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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Tight Budgets and Roadway Maintenance: The Need for Further Study of the Conversion/Reconversion Scenario for Low-Volume Roadways
Kim, Hyun Hwan ; Humphries, Evan ; Hu, Jiong ; Lee, Soon Jae ; Lee, Moon Sup ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.001
PURPOSES : This paper presents a description of the current issues facing road managers regarding the surface-type conversion of low-volume roads for cost savings. METHODS: The paper reviews previous works conducted toward this end, acknowledges gaps in the current research, and lays out what information is needed for further studies. RESULTS : If the cost to maintain an unsurfaced road is less than the cost of maintaining a surfaced road, then there is potential for cost savings for the management agency. However, the problem is bigger than simply maintaining the roads that already exist. If unsurfaced roads prove to be more economical than surfaced roads, then the cost to convert from a surfaced to an unsurfaced roadway, and vice versa, when necessary, must also be examined. CONCLUSIONS : No other studies have addressed the un-surfacing of a road for cost savings, and it is therefore unknown whether substantial savings can be realistically obtained by converting from a surfaced to an unsurfaced road. To determine whether a conversion policy would be a viable option, additional data and research are needed.
Development of an Evaluation System of a LOS-based Balanced Scorecard for Road Infrastructure Asset Management
Han, Dae Seok ; Yoo, In Kyoon ; Lee, Su Hyung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 13~25
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.013
PURPOSES : This paper aims at the implementation of a balanced scorecard that can be widely applied to modern business management for use in the public road management sector. METHODS : This study applied the newly developed LOS-based balanced scorecard system instead of a traditional Key Performance Index (KPI) for better decision making in asset management planning. As an evaluation technique, a" hierarchical alignment and cascading method" is also suggested. Finally, the suggested system has been empirically applied to a regional government. RESULTS : To provide stable and sustainable road services, the balanced scorecard informs the regional government of needed improvements in its asset management plans regarding budget optimization, structural management, the development of inner-business processes, and human resources. CONCLUSIONS : An LOS-based balanced scorecard for managing road services and organizations in a quantitative manner has been successfully developed and tested through a field study. The developed scorecard is a timely topic and a useful analytical tool for coping with the new phases of an aging infrastructure, tighter budgets, and demand for greater public accountability.
Optimum Compaction Test of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement
Chung, Gun Woo ; Lee, Seung Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.027
PURPOSES : To ensure appropriate RCC properties with sufficient strength development and workability, it is necessary to secure a proper level of consistency. It is also necessary to secure maximum dry density, which is an important factor for increasing the interaction of aggregate interlocking, leading to an augmentation of RCC strength. On the other hand, the dry density of RCC can be changed owing to the compaction conditions, water content, and particle size distribution. A Proctor test and a modified Proctor test were used for determining the optimum water content needed to achieve maximum dry density with different amounts of compaction energy. A Vebe test, on the other hand, was used for checking the level of consistency, which is important for producing a workable mixture. METHODS : To confirm the degree of compaction at various particle sizes, RCC mixtures with different sand/aggregate ratios were evaluated. The Proctor test and modified Proctor test were applied to these mixtures to check the effect of the aggregate gradation and compaction energy on the maximum dry density and optimum water content. During each test, three specimens were produced for all types of water content under each aggregate gradation. A compaction curve and the optimum water content and maximum dry density for each aggregate gradation were then obtained for both tests. The range of water content for the appropriate consistency of each aggregate gradation was determined through a Vebe test. The optimum water content was then evaluated based on this range. RESULTS : The compaction test results show that the modified Proctor test provides a higher maximum dry density and lower optimum water content compared with the standard Proctor test. For the modified Proctor test, two cases of aggregate gradation (s/a = 30% and 70%) had the optimum water contents outside of the appropriate water content range. For the standard Proctor test, on the other hand, none of aggregate gradations provided the optimum water content within the desired range. CONCLUSIONS : The modified Proctor test should be used for an RCC mixture design because it can provide adequacy between maximum dry density and consistency. Moreover, the compaction roller has become highly developed for higher compaction energy.
A Study for Evaluation of Hot Mixed Asphalt Mixtures with Tack-Coat Regarding High-Frequency Dynamic Resistance Performance and Bonding Property
Kim, Dowan ; Mun, Sungho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 35~47
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.035
PURPOSES : A tack coat has been utilized to increase the bond performance between the surface layer and base course (intermediate course) at various road pavement sites. This is similarly true in other nations. Based on this connection, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures with an RSC-4 or BD-Coat and determine the application rate of the tack coat. METHODS : The HMA specimens were manufactured using superpave gyratory compaction. The HMA mixtures were composed of a 5-cm thick surface layer and a 10-cm thick base course. An impact hammer resonance test (IHRT) and a static load shear test were conducted to evaluate the performance of the HMA mixtures with a tack coat. From these tests, the dynamic moduli related to the high-frequency resistance and interlayer shear strength (ISS) of HMA could be obtained. RESULTS : The results of the dynamic moduli of HMA are discussed based on the resonance frequency (RF). To check the accuracy of the IHRT, we conducted a coherence analysis. A direct shear test using the application of a static load test was carried out to evaluate the interlayer shear strength (ISS) of HMA. CONCLUSIONS : The maximum ISS was demonstrated at an RSC-4 application rate of 462 gsm, and the maximum dynamic modulus was demonstrated at an RSC-4 application rate of 306 gsm. By averaging the results of the ISS, the maximum ISS values were obtained when a BD-Coat application rate of 602 gsm was applied.
A Study on the Gradation Effect of the Property of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement
Song, Si Hoon ; Lee, Seung Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 49~58
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.049
PURPOSES : The use of environmentally friendly construction methods has been recently encouraged to reduce fuel consumption and the effects of global warming. For this purpose, the roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) construction method has been developed. RCCP is more environmentally friendly and economically efficient than general concrete by reducing the amount of CO2 generated through the application of a smaller amount of cement. RCCP has a number of advantages such as an easy construction method, low cost, high structural hydration performance, and aggregate interlocking. However, mix design standards and construction guidelines of RCCP are required for domestic application. In addition, a study on aggregate selection, which has an effect on the characteristics of RCCP, is necessary owing to a limited number of researches. Thus, the aggregate effect on the performance of RCCP in securing the required strength and workability was evaluated in consideration of domestic construction. METHODS : Sand and coarse aggregates of both 19mm and 13mm in maximum size were used in this study. Four types of aggregate gradations (s/a = 30%, 58%, and 70% for the sand and coarse aggregate of 19mm in maximum size, and s/a = 50% for a combination of the three types of aggregates) were set up to investigate the effects of the PCA band on the RCC characteristics. The conditions of s/a = 30% and 70% were evaluated to check the gradation effect outside of the recommended band. The conditions of s/a = 58% and 50% were used because they are the optimum combination of the two and three types of aggregates, respectively. RCCP gradation band was suggested gradation with a proper construction method of RCCP by synthetically comparing and analyzing the correlation of optimum water content, maximum dry density, and strength of requirements through its consistency and compaction test. RESULTS : The lower and upper limit lines are insufficient to secure a relatively strong development and workability compared to an aggregate gradation in the RCCP gradation band region. On the other hand, the line in the RCCP gradation band and the 0.45 power curve in the RCCP gradation band region were satisfactory, ensuring the required strength and workability. CONCLUSIONS : The suitable aggregate gradation on RCCP process should meet the RCCP gradation band area; however, fine particles passing through a #60 sieve do not need to be within the recommended gradation band because the influence of this region on such fine particles is small.
A Study on the Application of Glow Line Marking Technology Development for Reducing Traffic Accidents at Nighttime
Lee, Yong Mun ; Kim, Heung Rae ; Kim, Sang Tae ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 59~68
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.059
PURPOSES : This study suggests the application of glow line marking technology for reducing traffic accidents at nighttime. METHODS : In this study, using a statistical analysis, we analyzed the characteristics of traffic accidents occurring at nighttime. Next, the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) factors were derived based on a current-status analysis of glow line marking technology and road environments. An SO strategy, ST strategy, WO strategy, and WT strategy were established in accordance with the four SWOT factors. RESULTS : This study suggests that the following strategies should be promoted to apply glow line marking technology to a road environment: 1) an activation strategy for the technological development of glow line markings for a new paradigm in reducing traffic accidents, 2) a benefit enhancement strategy applying glow line marking technology in places where nighttime traffic accidents frequently occur, 3) a strategy for the expansion of glow line marking by replacing streetlights, and 4) a strategy for enhancing road applications through the development of various line marking methods in consideration of both performance and costs. CONCLUSIONS : The application of glow line markings in a road environment can contribute to a reduction of traffic accidents at nighttime, and aid energy savings from the replacement of streetlights.
Performance Evaluation of Long-Life Asphalt Concrete Overlays Based on Field Survey Monitoring in National Highways
Baek, Jongeun ; Lim, Jae Kyu ; Kwon, Soo Ahn ; Kwon, Byung Yoon ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.069
PURPOSES : Performance evaluation of four types of asphalt concrete overlays for deteriorated national highways. METHODS : Pavement distress surveys for crack rate and rut depth have been conducted annually using an automated pavement survey vehicle since 2007. Linear and non-linear performance prediction models of the asphalt concrete overlays were developed for 43 sections. The service life of the asphalt overlays was defined as the number of years after which a crack rate of 30% or rut depth of 15mm is observed. RESULTS : The service life of the asphalt overlays was estimated as 17.4 years on an average. In 90.7% of the sections, the service life of the overlays was 15 years or more which is 1.5 times the life of conventional asphalt concrete overlays used in national highways. The performance of the overlays was dependent on the type of asphalt mixture, traffic volume levels, and environmental conditions. CONCLUSIONS : The usage of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and polymer-modified asphalt (PMA) for the overlays provided good resistance to cracking and rutting development. It is recommended that appropriate asphalt concrete overlays must be applied depending on the type of existing pavement distress.
Finite Element Analysis for Fracture Resistance of Fiber-reinforced Asphalt Concrete
Baek, Jongeun ; Yoo, Pyeong Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 77~83
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.077
PURPOSES : In this study, a fracture-based finite element (FE) model is proposed to evaluate the fracture behavior of fiber-reinforced asphalt (FRA) concrete under various interface conditions. METHODS : A fracture-based FE model was developed to simulate a double-edge notched tension (DENT) test. A cohesive zone model (CZM) and linear viscoelastic model were implemented to model the fracture behavior and viscous behavior of the FRA concrete, respectively. Three models were developed to characterize the behavior of interfacial bonding between the fiber reinforcement and surrounding materials. In the first model, the fracture property of the asphalt concrete was modified to study the effect of fiber reinforcement. In the second model, spring elements were used to simulated the fiber reinforcement. In the third method, bar and spring elements, based on a nonlinear bond-slip model, were used to simulate the fiber reinforcement and interfacial bonding conditions. The performance of the FRA in resisting crack development under various interfacial conditions was evaluated. RESULTS : The elastic modulus of the fibers was not sensitive to the behavior of the FRA in the DENT test before crack initiation. After crack development, the fracture resistance of the FRA was found to have enhanced considerably as the elastic modulus of the fibers increased from 450 MPa to 900 MPa. When the adhesion between the fibers and asphalt concrete was sufficiently high, the fiber reinforcement was effective. It means that the interfacial bonding conditions affect the fracture resistance of the FRA significantly. CONCLUSIONS : The bar/spring element models were more effective in representing the local behavior of the fibers and interfacial bonding than the fracture energy approach. The reinforcement effect is more significant after crack initiation, as the fibers can be pulled out sufficiently. Both the elastic modulus of the fiber reinforcement and the interfacial bonding were significant in controlling crack development in the FRA.
Application of In-Situ Mixing Hydration Accelerator on Polymer Modified Concrete for Bonded Concrete Overlay
Kim, Young Kyu ; Hong, Seong Jae ; Lee, Seung Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 85~95
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.085
PURPOSES : Recently, bonded concrete overlay has been used as an alternative solution in concrete pavement rehabilitation since its material properties are similar to those of the existing concrete pavements. Deteriorated concrete pavements need rapid rehabilitation in order to prevent traffic jams on Korean expressways. Moreover, speedy and effective repair methods are required. Therefore, the use of bonded concrete overlay with ultra-rapid hardening cement has increased in an effort to reopen promptly the expressways in Korea. However, mobile mixer is required for ultra-rapid hardening cement concrete mixing in the construction site. The use of mobile mixer causes various disadvantages aforementioned such as limitation of the construction supply, open-air storage of mixing materials, increase in construction cost, and etc. In this study, therefore, hydration accelerator in-situ mixing on polymer modified concrete produced in concrete plant is attempted in order to avoid the disadvantages of existing bonded concrete overlay method using ultra-rapid hardening cement. METHODS : Bonded concrete overlay materials using ultra-rapid hardening cement should be meet all the requirements including structural characteristics, compatibility, durability for field application. Therefore, This study aimed to evaluate the application of hydration accelerator in-situ mixing on polymer modified concrete by evaluating structural characteristics, compatibility, durability and economic efficiency for bonded concrete overlay. RESULTS : Test results of structural characteristics showed that the compressive, flexural strength and bond strength were exceed 21MPa, 3.15MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, which are the target strengths of four hours age for the purpose of prompt traffic reopening. In addition, tests of compatibility, such as drying shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity, and durability (chloride ions penetration resistance, freezing-thawing resistance, scaling resistance, abrasion resistance and crack resistance), showed that the hydration accelerator in-situ mixing on polymer modified concrete were satisfied the required criteria. CONCLUSIONS : It was known that the hydration accelerator in-situ mixing on polymer modified concrete overlay method was applicable for bonded concrete overlay and was a good alternative method to substitute the existing bonded concrete overlay method since structural characteristics, compatibility, durability were satisfied the criteria and its economic efficiency was excellent compare to the existing bonded concrete overlay methods.
Estimation of Optimal Passenger Car Equivalents of TCS Vehicle Types for Expressway Travel Demand Models Using a Genetic Algorithm
Kim, Kyung Hyun ; Yoon, Jung Eun ; Park, Jaebeom ; Nam, Seung Tae ; Ryu, Jong Deug ; Yun, Ilsoo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 97~105
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.097
PURPOSES : The Toll Collection System (TCS) operated by the Korea Expressway Corporation provides accurate traffic counts between tollgates within the expressway network under the closed-type toll collection system. However, although origin-destination (OD) matrices for a travel demand model can be constructed using these traffic counts, these matrices cannot be directly applied because it is technically difficult to determine appropriate passenger car equivalent (PCE) values for the vehicle types used in TCS. Therefore, this study was initiated to systematically determine the appropriate PCE values of TCS vehicle types for the travel demand model. METHODS : To search for the appropriate PCE values of TCS vehicle types, a traffic demand model based on TCS-based OD matrices and the expressway network was developed. Using the traffic demand model and a genetic algorithm, the appropriate PCE values were optimized through an approach that minimizes errors between actual link counts and estimated link volumes. RESULTS : As a result of the optimization, the optimal PCE values of TCS vehicle types 1 and 5 were determined to be 1 and 3.7, respectively. Those of TCS vehicle types 2 through 4 are found in the manual for the preliminary feasibility study. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the given vehicle delay functions and network properties (i.e., speeds and capacities), the travel demand model with the optimized PCE values produced a MAPE value of 37.7%, RMSE value of 17124.14, and correlation coefficient of 0.9506. Conclusively, the optimized PCE values were revealed to produce estimates of expressway link volumes sufficiently close to actual link counts.
Development of Traffic Accident Models at Rural Signalized Intersections by Day and Night
Lee, Geunhee ; Jung, Sang Woon ; Park, Minho ; Lee, Dongmin ; Roh, Jeonghyun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 107~115
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.107
PURPOSES : The purposes of this study are to compare the day and night characteristics and to develop the models of traffic accidents. in Rural Signalized Intersections METHODS : To develop day and night traffic accident models using the Negative Binomial Model, which was constructed for 156 signalized intersections of rural areas, through field investigations and casualty data from the National Police Agency. RESULTS : Among a total of 17 variances, the daytime traffic accident estimate models identified a total of 9 influence factors of traffic accidents. In the case of nighttime traffic accident models, 11 influence factors of traffic accidents were identified. CONCLUSIONS : By comparing the two models, it was determined that the number of main roads was an independent factor for daytime accidents. For nighttime accidents, several factors were independently involved, including the number of entrances to sub-roads, whether left turn lanes existed in major roads, the distances of pedestrian crossings to main roads and sub-roads, lighting facilities, and others. It was apparent that if the same situation arises, the probability of an accident occurring at night is higher than during the day because the speed of travel through intersections in rural areas is somewhat higher at night than during the day.
An Analysis of Traffic Accident Injury Severity for Elderly Driver on Goyang-Si using Structural Equation Model
Kim, Soullam ; Yun, Duk Geun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.117
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to verify traffic accident injury severity factors for elderly drivers and the relative relationship of these factors. METHODS : To verify the complicated relationship among traffic accident injury severity factors, this study employed a structural equation model (SEM). To develop the SEM structure, only the severity of human injuries was considered; moreover, the observed variables were selected through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The number of fatalities, serious injuries, moderate injuries, and minor injuries were selected for observed variables of severity. For latent variables, the accident situation, environment, and vehicle and driver factors were respectively defined. Seven observed variables were selected among the latent variables. RESULTS : This study showed that the vehicle and driver factor was the most influential factor for accident severity among the latent factors. For the observed variable, the type of vehicle, type of accident, and status of day or night for each latent variable were the most relative observed variables for the accident severity factor. To verify the validity of the SEM, several model fitting methods, including
, GFI, AGFI, CFI, and others, were applied, and the model produced meaningful results. CONCLUSIONS : Based on an analysis of results of traffic accident injury severity for elderly drivers, the vehicle and driver factor was the most influential one for injury severity. Therefore, education tailored to elderly drivers is needed to improve driving behavior of elderly driver.
Emission Considering Condition of Vehicle Acceleration
Joo, Jin Yun ; Oh, Heung Un ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 125~132
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.125
PURPOSES : The present study aims to evaluate the added
emissions incurred from accelerating operation when to increase the speed up to the allowed level. METHODS : The methodology used are basically the relationship between emission rates and vehicle speeds or acceleration rate. These rates together are used to calculate the added
emissions incurred from accelerating operation. RESULTS : It was resulted that the all the emission rates are increasing proportionally to vehicle speeds or acceleration rates. Additionally, it was also resulted that allowable speeds increasing, the added emission rates are increasing rapidly. CONCLUSIONS : It may be concluded that if the allowable speed ranges are managed,
emissions during vehicle operation are much reduced. From this reason, it was found that the allowable speed during highway design and operation would be much necessary
An Analysis of Safety Improvement Effects on Roundabouts
Lee, Dong Min ; Jeon, Jin Woo ; Park, Yong Jin ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.3.133
PURPOSES : This study dealt with traffic accidents occurring within roundabouts. The objective of this study was to analyze safety effect by introduction of roundabouts. METHODS : In pursuing the above, traffic accident data on roundabouts are collected and compared. For the analysis, collected data were separated as all intersection points, turning lane accident, approach lane accident by geometric design. RESULTS : Through the study results, it was found that the total accidents decreased by 55 accidents/2 year with safety effect of roundabouts. Also the result shows that accidents by point of two-lane roundabout at turning lane(0.26) and approach lane(0.27) is risky than total accidents by point(0.09). Moreover, accidents by point shows high value as diameter of a roundabout is bigger. CONCLUSIONS : When a roundabout is introduced at the intersections there are safety effects by reduction of traffic accidents.