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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Construction Management Method for Asphalt Paving Using Ground Penetrating Radar and an Infrared Camera
Baek, Jongeun ; Park, Hee Mun ; Yoo, Pyung Jun ; Im, Jae Kyu ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.001
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to propose a quality control and quality assurance method for use during asphalt pavement construction using non-destructive methods, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and an infrared (IR) camera. METHODS : A 1.0 GHz air-coupled GPR system was used to measure the thickness and in situ density of asphalt concrete overlay during the placement and compaction of the asphalt layer in two test construction sections. The in situ density of the asphalt layer was estimated based on the dielectric constant of the asphalt concrete, which was measured as the ratio of the amplitude of the surface reflection of the asphalt mat to that of a metal plate. In addition, an IR camera was used to monitor the surface temperature of the asphalt mat to ensure its uniformity, for both conventional asphalt concrete and fiber-reinforced asphalt (FRA) concrete. RESULTS : From the GPR test, the measured in situ air void of the asphalt concrete overlay gradually decreased from 12.6% at placement to 8.1% after five roller passes for conventional asphalt concrete, and from 10.7% to 5.9% for the FRA concrete. The thickness of the asphalt concrete overlay was reduced from 7.0 cm to 6.0 cm for the conventional material, and from 9.2 cm to 6.4 cm for the FRA concrete. From the IR camera measurements, the temperature differences in the asphalt mat ranged from
in the two test sections. CONCLUSIONS : During asphalt concrete construction, GPR and IR tests can be applicable for monitoring the changes in in situ density, thickness, and temperature differences of the overlay, which are the most important factors for quality control. For easier and more reliable quality control of asphalt overlay construction, it is better to use the thickness measurement from the GPR.
Evaluation of a Traffic Noise Predictive Model for an Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) System
An, Deok Soon ; Mun, Sung Ho ; An, Oh Seong ; Kim, Do Wan ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.011
PURPOSES : The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the effectiveness of an active noise cancellation (ANC) system in reducing the traffic noise level against frequencies from the predictive model developed by previous research. The predictive model is based on ISO 9613-2 standards using the Noble close proximity (NCPX) method and the pass-by method. This means that the use of these standards is a powerful tool for analyzing the traffic noise level because of the strengths of these methods. Traffic noise analysis was performed based on digital signal processing (DSP) for detecting traffic noise with the pass-by method at the test site. METHODS : There are several analysis methods, which are generally divided into three different types, available to evaluate traffic noise predictive models. The first method uses the classification standard of 12 vehicle types. The second method is based on a standard of four vehicle types. The third method is founded on 5 types of vehicles, which are different from the types used by the second method. This means that the second method not only consolidates 12 vehicle types into only four types, but also that the results of the noise analysis of the total traffic volume are reflected in a comparison analysis of the three types of methods. The constant percent bandwidth (CPB) analysis was used to identify the properties of different frequencies in the frequency analysis. A-weighting was applied to the DSP and to the transformation process from analog to digital signal. The root mean squared error (RMSE) was applied to compare and evaluate the predictive model results of the three analysis methods. RESULTS : The result derived from the third method, based on the classification standard of 5 vehicle types, shows the smallest values of RMSE and max and min error. However, it does not have the reduction properties of a predictive model. To evaluate the predictive model of an ANC system, a reduction analysis of the total sound pressure level (TSPL), dB(A), was conducted. As a result, the analysis based on the third method has the smallest value of RMSE and max error. The effect of traffic noise reduction was the greatest value of the types of analysis in this research. CONCLUSIONS : From the results of the error analysis, the application method for categorizing vehicle types related to the 12-vehicle classification based on previous research is appropriate to the ANC system. However, the performance of a predictive model on an ANC system is up to a value of traffic noise reduction. By the same token, the most appropriate method that influences the maximum reduction effect is found in the third method of traffic analysis. This method has a value of traffic noise reduction of 31.28 dB(A). In conclusion, research for detecting the friction noise between a tire and the road surface for the 12 vehicle types needs to be conducted to authentically demonstrate an ANC system in the Republic of Korea.
Performance Evaluation of Carbon-Reducing Soil Pavement using Inorganic Binder
Yoo, Ji Hyeung ; Kawk, Gi Bong ; Kim, Dae Sung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 19~26
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.019
PURPOSES : This study intends to develop an inorganic soil pavement material using industrial by-products and to evaluate its applicability as a road pavement material. METHODS : In this study, a compressive strength experiment was conducted based on the NaOH solution molarity and water glass content to understand the strength properties of the soil pavement material according to the mixing ratio of alkali activator. In addition, the strength characteristic of the inorganic soil pavement material was analyzed based on the binder content. The performance of the soil pavement was evaluated by conducing an accelerated pavement test and a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) test. RESULTS : As a result of the soil pavement material test based on the mixture ratio of alkali activator, it was identified that the activator that mixed a 10 M NaOH solution to water glass in a 5:5 ratio is appropriate. As a result of the inorganic soil pavement materials test based on the binder content, the strength development increased sharply when the amount of added binder was over 300 kg; this level of binder content satisfied 28 days of 18 MPa of compression strength, which is the standard for existing soil pavement design. According to the measured results of the FWD test, the dynamic k-value did not show a significant difference before or after the accelerated pavement testing. Furthermore, the effective modulus decreased by approximately 50%, compared with the initial effective modulus for pedestrian pavement. CONCLUSIONS : Based on these results, inorganic soil pavement can be applied by changing the mixture proportions according to the use of the pavement, and can be utilized as road pavement from light load roads to access roads.
The Pre-Evaluation of Stability during Tunnel Excavation using Unconfined Compression Strength of Intact Rock or Rock Mass and Crown Settlement Data
Park, Young Hwa ; Moon, Hong Duk ; Ha, Man Bok ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 27~32
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.027
PURPOSES : It is difficult to estimate tunnel stability because of lack of timely information during tunnel excavation. Tunnel deformability refers to the capacity of rock to strain under applied loads or unloads during tunnel excavation. This study was conducted to analyze a methods of pre-evaluation of stability during tunnel construction using the critical strain concept, which is applied to the results of tunnel settlement data and unconfined compression strength of intact rock or rock mass at the tunnel construction site. METHODS : Based on the critical strain concept, the pre-evaluation of stability of a tunnel was performed in the Daegu region, at a tunnel through andesite and granite rock. The critical strain concept is a method of predicting tunnel behavior from tunnel crown settlement data using the critical strain chart that is obtained from the relationship between strain and the unconfined compression strength of intact rock in a laboratory. RESULTS : In a pre-evaluation of stability of a tunnel, only actually measured crown settlement data is plotted on the lower position of the critical strain chart, to be compared with the total displacement of crown settlement, including precedent settlement and displacement data from before the settlement measurement. However, both cases show almost the same tunnel behavior. In an evaluation using rock mass instead of intact rock, the data for the rock mass strength is plotted on the lower portion of the critical strain chart, as a way to compare to the data for intact rock strength. CONCLUSIONS : From the results of the pre-evaluation of stability of the tunnel using the critical strain chart, we reaffirmed that it is possible to promptly evaluate the stability of a tunnel under construction. Moreover, this research shows that a safety evaluation using the actual instrumented crown settlement data with the unconfined compression strength of intact rock, rather than with the unconfined compression strength of a rock mass in the tunnel working face, is more conservative.
Geometric Design of Bus Bay Based on Vehicle Trajectory Analysis
Kim, Yong Seok ; Lee, Suk Ki ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 33~36
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.033
PURPOSES : It is desirable for buses to be parallel to the face of the bus shelter at a bus stop. In this way, passengers can safely use the buses without moving into the vehicle area. The study was a review of the current bus bay geometric guidelines, to determine whether they lead buses to stop parallel to the face of the bus shelter by analyzing vehicle trajectory. METHODS : A commercial software program for vehicle trajectory analysis was used under our assumptions about bus dimensions and geometric values. The final position of the bus was analyzed for multiple trajectory simulations, reflecting various geometric alternatives. RESULTS : Within the scope of the study, we concluded that the current design guidelines need to be revised by the design values suggested by the study. CONCLUSIONS : The results of the study suggested alternative design values for bus bay geometry, based on the assumption that buses should be parallel to the face of the bus shelter in order to prevent passengers from moving into the vehicle area.
Design Validation through Analysis of Concrete Modular Road Behavior under Static Axial Loads
Nam, Jeong-Hee ; Kim, Woo Seok ; Kim, Ki Hyun ; Kim, Yeon Bok ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 37~45
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.037
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to validate the design criteria of the concrete modular road system, which is a new semi-bridge-type concept road, through a comparison of numerical analysis results and actual loading test results under static axial loads. METHODS : To design the semi-bridge-type modular road, both the bridge design code and the concrete structural design code were adopted. The standard truck load (KL-510) was applied as the major traffic vehicle for the design loading condition. The dimension of the modular slab was designed in consideration of self-weight, axial load, environmental load, and combined loads, with ultimate limit state coefficients. The ANSYS APDL (2010) program was used for case studies of center and edge loading, and the analysis results were compared with the actual mock-up test results. RESULTS : A full-scale mock-up test was successfully conducted. The maximum longitudinal steel strains were measured as about 35 and 83.5 micro-strain (within elastic range) at center and edge loading locations, respectively, under a 100 kN dual-wheel loading condition by accelerating pavement tester. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the results of the comparison between the numerical analysis and the full-scale test, the maximum converted stress range at the edge location is 32~51% of the required standard flexural strength under the two times over-weight loading condition. In the case of edge loading, the maximum converted stresses from the Westergaard equation, the ANSYS APDL analysis, and the mock-up test are 1.95, 1.7, and 2.3 times of that of the center loading case, respectively. The primary reason for this difference is related to the assumption of the boundary conditions of the vertical connection between the slab module and the crossbeam module. Even though more research is required to fully define the boundary conditions, the proposed design criteria for the concrete modular road finally seems to be reasonable.
Study on Early Adhesive Characteristic of Chip Seals Using a Surface Energy Approach
Im, Jeong Hyuk ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.047
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to evaluate the early adhesive characteristic of asphalt emulsions, including polymer-modified emulsions, for chip seals using the surface energy concept, the bitumen bond strength (BBS) test, and the Vialit test. METHODS : Two general methods, the BBS test and Vialit test, were applied to investigate the bond strength and the aggregate loss, respectively. A new theory, the surface free energy (SFE) theory, was used to evaluate the adhesive characteristic between the emulsion and the aggregate. Based on the theory, the contact angles were measured, and then the surface energy components were calculated. Using those components, the work of adhesion (Wa) was calculated for each emulsion. To ensure reliable results, all the tests were performed under the same conditions, i.e., at
for 240 minutes of curing time. For the materials, three emulsions (CRS-2, CRS-2L, and CRS-2P) and one aggregate type (granite) were employed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Under the same conditions, the modified emulsions showed better adhesive characteristics and curing behaviors than the unmodified emulsions. In addition, there was no significant difference between the various modified emulsions. One of the important findings is that the analysis by Wa presents more sensitive results than other methods. The results of the Wa showed that the CRS-2P emulsion has the best adhesive characteristics. Consequently, the use of modified emulsions for chip seals could prevent aggregate loss and allow open traffic earlier.
Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Recycled Asphalt Binders with Differing Rejuvenators
Kim, Yeong Min ; Im, Jeong Hyuk ; Hwang, Sung Do ; Jeong, Kyu Dong ; Rhee, Suk Keun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 55~63
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.055
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to investigate the properties of recycled asphalt binders with five different rejuvenators, in order to evaluate the applicability of the recycled asphalt binders compared with the original asphalt binder. METHODS : In order to simulate recycled asphalt binders, fresh asphalt binders are aged by various Superpave aging procedures, such as the rolling thin-film oven (RTFO) and the pressure aging vessel (PAV). Then, selected rejuvenators are added to the aged asphalt binders in the amount of 5%, 10%, and 15%. The asphalt binder properties are evaluated by the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), the rotational viscometer (RV), and the bending beam rheometer (BBR). In this study, AP-5 (penetration grade 60-80, PG 64-16) asphalt binder is used. A total of five types of rejuvenators are employed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : When considering aged asphalt without a new asphalt binder, it seems that the percentage of rejuvenator used in Korea is a bit too low, and that it fails to possess the characteristics of the original binder. From the current practice of evaluating the properties of recycled binder based on penetration ratio only, the amount of rejuvenator required is similar for the long-term-aged binder, but is excessive for the longest-term aged binder, causing deterioration of workability and stiffness of the recycled binder.
A Development of Traffic Accident Models at 4-legged Signalized Intersections using Random Parameter : A Case of Busan Metropolitan City
Park, Minho ; Lee, Dongmin ; Yoon, Chunjoo ; Kim, Young Rok ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 65~73
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.065
PURPOSES : This study tries to develop the accident models of 4-legged signalized intersections in Busan Metropolitan city with random parameter in count model to understanding the factors mainly influencing on accident frequencies. METHODS : To develop the traffic accidents modeling, this study uses RP(random parameter) negative binomial model which enables to take account of heterogeneity in data. By using RP model, each intersection's specific geometry characteristics were considered. RESULTS : By comparing the both FP(fixed parameter) and RP modeling, it was confirmed the RP model has a little higher explanation power than the FP model. Out of 17 statistically significant variables, 4 variables including traffic volumes on minor roads, pedestrian crossing on major roads, and distance of pedestrian crossing on major/minor roads are derived as having random parameters. In addition, the marginal effect and elasticity of variables are analyzed to understand the variables'impact on the likelihood of accident occurrences. CONCLUSIONS : This study shows that the uses of RP is better fitted to the accident data since each observations'specific characteristics could be considered. Thus, the methods which could consider the heterogeneity of data is recommended to analyze the relationship between accidents and affecting factors(for example, traffic safety facilities or geometrics in signalized 4-legged intersections).
Traffic Accident Density Models Reflecting the Characteristics of the Traffic Analysis Zone in Cheongju
Kim, Kyeong Yong ; Beck, Tea Hun ; Lim, Jin Kang ; Park, Byung Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.075
PURPOSES : This study deals with the traffic accidents classified by the traffic analysis zone. The purpose is to develop the accident density models by using zonal traffic and socioeconomic data. METHODS : The traffic accident density models are developed through multiple linear regression analysis. In this study, three multiple linear models were developed. The dependent variable was traffic accident density, which is a measure of the relative distribution of traffic accidents. The independent variables were various traffic and socioeconomic variables. CONCLUSIONS : Three traffic accident density models were developed, and all models were statistically significant. Road length, trip production volume, intersections, van ratio, and number of vehicles per person in the transportation-based model were analyzed to be positive to the accident. Residential and commercial area ratio and transportation vulnerability ratio obtained using the socioeconomic-based model were found to affect the accident. The major arterial road ratio, trip production volume, intersection, van ratio, commercial ratio, and number of companies in the integrated model were also found to be related to the accident.
Analysis of Factors Affecting Traffic Accident Severity on Freeway Climbing Lanes
Youn, Seokmin ; Joo, Shinhye ; Lee, Seolyoung ; Oh, Cheol ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 85~95
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.085
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting traffic accident severity for determining countermeasures on freeway climbing lanes. METHODS : In this study, an ordered probit model, which is a widely used discrete choice model for categorizing crash severity, was employed. RESULTS : Results suggest that factors affecting traffic accident severity on climbing lanes include speed, drowsy driving, grade of uphill 3%, gender (male offender and male victim), and cloud weather. CONCLUSIONS : Several countermeasures are proposed for improving traffic safety on freeway climbing lanes based on the analysis of crash severity. More extensive analysis with a larger data set and various modeling techniques are required for generalizing the results.
Analysis of the Effectiveness of Providing National Highway Detour Information via Variable Message Signs on Expressway Operations - Case of Yeongdong Expressway -
Yang, Sun-Pil ; Choi, Yun-Taik ; Lee, Kang-Hoon ; Han, Eum ; Yun, Ilsoo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 97~104
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.097
PURPOSES : Expressways experience chronic and recurring congestion, especially during weekends and holidays, because of the increased demands for leisure-related travel. The alternatives to solve chronic and recurring congestion may be three-fold: (1) physical expansion of expressway capacities, (2) road pricing, and (3) temporal and spatial distribution of traffic demands. Among these, the third alternative may be the most cost-effective method for the Korea Expressway Corporation (KEC) that can be achieved by using the existing ITS infrastructure. METHODS : KEC initiated a pilot study in which the traffic on congested expressways was managed by providing traffic condition information (i.e., travel times) of neighboring national highways for taking detours via variable message signs (VMS). This study aimed to estimate the detour rate, and the two pilot studies on Seohaean and Yeongdong expressways yielded many benefits. RESULTS : It was revealed that the total length of congestion segments decreased by 7.8 km, and the average travel speed increased by 5.3 km/h. CONCLUSIONS : Based on these findings, it was concluded that the propagation of detour information via VMSs during congestion hours can help reduce congestion on expressways and increase the benefits of the entire network.
Verification of the Appropriateness of the Standard for Tunnel Luminance in the Threshold Zone Through a Full-scale Tunnel Driving Test
Park, Won Il ; Cho, Won Bum ; Jeong, Jun Hwa ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 105~115
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.105
PURPOSES : This study aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of safety with the standard for threshold zone luminance as specified in the Recommendation for Lighting of Traffic Tunnel, which has been widely adopted worldwide. METHODS : A driving test of the subject in a full-scale road tunnel was conducted. The adaptation luminance and threshold zone luminance, which should be known for the driver to perceive an object within stopping sight distance, were obtained. These values were compared with the adaptation luminance and threshold zone luminance obtained by the existing reduced model test and tunnel lighting standard that has served as a guideline for the current threshold zone luminance standard. RESULTS : According to this study, threshold zone luminance should be increased to at least 1.8 times the value proposed in the existing studies and to twice the domestic tunnel lighting standard (KS C 3703: 2014). CONCLUSIONS : The threshold zone luminance proposed in this study differs largely from that obtained from indoor tests and from the current tunnel lighting standard used worldwide; this difference may be attributed to the fact that the indoor tests did not incorporate driving workload, non-uniformity of luminance distribution in terms of sight, and factors that reduce the visibility of the driver, such as the light reflected into the driver's eyes. Hence, it is necessary to further review the factors that reduce the visibility of drivers approaching tunnels in order to determine the rational tunnel threshold zone luminance.
Prioritization of Potential Technology for Establishing a Safe Work Zone Environment
Kim, Jin Guk ; Yang, Choong Heon ; Yun, Duk Geun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 17, issue 6, 2015, Pages 117~126
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2015.17.6.117
PURPOSES : This study prioritizes potential technology for establishing a safe work zone environment on roadways. We consider almost all conceivable technologies that enable mitigation of unexpected accidents for both road workers and drivers. METHODS : This study suggests a methodology to set the priority of potential technology for establishing a safe work zone environment by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). For this purpose, the AHP structure was first developed. Thereafter, a web-based survey was conducted to collect experts' opinions. Based on the survey results, weights associated with the relevant criteria of the developed structure were estimated. With the consistency index (CI) and consistency ratio (CR), we verified the estimated weights. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed to confirm whether the estimated weights were reliable. We finally proposed the priority for potential technology for establishing a safe work zone environment on roadways. RESULTS : In the first level, safety technology has the highest priority, and real-time information delivery for work zone, hazard warning for drivers, and temporal automated operation for traffic facilities were selected in the second level of hierarchy. CONCLUSIONS : The results imply that establishing the priority will be useful to establish a future road map for improving the work environment for road workers and drivers by employing appropriate protection facilities and developing safety systems.