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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Revision of Representative Truck's Weight to Power Ratio in S. Korea
Kim, Young Rok ; Jeong, Jun Hwa ; Lee, Suk Ki ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.001
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to revise the weight to power ratio of the representative truck in S. Korea. So far, S. Korea has been using the unit lb/hp, and the construction machines were not considered in the evaluation of the performance of trucks. METHODS : This study was performed to recommend the use of ISO system of units, and to analyze the weight to power ratios of the representative trucks in S. Korea, including the dump trucks, concrete mixer trucks, and asphalt and concrete diffusers. RESULTS: From this study, the 85 percentile value of the weight to power ratio of the trucks in S. Korea's was found to be 103.6 kg/kw. CONCLUSIONS : The performance standard for the representative truck has to be increased upward, considering the travel pattern of the dump trucks, concrete mixers, and asphalt and concrete diffuser trucks, travel distances, narrow area (work zone) of operation, and the saving in construction budget for climbing lane. Based on this study, the weight to power ratio of the representative truck in S. Korea could possibly be revised to 100~110 kg/kW.
Performance Evaluation of the Runoff Reduction with Permeable Pavements using the SWMM Model
Lin, Wuguang ; Ryu, SungWoo ; Park, Dae Geun ; Lee, Jaehoon ; Cho, Yoon-Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.011
PURPOSES: This study aims to evaluate the runoff reduction with permeable pavements using the SWMM analysis. METHODS: In this study, simulations were carried out using two different models, simple and complex, to evaluate the runoff reduction when an impermeable pavement is replaced with a permeable pavement. In the simple model, the target area for the analysis was grouped into four areas by the land use characteristics, using the statistical database. In the complex model, simulation was performed based on the data on the sewer and road network configuration of Yongsan-Gu Bogwang-Dong in Seoul, using the ArcGIS software. A scenario was created to investigate the hydro-performance of the permeable pavement based on the return period, runoff coefficient, and the area of permeable pavement that could be laid within one hour after rainfall. RESULTS : The simple modeling analysis results showed that, when an impervious pavement is replaced with a permeable pavement, the peak discharge reduced from
. This represents a reduction of approximately 37.6%. The peak discharge from the whole basin showed a reduction of approximately 11.0%, and the quantity decreased from
. The total flowoff reduced from
, i.e., by approximately 10.9%. In the complex model, performed using the ArcGIS interpretation with fewer permeable pavements applicable, the return period and the runoff coefficient increased, and the total flowoff and peak discharge also increased. When the return period was set to 20 years, and a runoff coefficient of 0.05 was applied to all the roads, the total outflow reduced by
, and the ratio reduced to 11.7%. When the return period was increased from 20 years to 30 and 100 years, the total outflow reduction decreased from 11.7% to 8.0% and 5.1%, respectively. When a runoff coefficient of 0.5 was applied to all the roads under the return period of 20 years, the total outflow reduction was 10.8%; when the return period was increased to 30 and 100 years, the total outflow reduction decreased to 6.5% and 2.9%, respectively. However, unlike in the simple model, for all the cases in the complex model, the peak discharge reductions were less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS : Being one of the techniques for water circulation and runoff reduction, a high reduction for the small return period rainfall event of penetration was obtained by applying permeable pavements instead of impermeable pavement. With the SWMM analysis results, it was proved that changing to permeable pavement is one of the ways to effectively provide water circulation to various green infrastructure projects, and for stormwater management in urban watersheds.
The Effect of the Residual Mortar of Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Alkali Silica Reaction
Kim, Jeonghyun ; Kim, Namho ; Yang, Sungchul ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 19~24
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.019
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the residual mortar of recycled concrete aggregate on the expansion behavior during alkali silica reaction (ASR). METHODS: In order to evaluate the net effect of residual mortar on ASR expansion behavior, two aggregate samples with the same original virgin aggregate source but different residual mortar volumes were used. ASTM C1260 test was used to evaluate the ASR expansion behavior of these two aggregates and the original virgin aggregate. RESULTS: The greater the amount of residual mortar in recycled concrete aggregates, the less is the induced ASR expansion. Depending on the amount of residual mortar in recycled concrete aggregate, the ASR expansion of recycled concrete aggregate may be less than half of that of the original virgin aggregate. CONCLUSIONS: The residual mortar of recycled concrete aggregate may lead to the under estimation of the ASR expansion behavior of the original virgin aggregate.
Implementation and Verification of Linear Cohesive Viscoelastic Contact Model for Discrete Element Method
Yun, Tae Young ; Yoo, Pyeong Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 25~31
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.025
PURPOSES: Implementation and verification of the simple linear cohesive viscoelastic contact model that can be used to simulate dynamic behavior of sticky aggregates. METHODS: The differential equations were derived and the initial conditions were determined to simulate a free falling ball with a sticky surface from a ground. To describe this behavior, a combination of linear contact model and a cohesive contact model was used. The general solution for the differential equation was used to verify the implemented linear cohesive viscoelastic API model in the DEM. Sensitivity analysis was also performed using the derived analytical solutions for several combinations of damping coefficients and cohesive coefficients. RESULTS : The numerical solution obtained using the DEM showed good agreement with the analytical solution for two extreme conditions. It was observed that the linear cohesive model can be successfully implemented with a linear spring in the DEM API for dynamic analysis of the aggregates. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the derived closed form solutions are applicable for the analysis of the rebounding behavior of sticky particles, and for verification of the implemented API model in the DEM. The assumption of underdamped condition for the viscous behavior of the particles seems to be reasonable. Several factors have to be additionally identified in order to develop an enhanced contact model for an asphalt mixture.
Heat Transfer Analysis for Asphalt Mixture Temperature Variation due to Wind Speed
Yun, Tae Young ; Yoo, Pyeong Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.033
PURPOSES: Evaluation of the wind speed effect on the temperature drop of an asphalt mixture during construction, by using the transient heat transfer theory and dominant convective heat transfer coefficient model. METHODS: Finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the transient heat transfer difference equation numerically for various wind speeds and initial temperature conditions. The Blasius convective heat transfer coefficient model is adapted to account for the effect of wind speed in the temperature predictions of the asphalt mixture, and the Beaufort number is used to select a reasonable wind speed for the analysis. As a function of time and depth, the temperature of the pavement structure is predicted and analyzed for the given initial conditions. RESULTS : The effect of wind speed on the temperature drop of asphalt mixture is found to be significant. It seems that wind speed is another parameter to be accounted for in the construction specifications for obtaining a better quality of the asphalt mixture. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that wind speed has a significant effect on the temperature drop of the asphalt layer. Although additional field observations have to be made to reflect the effect of wind speed on the construction specifications, it appears that wind speed is a dominant variable to be considered, in addition to the atmospheric temperature.
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Carbon-Capturing Concrete Composed of Blast Furnace Slag with Changes in Cement Content and Exposure
Cho, Hyun Myung ; Kim, Seung Won ; Song, Ji Hyeon ; Park, Hee Mun ; Park, Cheol Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 41~51
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.041
PURPOSES: This study investigates the mechanical performance of carbon-capturing concrete that mainly contains blast furnace slag. METHODS: The mixture variables were considered; these included Portland cement content, which was varied from 10% to 40% of the blast furnace slag by weight. The specimens were exposed to different conditions such as high
concentrations, laboratory conditions and high
conditions. Mechanical performances, including compressive and flexural strengths and carbon-capturing depth, were evaluated. RESULTS : The slump, air content and unit weight were not affected significantly by the variation in cement content. The strength development when the specimens were exposed to high purity air was slightly greater than that when exposed to high
. As the cement content increased the compressive and flexural strength increased but not considerably. The carbon-capturing capacity decreased as the cement content increased. The specimens exposed in the field for 70 days had flexural strength greater than 3 MPa. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate that cement content is not an important parameter in the development of compressive and flexural strengths. However, the carbon-capturing depth was higher for less cement content. Even after field exposure for 70 days, neither any significant damage on the surface nor any decrease in strength was observed.
Application Evaluation of Asphalt mixtures using SDAR (Solvent DeAsphaltene Residue)
Yang, Sung Lin ; Im, Jeong Hyuk ; Hwang, Sung Do ; Baek, Cheolmin ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 53~61
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.053
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to evaluate the SDAR (solvent deasphaltene residue), which is obtained from the solvent deasphalting (SDA) process, as a pavement material. METHODS : The physical properties of the SDAR were evaluated based on its chemical composition, and asphalt mixtures with the SDAR were fabricated and used for the evaluation of mechanical properties. Firstly, the chemical composition of SARA (saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene) was analyzed using the TLC-FID (thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detector). Moreover, the basic material properties of the asphalt binder with the SDAR were evaluated by the penetration test, softening point test, ductility test, and PG (performance grade) grade test. The rheological properties of the asphalt binder with the SDAR were evaluated by the dynamic shear modulus (
) obtained using the time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle. Secondly, the mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures with the SDAR were evaluated. The compactibility was evaluated using the gyratory compacter. Moreover, the tensile strength ratio (TSR) was used for evaluating the moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures (i.e., susceptibility to pothole damage). The dynamic modulus
, which is a fundamental property of the asphalt mixture, obtained at different temperatures and loading cycles, was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : The SDAR shows stiffer and more brittle behavior than the conventional asphalt binder. As the application of the SDAR directly in the field may cause early failures, such as cracks on pavements, it should be applied with modifiers that can favorably modify the brittleness property of the SDAR. Therefore, if appropriate additives are applied on the SDAR, it can be used as a pavement material because of its low cost and strong resistance to rutting.
Development of an Optical Height Formula for Noise Barrier Considering the Road Environment
Lim, You-Jin ; Moon, Hak-Ryong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 63~68
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.063
PURPOSES : A study on the efforts to minimize the road traffic noise has been underway. An attempt has been made to measure the noise level using a noise map; however, the attempt is limited to certain areas only. In general, a noise barrier is employed to prevent road traffic noise; however, unplanned noise barriers developed without considering the surrounding environment, including excessively high walls, cause problems such as infringement on prospect right. Noise ceiling at daytime in Korea is 68 dB(A), which is relatively higher than in other countries. METHODS: The noise barrier used mainly for road noise reduction was analyzed to estimate the optimal height. Related variables such as road width, the height of the upper part, distance to the building, and angle (for instance,
). RESULTS : A formula to calculate the optical height of the noise barrier, considering the road environment (i.e., parameters such as road width and distance to building), was developed in this study in an attempt to mitigate the noise generated from the road. CONCLUSIONS : The formula to calculate the noise barrier is expected to lead to cost saving, accurate installation of barriers, and protection of the right of prospect.
Application of Hydrated Lime-Modified Asphalt Mixture Properties to Korean Pavement Research Program
Kim, Dowan ; Lee, Sangyum ; Mun, Sungho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.069
PURPOSES : The hydrated lime-modified asphalt, which improves moisture resistance, is normally used for pavements to reduce the number of potholes. However, the method of applying the material properties of the lime-modified asphalt mixture for use in pavements is not covered in the Korean Pavement Research Program (KPRP). The objective of this research is to find a method for the design application of lime-modified asphalt's material properties to the KPRP. METHODS: The section for test design is selected in some conditions which are related to the level of design regarding Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT). To define the application methods of hydrated lime in the KPRP, the models of fatigue, rut and international roughness index (IRI) are determined based on the M-EPDG test results from some earlier research results. Moreover, it is well known that dynamic moduli of the unmodified mixture are not different from those of the lime-modified mixture. RESULTS: The performance results of hydrated lime-modified asphalt pavement were not very much different from those of the unmodified pavement, which meant the limited design regulations regarding fatigue failure, rutting deformation and IRI. CONCLUSIONS: The KPRP uses the weather model from the data for previous 10 years. It implies that the KPRP cannot predict abnormal climate changes accurately. Hence, the predictive weather data regarding the abnormal climate changes are unreliable. Secondly, the KPRP cannot apply the moisture resistance of asphalt mixtures. Therefore, a second level of design study will have to be performed to reflect the influence of moisture. It means that the influence on pavement performance can be changed by the application of hydrated lime in asphalt mixture design.
Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility of Porous Hot Mixed Asphalt Mixtures with Hydrated Lime using Non-destructive Impact Test
Kim, Dowan ; Mun, Sungho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 77~87
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.077
PURPOSES: It is theoretically well known all over the world, that porous hot mixed asphalt (HMA) with hydrated Lime improves moisture and rutting resistance, and reduces pothole occurrence frequency, as well as the life cycle cost (LCC). METHODS : Addictive in the two different formations of the liquid anti-stripping Agent and powder Hydrated-Lime was applied in this investigation in order to obtain relatively clear results according to their types and conditions. Firstly, the moisture conditions were set, and applied to the porous HMA mixtures with hydrated lime (anti-stripping agent). Next, it was followed by a non-destructive test with the application of three freeze-thaw cycles, which were individually carried out thrice to compare the results of the dynamic moduli. Lastly, the hydrated lime effect related to moisture sensibility to porous HMA has been verified through the analysis of the modulus results regarding the change rate of dynamic modulus per n-cycle. RESULTS: It is clear from this investigation, that the dynamic modulus is inversely proportional to the change in temperature, as the graph representing the rigidity of the thermorheologically simple (TRS) material showed gradual decline of the dynamic modulus with the increase in temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The porous HMA mixture with the anti-stripping agent (hydrated Lime) has been found to be more moisture resistant to freezing and thawing than the normal porous HMA mixture. It is clear that the hydrated lime helps the HMA mixture to improve its fatigue resistance.
Study of Feasibility Analysis for the Protected-Permissive Left-Turn Signal Control in Three-Leg Signalized Intersections Using a Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model
Yun, Ilsoo ; Park, Sangmin ; Heo, Nak Won ; Yoon, Jung Eun ; Kim, Young Sun ; Lee, Sang Soo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 89~98
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.089
PURPOSES : This study evaluated the feasibility of implementing protected-permissive left-turn (PPLT) signals at three-leg signalized intersections. METHODS: A three-leg signalized intersection with permissive left-turn was first selected. A VISSIM simulation model was constructed using data collected from the test site. The VISSIM network was calibrated by adjusting related parameter values in order to minimize the difference between the simulated and surveyed critical gap. The calibrated network was validated by the number of waiting left-turning vehicles per cycle. Finally, the mobility and safety measures were extracted from simulation runs in which permissive, protected left turns as well as PPLTs were realized based on diverse traffic volume scenarios. RESULTS : The mobility-related measures of effectiveness (MOEs) of the case with PPLT outperformed the other two left-turn treatment scenarios. In particular, the average waiting time per cycle for the left-turn vehicles in the case with PPLT was reduced by 30 s. The safety-related MOEs of the case with PPLT were somewhat higher than those in the case with protected left-turns and much higher than those in the case with permissive left-turns. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the mobility- and safety-related MOEs generated from the VISSIM simulation runs, the use of PPLT seems to be feasible at three-leg signalized intersections where the left-turn is permissive and a pedestrian signal exists at the conflicting approach. However, in order to use the PPLT in earnest, it is necessary to revise the road traffic act, traffic signs, and related manuals.
Prioritization of Anti-Icing Spray System for Active Snow-Removal Works
Yang, Choong Heon ; Kim, In Su ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.099
PURPOSES: This study aims to establish the priority of introducing anti-icing spray system for regions of the National Highways in South Korea. Using this study, a logical plan for instituting such an anti-icing spray system can be established for the National Highways. METHODS : The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed to prioritize the implementation of an anti-icing spray system on Korean highways. For this purpose, an existing scoring table developed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure Transport Affair was slightly modified in order to reflect recent trends in winter maintenance. A survey was conducted to gather the preferences regarding the developed hierarchy of road experts and agencies. Finally, the final score was produced by integrating the scoring results with estimated weights for each evaluation criterion. RESULTS: In general, Honam and the metropolitan areas have relatively high priority while other areas such as Chungcheong, Young Nam, and Gang Won appear to be uniform in importance in terms of establishing an anti-icing spray system. This result may indicate that historical weather data and traffic volumes are significant factors in deciding in winter maintenance polices CONCLUSIONS : In this study, useful insights are suggested regarding winter maintenance by simultaneously performing rapid snow removal and proactive treatment. Issues of resource allocation may be potential research items in the field transportation engineering.
Development of Adjustment Factors under Day and Night Conditions for Freeway Capacity to Improve Traffic Safety
Kim, Young Sun ; Lee, Sang Soo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 107~115
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.107
PURPOSES: This study analyzes the characteristics of traffic flow on freeway sections under daytime and nighttime conditions to improve traffic safety, and suggests a method to estimate an accurate freeway capacity value that reflects these characteristics. METHODS : The trends and differences in capacity were investigated using comprehensive field data collected under both daytime and nighttime conditions on freeway sections with designated speeds of 80, 100, and 120 kph. RESULTS : The capacity values under nighttime driving conditions were reduced by 3.3%, 6.9%, and 8.8% at 80, 100, and 120 kph, respectively. Several nighttime adjustment factors were deduced for each designated speed category from the analysis results. CONCLUSIONS : It is expected that more accurate capacity values can be estimated for freeway sections under nighttime conditions by applying the resulting adjustment factors. In addition, traffic safety will be improved through the increased efficiency of traffic management on these freeway sections.
Development of Traffic Management Strategies for Incident Conditions on Urban Highways Considering Traffic Safety
Kim, Young Sun ; Lee, Sang Soo ; Yun, Ilsoo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 117~126
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.117
PURPOSES : This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect influence areas from incidents on urban interrupted roadways and to develop traffic management strategies for each influence area. METHODS : Based on a literature review, various traffic management strategies for certain incidents were collected. In addition, the relationship between the measure of effectiveness and the characteristics of incidents was explored using an extensive simulation study. RESULTS : From the simulation studies, traffic delays increased as the number of lane closures increased, and the impact of lane closures was reduced to the direction upstream from the incident site. However, the magnitude of the delay change depended on the degree of saturation. Using these characteristics, the direct and indirect influence areas resulting from incidents were defined, and traffic management strategies were established for each direct and indirect influence area and for each level of incident. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will contribute to the improvement of national traffic safety by preventing secondary incidents and by effective adaptation to incident events.
Methodology for Prioritizing Sidewalk Construction among 100 Candidate Sites on Rural National Highways
Jeon, Woo Hoon ; Yang, Choong Heon ; Yoon, Jung Eun ; Yang, Inchul ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 127~133
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.127
PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to prioritize sidewalk construction on rural national highways. METHODS : In order to determine an appropriate prioritization for sidewalk construction, we developed a specific methodology. The proposed methodology includes three main steps: 1) Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods, 2) Subjective evaluation of relevant road agencies for the candidate sidewalks along rural national highways, and 3) Field study conduction. Each step has four phases. The primary feature of this methodology is the addition of expert consultation and survey data, as well as a field study. In addition, the method could guarantee flexibility in selection for evaluation criteria. As a result, the proposed methodology could be used as a general procedure for application to other roadway classifications when considering sidewalk construction. RESULTS: In order to demonstrate the reasonableness of the proposed methodology, a case study was performed for exactly 100 candidate sites for sidewalk construction on rural national highways. All required evaluation scores were properly produced for each candidate site. By doing so, decision-makers can determine the priority for sidewalk construction at these sites by reviewing quantitatively and qualitatively considered data. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the case study can be applied to a long-term fundamental plan for sidewalk construction on rural national highways. Furthermore, this methodology could be employed to prioritize a small-scale SOC project(e. g. bicycle or pedestrian roads).
Determination of a Homogeneous Segment for Short-term Traffic Count Efficiency Using a Statistical Approach
Jung, YooSeok ; Oh, JuSam ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2015, Pages 135~141
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.4.135
PURPOSES: This study has been conducted to determine a homogeneous segment and integration to improve the efficiency of short-term traffic count. We have also attempted to reduce the traffic monitoring budget. METHODS: Based on the statistical approach, a homogeneous segment in the same road section is determined. Statistical analysis using t-test, mean difference, and correlation coefficient are carried out for 10-year-long (2004-2013) short-term count traffic data and the MAPE of fresh data (2014) are evaluated. The correlation coefficient represents a trend in traffic count, while the mean difference and t-score represent an average traffic count. RESULTS : The statistical analysis suggests that the number of target segments varies with the criteria. The correlation coefficient of more than 30% of the adjacent segment is higher than 0.8. A mean difference of 36.2% and t-score of 19.5% for adjacent segments are below 20% and 2.8, respectively. According to the effectiveness analysis, the integration criteria of the mean difference have a higher effect as compared to the t-score criteria. Thus, the mean difference represents a traffic volume similarity. CONCLUSIONS : The integration of 47 road segments from 882 adjacent road segments indicate 8.87% of MAPE, which is within an acceptable range. It can reduce the traffic monitoring budget and increase the count to improve an accuracy of traffic volume estimation.