of 9 smaller sections. During construction, the field densities are measured for both layers (base and intermediate) in each section. Core samples are extracted from similar regions in each section, and moved to the laboratory for density measurements. All the measured densities from both the field and laboratory observations are analyzed using the selected statistical analysis methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : Based on an analysis of measured densities, analysis using a correlation coefficient is found to be more accurate than analysis using a student t-test. The correlation coefficient (R) between the field density and the core density is found to be very low with a confidence interval less than 0.5. This may be the result of inappropriate calibration of the measuring equipment. Additionally, the correlation coefficient for the base layer is higher than for the intermediate layer. Finally, we observe that prior to using the density measuring equipment in the field, a calibration process should be performed to ensure the reliability of measured field densities.
Estimation of Pore Structure Characteristic and Permeability of Hybrid Concrete by Image Analysis Method
Jang, Bong Jin ; Chon, Beom Jun ; Hong, Young Ho ; Bae, Jong Oh ; Lim, Hong Beom ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.059
PURPOSES : In this study, an image analysis method is used to evaluate the pore structure characteristics and permeability of hybrid concrete. METHODS : The binder weight of hybrid concrete is set to
, and for each value of binder weight, the pore structure and permeability of concrete mixture is evaluated. The permeability of hybrid concrete is evaluated using a rapid chloride penetration test(RCPT). RESULTS : The concrete pore structure characteristics of hybrid concrete reveals that as the binder weight is reduced, the entrained air is reduced and the entrapped air is increased. The permeability of the hybrid concrete for all values was measured to be below 1000 C, which indicates a "Very Low" level of permeability relative to the evaluation standard of KS F 2711. Additionally, as the binder weight is decreased, there is a significant increase in the permeability of chloride ions. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, the pore structure characteristics of hybrid concrete at different binder weights shows that as the binder weight is reduced, the entrained air is reduced and the entrapped air is increased. Consequently, chloride ion penetration resistance of the hybrid concrete is diminished. As a result, it is expected that this will reduce the concrete`s durability.
Evaluation of Geogrid-Reinforced Subbase Layer Thickness of Permeable Flexible Pavements based on Permanent Deformation Model
Kwon, Hyeok Min ; Oh, Jeongho ; Han, Shin-In ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.069
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a geogrid reinforced subbase of permeable flexible pavement structures with respect to permanent deformation. METHODS : Experimental trials employing a repeated triaxial load test scheme were conducted for both a geogrid reinforced subbase material and a control specimen to obtain the permanent deformation properties based on the VESYS model. Along with this, a finite element-based numerical analysis was conducted to predict pavement performance with respect to the rutting model incorporated into the analysis. RESULTSAND CONCLUSIONS : The results of the experimental study reveal that the geogrid reinforcement seems to be effective in mitigating permanent deformation of the subbase material. The permanent deformation was mostly achieved in the early stages of loading and then rapidly reached equilibrium as the number of load applications increased. The ultimate permanent deformation due to the geogrid reinforcement was about 1.5 times less than that of the control specimen. Numerical analysis showed that the permeable, flexible pavement structure with the geogrid reinforced subbase also exhibits less development of rutting throughout the service life. This reduction in rutting led to a 20% decrease in thickness of the subbase layer, which might be beneficial to reduce construction costs unless the structural adequacy is not ensured. In the near future, further verification must be conducted, both experimentally and numerically, to support these findings.
Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Mixtures Using Boiling Water Test
Kim, Jun ; Park, Dae-Wook ; Vo, Viet Hai ; Kim, Hyeok-Jung ; Park, Jun-Sang ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.077
PURPOSES : The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures containing developed liquid anti-stripping agents using the boiling water test as a screening test. METHODS : The boiling water test was used to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures containing different anti-stripping agents. The tensile strength ratio was calculated to compare the moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures after indirect strength tests were performed. Additionally, image analysis techniques were used to calculate and analyze the quantity of stripped area in the asphalt mixtures. RESULTS : In general, the asphalt mixtures containing anti-stripping agents showed a higher resistance of anti-stripping based on the boiling water test and tensile strength ratio. CONCLUSIONS : The boiling water test can be used to differentiate the resistance of moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures, except for asphalt mixtures containing hydrated lime. The boiling water test can be used as a screening test for asphalt mixtures before conducting time consuming and expensive indirect tensile strength tests.
Relationship between Crack Propagation Depth and Crack Width Movement in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Slab Systems
Cho, Young Kyo ; Kim, Seong-Min ; Oh, Han Jin ; Choi, Lyn ; Seok, Jong Hwan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 83~90
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.083
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the crack propagation depth through a slab and crack width movement in continuously reinforced concrete slab systems (CRCSs). METHODS : The crack width movements in continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) and continuously reinforced concrete railway track (CRCT) were measured in the field for different crack spacings. In addition, the crack width movements in both CRCP and CRCT were simulated using finite element models of CRCP and CRCT. The crack width movements, depending on the unit temperature change, were obtained from both the field tests and numerical analysis models. RESULTS : The experimental analysis results show that the magnitudes of the crack width movements in CRCSs were related to not only the crack spacing, but also the crack propagation depth. In CRCP, the magnitudes of the crack width movements were more closely related to the crack propagation depths. In CRCT, the crack width movements were similar for different cracks since most were through cracks. If the numerical analysis was performed to predict the crack width movements by assuming that the crack propagates completely through the slab depth, the predicted crack width movements were similar to the actual ones in CRCT, but those may be overestimated in CRCP. CONCLUSIONS : The magnitudes of the crack width movements in CRCSs were mainly affected by the crack propagation depths through the slabs.
Measurement of Effectiveness of Signal Optimized Roundabout
Eom, Jeong Eun ; Jung, Hee Jin ; Bae, Sang Hoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 91~98
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.091
PURPOSES : Although signalized intersections have been considered the best way to control traffic volume in urban areas for several decades, roundabouts are currently being discussed as an alternative way to control traffic volume, especially when traffic is light. Because a roundabout`s efficiency depends on the load geometry as well as the traffic volume, design guidelines for roundabouts are recommended only if the incoming traffic volume is very low. It is rare to substitute a roundabout for an existing signalized intersection in urban areas. This study aims to estimate the benefits from the transformation of an existing signalized intersection into a roundabout in an urban area. When there is a more moderate volume of traffic, roundabouts can be effectively used by optimizing signals located at an approaching roadway. METHODS : The methodologies of this paper are as follows: First, a signalized intersection was analyzed to determine the traffic characteristics. Second, the signalized intersection was transformed into a roundabout using VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation. Then, we estimated and analyzed the effects and the performance of the roundabout. In addition, we adjusted a method to improve the benefits of the transformation via the optimization of signals located at an approaching road to control the incoming traffic volume. RESULTS : The results of this research are as follows: The signal-optimized roundabout improved delays compared with the signalized intersection during the morning peak hour, non-peak hour, and evening peak hour by 1.78%, 12.45%, and 12.72%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS : According to the simulation results of each scenarios, the signal-optimized roundabout had less delay time than the signalized intersection. If optimized signal control algorithms are installed in roundabouts in the future, this will lead to more efficient traffic management.
Appropriate Dimension of Freeway Lane Marking using Computer Based Laboratory Experiment
Kang, Min Jeong ; Oh, Heung Un ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.099
PURPOSES : It is well known that experts determined the current standard dimensions of freeway lane markings. However, rigorous engineering rationale could be insufficient regarding whether or not the standard dimensions account for how visible the markings are to the driver. In this study, we seek to optimize the dimensions of freeway lane markings to improve their visibility to drivers. METHODS : The study was conducted as follows. First, alternative lane marking dimensions were selected which could be installed in a test construction site. Second, a video recording was made while driving on the test construction site. Third, subjects were shown the recorded video and then instructed to indicate their preference from among the various lane markings. Lastly, t-tests were applied to assess the statistical significance of differences in the preferences expressed. RESULTS : According to the t-test results, there was no significant difference in the preferences expressed regarding the lane marking widths. However, with regard to the dimensions of freeway lane marking, which represents line marking lengths, gap lengths, and widths of marking, the subjects expressed a preference for specific dimensions such as 6 m:12 m,13 cm, 8 m:12 m,10 cm and 6 m:12 m,10 cm. CONCLUSIONS : In considering the dimensions of freeway lane markings and their relation to visibility by the driver, it was found that dimensions such as 6 m:12 m,13 cm, 8 m:12 m,10 cm and 6 m:12 m,10 cm.
A Method of Compounding Application of Longitudinal Grade and Superelevation on Left Curved Section in Arterial for Preventing Hydroplaning
Jung, Ji Hwan ; Oh, Heung Un ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 105~118
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.105
PURPOSES : This study aims to evaluate the road safety of the super-elevation transition section of a left turn curve and suggest the minimum longitudinal grade of a super-elevation transition section to be used before and after a left curved section. METHODS : We evaluated the road condition by means of the safety-criterion-evaluation method involving side friction factors, and then solve the problem by introducing the minimum longitudinal grade criterion based on conditions described in the hydraulics literature. RESULTS : It was calculated that when a road satisfies hydroplaning conditions, the difference between side friction assumed and side friction demanded is less than -0.04. In this case, the safety criterion for the condition is unsatisfied. Conversely, when a road is in a normal state under either wet or dry conditions, it was calculated that the difference between side friction assumed and side friction demanded is more than 0.01. Thus, the safety criterion for this condition is found to be satisfied. After adjusting the minimum longitudinal grade applied to a super-elevation transition section, the hydroplaning condition can be eliminated and the safety criterion can be met for all sections. CONCLUSIONS : It is suggested that a minimum longitudinal grade should be provided on super-elevation transition sections in order to prevent hydroplaning.
Effect Analysis on Red Light Camera for Signalized Intersection Safety -Focused on Side Right-Angle Collision Accidents-
Oh, Ju Taek ; Kim, Yong Seok ; Lee, Yong Chul ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 119~127
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.119
PURPOSES : Before-and-after studies of red light cameras were conducted with the aim of reducing the number of side right-angle collisions. Three different methods were used for the before-and-after studies, and the analysis results were compared. METHODS : This research used the naive before-and-after method, the comparison-group method, and the empirical Bayes method to study the effects of red light cameras on side-angle collisions. The results of the three before-and-after methods were compared and interpreted in terms of safety indications at signalized intersections. RESULTS : The research results showed that side right-angle collisions can be reduced by installing red light cameras at signalized intersections. All three methods guarantee safety improvements of 25~30% on average. With regard to the results of each method, the naive before-and-after method, the comparison-group method, and the empirical Bayes method showed safety improvements of 25.6%, 27.8%, and 29.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS : It was concluded that red light cameras are an effective countermeasure to improve intersection safety. In particular, by installing red light cameras, side right-angle collisions can be reduced by up to approximately 25~30%.
Comparison of Safety Level between Driver`s Ages by Threshold Zone Luminance Level of Vehicular Traffic Tunnel
Cho, Won Bum ; Jeong, Jun Hwa ; Kim, Do Gyeong ; Park, Won Il ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 129~142
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.1.129
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to suggest a basis for setting appropriate safety goals specifically related to the threshold zone luminance in a vehicular traffic tunnel. METHODS : In the test, drivers were divided into two groups. One group consisted of all drivers (average drivers) group with an age ratio of drivers holding domestic driver`s license and driver group by age to produce threshold zone luminance in the tunnel. The threshold zone luminance produced as a result was used to analyze how it affects the safety level of each driver group and provide a basis for setting an appropriate safety criterion that can be used to determine threshold zone luminance. We used test equipment, test conditions, and ananalysis of threshold zone luminance identical to that reported by ChoandJung(2014) but the values of adaptation luminance in our analys is were expanded to range from100 to
. RESULTS : Adaptation luminance and threshold zone luminance are found to be related by a quadratic function. The threshold zone luminance needed by older drivers to ensure a certain safety level is significantly higher than that for drivers of other age brackets when adaptation luminance increases. 56% of older drivers are at an increased risk of an accident at the same luminance for which the safety level of average drivers is 75%. The safety level that can be achieved for older drivers increases to above 60% when threshold zone luminance level is set with the goal of attaining a safety level of more than 85% for average drivers. The safety level that can be attained for average drivers is above 90% when the threshold zone luminance is high enough to ensure over 75% in the safety level of older drivers. Results of this study are applicable to highways and others whose designed speed is 100 km/h. CONCLUSIONS : Threshold zone luminance determined on the basis of drivers having average visual ability is of limited value as a performance standard for ensuring the safety of older drivers. Hence, safety level for older drivers should be considered separately from safety levels for drivers with an average ability to avoid risk. Upward adjustment of older drivers` safety level in the process of determining appropriate threshold zone luminance in a vehicular traffic tunnel may bring both tangible and intangible benefit as a result of reducing accidents. However, there is an associated dollar cost arising from installing and operating lights. As a result, the economic impact of these trade-offs should also be considered.