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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
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Fundamental Study of Alkali-Activated Concrete Properties based on Modified Slag
An, Ji-Hwan ; Jeon, Sung-Il ; Kwon, Soo-Ahn ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.001
PURPOSES : This study set out to investigate the fundamental properties of alkali-activated concrete (AAC) using modified slag as the pavement maintenance material. METHODS: The material properties of modified slag based alkali-activated concrete (MSAAC) were analyzed and evaluated against those of alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC). Several mix formulations were considered, including one MSACC and four AASCs. The main variables considered in the study were slump, air content, compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability test, scaling resistance, freeze-thaw test, XRD, SEM, and EDS. RESULTS: MSAAC exhibits a compressive strength in excess of 21 MPa six hours after curing. Also, the charge passed of the MSACC was found to be less than 2000 coulombs after seven days and about 1000 coulombs after 28 days. The weight loss determined from a scaling test did not exceed
in the case of the MSACC, but that of the AASCs had already exceeded
at the 10th cycle. Based on the results of the freeze-thaw test, the relative dynamic modulus of every mix was found to be in excess of 90%. An energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS) analysis found that the weight rate percentage of the calcium and aluminum in the MSAAC mix is twice that of the AASC mixes. CONCLUSIONS : It was found that the MSAAC mix exhibits significantly better performance than AASC mixes, based on various fundamental properties.
Long-term Monitoring of Expansion of Cement Concrete Pavement Affected by Alkali-Aggregate Reaction
Hong, Seung-Ho ; Shim, Young-Hwan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.013
PURPOSES: This paper describes the expansion caused by the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete pavement currently in service. It also discusses the effects of joints installed to release the stress induced by the AAR expansion. METHODS: The expansion effect on concrete pavement was verified by a visual inspection and long-term measurement of the joint width of a cut-section. The behaviors of 16 newly installed joints were monitored as part of the investigation and long-term monitoring was carried out for three years after cutting. RESULTS: The behavior of a bridge was affected when AAR occurred in the connected pavement. The newly installed joints shrank in the longitudinal direction of the bridge after cutting. The width of the joints decreased over the six months after cutting. A large portion of the joint width (8.5cm) was found to have closed nine months after cutting. It had ultimately shrunk by about 92 percent when the final measurement was taken. CONCLUSIONS : The expansion of the pavement due to AAR was quantitatively described by visual inspection and the long-term monitoring of the newly cut joints. However, the width of the new joints decreased over the six to nine months after cutting. Additional research should be conducted to determine a means of controlling the expansion due to AAR in the pavement.
Performance Evaluation of High-RAP Asphalt Mixtures using Rapid-Setting Polymer-Modified Asphalt Emulsion
Kwon, Bong Ju ; Heo, Jae Min ; Han, Yong Jin ; Rhee, Suk Keun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 21~30
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.021
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of rapid-setting polymer-modified asphalt mixtures with a high reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) content. METHODS: A literature review revealed that emulsified asphalt is actively used for cold-recycled pavement. First, two types of rapid-setting polymer-modified asphalt emulsion were prepared for application to high-RAP material with no virgin material content. The quick-setting polymer-modified asphalt mixtures using two types of rapid-setting polymer-modified asphalt emulsion were subjected to the following tests: 1) Marshall stability test, 2) water immersion stability test and 3) indirect tensile strength ratio test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Additional re-calibration of the RAP was needed for laboratory verification because the results of analyzing RAP aggregates, which were collected from different job sites, did not deviate from the normal range. The Marshall stability of each type of binder under dry conditions was good. However, the Type B mixtures with bio-additives performed better in the water immersion stability test. Moreover, the overall results of the indirect tensile strength test of RAP mixtures with Type B emulsions exceeded 0.7. Further research, consisting of lab testing and on-site application, will be performed to verify the possibility of using RAP for minimizing the closing of roadways.
Fundamental Study for Development of Pre-Heater for Warm In-Place Recycling in Korea
Kim, Dae-Hun ; Kim, Seung-Hoon ; Kwon, Soo-Ahn ; Kim, Yongjoo ; Lee, Jaejun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.031
PURPOSES : To design a pre-heater for warm in-place recycling equipment, three different heating systems were evaluated to determine their thermal efficiency. METHODS: In this study, a
wheel-tracking specimen was used to measure the inner temperature as a function of the heating system. The inner temperature of the specimen was measured with a data logger at the surface, and at depths of 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 4cm, and 5cm. To evaluate the thermal efficiency, the researchers used three different types of equipment, namely, IR, a heating wire, and a gas burner. RESULTS: The IR heating system exhibits a higher level of performance than the others to achieve the target temperature at a depth of 5cm in the specimen. The gas burner system was capable of heating the surface to a temperature of up to
. The other types, however, cannot heat the surface up to 600. The thermal efficiencies were measured based on the laboratory conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To find the most effective system for application to the development of a pre-heater for warm in-place recycling, various systems (IR, heating wire, gas burner) were examined in the laboratory. As a result, it was found that the hot plate of a gas burner system provides the highest temperature at the surface of the asphalt but, of all the systems, the IR system provides the best internal temperature increase rate. Furthermore, a gas burner can age the asphalt binder of the surface layer as a result of the high temperature. However, the gas burner cannot attain the target temperature at 5cm. The IR system, on the other hand, is effective at increasing the internal temperature of asphalt.
Development and Evaluation of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Emulsions Used for Tack Coats
Kim, Yeong Min ; Im, Jeong Hyuk ; Hwang, Sung Do ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 39~46
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.039
PURPOSES: The objectives of this study were to develop a new polymer-modified emulsion for application to tack coats and to evaluate its properties by comparing it with other types of asphalt emulsions, with the goal of providing an enhanced tack coat material for use in construction. METHODS: Modified asphalt binders were developed from using SBS and SBR latex in the laboratory, and their fundamental properties, such as their penetration index and PG grade, were evaluated. Based on the properties, a new tack coat material was developed. To evaluate the newly developed asphalt emulsion, the bonding strength between the two layers of HMA was measured by applying a uniaxial tensile test and shear test. For the tests, a total of four different conditions were applied to the specimens, including the developed asphalt emulsion, latex modified asphalt emulsion, conventional asphalt emulsion, and non-tack coating. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the developed asphalt emulsion exhibits the best bonding strength behavior among all of the three types. Also, the two types of polymer-modified emulsions were found to be better for application for use as a tack coat than a conventional emulsion. Especially, at a high temperature (
), the conventional asphalt emulsion no longer acts as a tack coating material. Therefore, the polymer-modified emulsion should be considered for application to tack coat construction during the summer.
Scaling Resistance of Cement Concrete Incorporating Mineral Admixtures
Lee, Seung-Tae ; Park, Se-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 47~53
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.047
PURPOSES: The scaling of a concrete surface caused by the combined effects of frost and de-icing salts is one of the main reasons for the need to repair transportation infrastructures in cold-climate regions. This study describes the results of attempts to determine the scaling resistance of concrete incorporating mineral admixtures such as fly ash, GGBFS, and silica fume, and subjected to the actions of frost and salt. METHODS : Conventionally, to evaluate the fundamental properties of concrete, flexural and compressive strength measurements are regularly performed. Based on the ASTM C 672 standard, concrete is subjected to 2%, 4%, and 8%
salt solutions along with repeated sets of 50 freeze/thaw cycles, and the scaling resistance was evaluated based on the mass of the scale and a visual examination. RESULTS : It was observed that silica fume is very effective in enhancing the scaling resistance of concrete. Meanwhile, concrete incorporating GGBFS exhibited poor resistance to scaling, especially in the first ten freeze/thaw cycles. However, fly ash concrete generally exhibited the maximum amount of damage as a result of the frost-salt attack, regardless of the concentrations of the solutions. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the scaling resistance of concrete is highly dependent on the type of the mineral admixture used in the concrete. Therefore, to provide a durable concrete pavement for use in cold-climate regions, the selection of a suitable binder is essential.
Evaluation of Adhesion Characteristics of Crack Sealants Used in Asphalt Concrete Pavement
Lee, Jae-Jun ; Kim, Seung-Hoon ; Baek, Jong-Eun ; Lim, Jae-Kyu ; Kim, Yong-Joo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 55~62
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.055
Cracking is an inevitable fact of asphalt concrete pavements and plays a major role in pavement deterioration. Pavement cracking is one of the main factors determining the frequency and method of repair. Cracks can be treated with a number of preventative maintenance actions, including overlay surface treatments such as slurry sealing, crack sealing, or crack filling. Pavement cracks can show up as one or all of the following types: transverse, longitudinal, fatigue, block, reflective, edge, and slippage. Crack sealing is a frequently used pavement maintenance treatment because it significantly extends the pavement service life. However, crack sealant often fails prematurely due to a loss of adhesion. Because current test methods are mostly empirical and only provide a qualitative measure of the bond strength, they cannot accurately predict the adhesive failure of the sealant. This study introduces a laboratory test aimed at assessing the bonding of hot-poured crack sealant to the walls of pavement cracks. A pneumatic adhesion tensile testing instrument (PATTI) was adopted to measure the bonding strength of the hot-poured crack sealant as a function of the curing time and temperature. Based on a limited number of test results, the hot-poured crack sealants have very different bonding performances. Therefore, this test method can be proposed as part of a newly developed performance-based standard specification for hot-poured crack sealants for use in the future. PURPOSES : The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the adhesion and failure performance of a crack sealant as a function of its curing time and curing temperature. METHODS: A pneumatic adhesion tensile testing instrument (PATTI) was adopted to measure the adhesion performance of a crack sealant as a function of the curing time and curing temperature. RESULTS: With changes in the curing time, curing temperature, and sealant type, the bond strengths were found to be significantly different. Also, higher bond strengths were measured at lower temperatures. Different sealant types produced completely different bond strengths and failure behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The bonding strength of an evaluated crack sealant was shown to differ depending on various factors. Two sealant types, which were composed of different raw materials, were shown to perform differently. The newly proposed test offers the possibility of evaluating and differentiating between different crack sealants. Based on alimited number of test results, this test method can be proposed as part of a newly developed performance-based standard specification for crack sealants or as part of a guideline for the selection of hot-poured crack sealant in the future.
Fundamental Study of Mix Proportions of High-Flow Cement-Based Mortar for Gravel-Fill Used in Restoration of Collapsed Roads
Cho, Hyun Myung ; Jeon, Sang Pyo ; Kim, Seung Won ; Yun, Kyong Ku ; Park, Cheol Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.063
PURPOSES: As a part of our research into repair techniques for roads that have collapsed as a result of a natural disaster, this study set out to find the optimum mix proportion for gravels to be used to restore a damaged area. METHODS: This study considered flow and strength-development characteristics. The experimental variables were the W/C ratio, the usage of the admixture, the types of cement, and the quantity of fine aggregate over three different experimental stages. The compressive strength was measured at 12 hours, one day, three days, and seven days. RESULTS : The flow varied with the amount of fine aggregate and the use of a high-range water-reducing (HRWR) admixture. The compressive strength also varied with respect to the type of cement and the W/C ratios. The strength satisfied the expected requirement of 21 MPa after one day, provided the mix proportion was appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: A gravel-filling high-flow cement-based mortar exhibited strength and consistency with a W/C ratio in the range of 0.40 to 0.45, assuming the use of HRWR at 0.5 to 0.7% and a fine aggregate/cement ratio of 1.0 to 1.5.
Microsurfacing Successes and Failures
Kim, Hyun Hwan ; Benjamin, Broughton ; Lee, Moon Sup ; Lee, Soon Jae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.071
PURPOSES: This study set out to investigate the current state of microsurfacing in Texas and compared the results with the current state of the practice nationwide. METHODS: For this study, case studies were extracted from the existing literature and compared with the data obtained both from site visits by the research team and data obtained from a survey by Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) personnel. The successes and failures of microsurfacing are detailed and explanations of different issues are outlined. Forensic studies from Texas are included in the descriptions of those microsurfacings that failed when configured as part of the cape seals. RESULTS : Microsurfacing has been shown to be an effective pavement preservation technique when applied to an appropriate road, at an appropriate timing, and as a remedy for certain issues. The failures experienced in Texas can mostly be attributed to cape seals and an inability to recognize structurally faulty pavement. CONCLUSIONS : When applied to an appropriate road, at an appropriate timing, and as a remedy for certain issues, microsurfacing has been shown to perform well in numerous case studies. The majority of microsurfacing failures are the result of poor project selection, usually involving the treatment being applied to structurally unsound pavement.
A Study on the Effects of Factors of Traffic Accidents Caused by Frozen Urban Road Surfaces in the Winter
Kim, Sangyoup ; Jang, Youngsoo ; Kim, Sungkyu ; Min, Dongchan ; Na, Hohyuk ; Choi, Jaisung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 79~87
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.079
PURPOSES: According to accident statistics for road built in 2004, the ratio of accidents on frozen roads to normal roads is 0.9%, whereas the fatality ratio is 2.7%. The risk of accidents on frozen roads is very high. Measures taken every year to prevent traffic accidents of frozen roads in the winter season are still insufficient. Additionally, measures have been established mainly on rural roads. Therefore, for urban roads, analyses and measures to prevent accidents are lacking. In this study, data on accidents on frozen roads was used to search for the causes behind these accidents and measures to reduce accidents have been recommended. METHODS: In this study, collected data from the TAMS (Traffic Accident Management System), which were collected by the Seoul National Police Agency was used. The data were divided into vehicle, people, and condition of road. The analytical model used here was the Logistic Regression Model, which is frequently used for traffic safety and accident analysis. This study uses the odds ratio analysis to search for variables related to frozen road traffic accidents in each category. A total of 18 out of 47 variables were found to be the causes of accidents. RESULTS: From the results of the comparative analysis of 18 variables, the category of the condition of the road was found to be the most critical. Contrary to expectations, more accidents occurred in clear weather than in other conditions. Accidents on bridges occurred frequently, and its odds ratio was the highest compared with other road types. When BPT is operated, the probability of accidents on frozen roads is lower than in general conditions, and accidents occurred frequently on roads with less than four lanes. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the results of this study, suggestions for reducing the risk of future domestic road accidents in freezing conditions are indicated as follows. First, it is necessary to perform a technical review of the urban road traffic accidents caused by frozen roads. Second, it is necessary to establish criteria for the study of the road environment based on the major causes of road accidents on frozen roads. Third, improvements in urban road environmental factors should be made.
Performance Evaluation of Surface Treatments for Asphalt Pavement Preservation
Im, Jeong Hyuk ; Kim, Y. Richard ; Back, Cheolmin ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 89~98
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.089
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance properties of chip seals and fog seals with polymer-modified emulsions. METHODS : The performance of chip seals and fog seals was evaluated on the basis of common issues in surface treatments. Granite aggregate and four types of asphalt emulsions (one of the unmodified and three of the modified emulsions) were used considering the usage in field. A Vialit test was performed to determine the aggregate retention, and the MMLS3 (Third Scale Model Mobile Load Simulator) test was conducted to determine the aggregate retention, bleeding, and rutting. In addition, the fog seal specimens were tested by the BPT (British Pendulum Test) to evaluate skid resistance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Overall, the polymer-modified emulsions (PMEs) showed better aggregate retention and bleeding resistance for both chip seals and fog seals. When comparing the performance of the PMEs, the difference was not considerable. In addition, PMEs present significantly better rutting resistance than unmodified emulsions. For skid resistance, if the recommended mix design is applied, the specimens do not cause issues with skid resistance. Although all of the fog seal specimens were over the criteria for skid resistance, the specimen fabricated by the high emulsion application rate (EAR) of the unmodified emulsion was nearly equivalent to the skid value criteria. Therefore, the use of an unmodified emulsion with a high EAR should be carefully applied in the field.
Physicochemical Characteristics and Carbon Dioxide Absorption Capacities of Alkali-activated Blast-furnace Slag Paste
Ahn, Hae Young ; Park, Cheol Woo ; Park, Hee Mun ; Song, Ji Hyeon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.099
PURPOSES: In this study, alkali-activated blast-furnace slag (AABFS) was investigated to determine its capacity to absorb carbon dioxide and to demonstrate the feasibility of its use as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). In addition, this study was performed to evaluate the influence of the alkali-activator concentration on the absorption capacity and physicochemical characteristics. METHODS: To determine the characteristics of the AABFS as a function of the activator concentration, blast-furnace slag was activated by using calcium hydroxide at mass ratios ranging from 6 to 24%. The AABFS pastes were used to evaluate the carbon dioxide absorption capacity and rate, while the OPC paste was tested under the same conditions for comparison. The changes in the surface morphology and chemical composition before and after the carbon dioxide absorption were analyzed by using SEM and XRF. RESULTS: At an activator concentration of 24%, the AABFS absorbed approximately 42g of carbon dioxide per mass of paste. Meanwhile, the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed onto the OPC was minimal at the same activator concentration, indicating that the AABFS actively absorbed carbon dioxide as a result of the carbonation reaction on its surface. However, the carbon dioxide absorption capacity and rate decreased as the activator concentration increased, because a high concentration of the activator promoted a hydration reaction and formed a dense internal structure, which was confirmed by SEM analysis. The results of the XRF analyses showed that the CaO ratio increased after the carbon dioxide absorption. CONCLUSIONS : The experimental results confirmed that the AABFS was capable of absorbing large amounts of carbon dioxide, suggesting that it can be used as a dry absorbent for carbon capture and sequestration and as a feasible alternative to OPC. In the formation of AABFS, the activator concentration affected the hydration reaction and changed the surface and internal structure, resulting in changes to the carbon dioxide absorption capacity and rate. Accordingly, the activator ratio should be carefully selected to enhance not only the carbon capture capacity but also the physicochemical characteristics of the geopolymer.
A Study on the Compensation of the Difference of Driving Behavior between the Driving Vehicle and Driving Simulator
Park, Jinho ; Lim, Joonbeom ; Joo, Sungkab ; Lee, Soobeom ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 107~122
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.107
PURPOSES : The use of virtual driving tests to determine actual road driving behavior is increasing. However, the results indicate a gap between real and virtual driving under same road conditions road based on ergonomic factors, such as anxiety and speed. In the future, the use of virtual driving tests is expected to increase. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to analyze the gap between real and virtual driving on same road conditions and to use a calibration formula to allow for higher reliability of virtual driving tests. METHODS : An intelligent driving recorder was used to capture real driving. A driving simulator was used to record virtual driving. Additionally, a virtual driving map was made with the UC-Win/Road software. We gathered data including geometric structure information, driving information, driver information, and road operation information for real driving and virtual driving on the same road conditions. In this study we investigated a range of gaps, driving speeds, and lateral positions, and introduced a calibration formula to the virtual record to achieve the same record as the real driving situation by applying the effects of the main causes of discrepancy between the two (driving speed and lateral position) using a linear regression model. RESULTS: In the virtual driving test, driving speed and lateral position were determined to be higher and bigger than in the real Driving test, respectively. Additionally, the virtual driving test reduces the concentration, anxiety, and reality when compared to the real driving test. The formula includes four variables to produce the calibration: tangent driving speed, curve driving speed, tangent lateral position, and curve lateral position. However, the tangent lateral position was excluded because it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of analyzing the formula from MPB (mean prediction bias), MAD (mean absolute deviation) is after applying the formula to the virtual driving test, similar to the real driving test so that the formula works. Because this study was conducted on a national, two-way road, the road speed limit was 80 km/h, and the lane width was 3.0-3.5 m. It works in the same condition road restrictively.
An Introductory Study of the Level-of-Service Evaluation Methodology of Urban Roads with Multimodal Considerations
Park, Jun Seok ; Roh, Jeong Hyun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 123~134
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.123
PURPOSES : The key point of a multimodal LOS (level-of-service) evaluation system is that all of the modes are mutually associated to determine each mode`s LOS. For example, the LOS of the bicycle mode is measured based on not only bicycle volumes, but also automobile volumes. However, the Korea Highway Capacity Manual (KHCM) still focuses on the automobile mode in evaluating the LOS of the roads. Additionally, the KHCM`s LOS of the other modes, except for the automobile, is not consistent with actual road conditions. The KHCM, therefore, needs to develop and introduce a multimodal LOS system in order to evaluate the service conditions more accurately. METHODS: As a preliminary step to the introduction of multimodal LOS research, in this study the current problem of the KHCM`s LOS system through a close review and comparison with other HCMs (highway capacity manuals) was identified. Secondly, a field survey and investigation of the urban streets to apply the HCM`s multimodal LOS system was conducted. Finally, a comparison analysis of the results of the HCM and KHCM LOS was performed. RESULTS: In the study, it was found that the results of the LOS for the automobile mode did not show a significant difference between the HCM and KHCM. However, the LOS of the bicycle and pedestrian mode tended to be worse in the multimodal LOS system, which results from considering the effects of the automobile mode. Moreover, it was found that many cases have the potential to improve the overall LOS conditions, while reducing the automobile capacity. CONCLUSIONS: With the introduction of the multimodal LOS system, road diet and complete streets can be easily applied to ans actual road improvement project. Ultimately, the multimodal LOS system should be introduced into the KHCM, which can then be applied to traffic impact studies and other road improvement projects for more accurate evaluations.
Methodology for Environmental Adaptation Vehicle Horn Improvements
Kim, In Su ; Yang, Choong Heon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 135~141
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.135
PURPOSES : While driving, drivers are usually limited in communicating with others except for using the horn. Excessive use of the horn may cause noise pollution, quarrels between drivers and pedestrians, damage, etc. This study developed a methodology for environmental adaptation and improvements of vehicle horns. METHODS: In this study, we performed a literature review of previous studies and related technologies regarding the overuse and damage of the horn. The proposed methodology employed the paired comparison method, as well as the semantic differential method. These methods can consider various vehicle horns, such as the Sport Utility Vehicle(SUV) Horn, Van Horn, and Buzzer. In addition, we conducted a factor analysis in order to provide a direction for improvement of future horns. This research provides a means of complimenting existing intellectual property related to vehicle horns. RESULTS: As a result, the most preferred of the selected horns were the Buzzer at 86.7%. In addition, based on the factor analysis, the horns could be classified into pleasantness and comfort factors. The results indicate a positive reaction for various vehicle horns. The horn type and size of the process control have been properly developed considering the position of the vehicle and the surrounding noise measurements. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the proposed methodology, public and private sectors can use fundamental data for reasonable traffic-noise control policies.
Macro-level Methodology for Estimating Carbon Emissions, Energy Use, and Cost by Road Type and Road Life Cycle
Hu, Hyejung ; Baek, Jongdae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2015, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.2.143
PURPOSES : The authors set out to estimate the related carbon emissions, energy use, and costs of the national freeways and highways in Korea. To achieve this goal, a macro-level methodology for estimating those amounts by road type, road structure type, and road life cycle was developed. METHODS : The carbon emissions, energy use, and costs associated with roads vary according to the road type, road structure type, and road life cycle. Therefore, in this study, the road type, road structure type, and road life cycle were classified into two or three categories based on criteria determined by the authors. The unit amounts of carbon emissions and energy use per unit road length by classification were estimated using data gathered from actual road samples. The unit amounts of cost per unit road length by classification were acquired from the standard cost values provided in the 2013 road business manual. The total carbon emissions, energy use, and cost of the national freeways and highways were calculated by multiplying the road length by the corresponding unit amounts. RESULTS: The total carbon emissions, energy use, and costs associated with the national freeways and highways in Korea were estimated by applying the estimated unit amounts and the developed method. CONCLUSIONS: The developed method can be employed in the road planning and design stage when decision makers need to consider the impact of road construction from an environmental and economic point of view.