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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Highway Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Road Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Estimation of Live Load Effect of Single Truck Through Probabilistic Analysis of Truck Traffic on Expressway
Yoon, Taeyong ; Ahn, Sang-Sup ; Kwon, Soon-Min ; Paik, Inyeol ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.001
PURPOSES : This study estimated the load effect of a single heavy truck to develop a live load model for the design and assessment of bridges located on an expressway with a limited truck entry weight. METHODS : The statistical estimation methods for the live load effect acting on a bridge by a heavy vehicle are reviewed, and applications using the actual measurement data for trucks traveling on an expressway are presented. The weight estimation of a single vehicle and its effect on a bridge are fundamental elements in the construction of a live load model. Two statistical estimation methods for the application of extrapolation in a probabilistic study and an additional estimation method that adopts the extreme value theory are reviewed. RESULTS : The proposed methods are applied to the traffic data measured on an expressway. All of the estimation methods yield similar results using the data measured when the weight limit has been relatively well observed because of the rigid enforcement of the weight regulation. On the other hand, when the estimations are made using overweight traffic data, the resulting values differ with the estimation method. CONCLUSIONS : The estimation methods based on the extreme distribution theory and the modified procedure presented in this paper can yield reasonable values for the maximum weight of a single truck, which can be applied in both the design and evaluation of a bridge on an expressway.
Performance Analysis of Strength Development of FRC Base Depending on Maturity
Choi, Sung-Yong ; Park, Young-Hwan ; Jung, Woo-Tai ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 13~21
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.013
PURPOSES : In this study, we analyzed the compressive strength characteristics of lean base concrete in relation to changes in the outdoor temperature after analyzing the cold and hot weather temperature standards and calculated the minimum and maximum temperatures when pouring concrete. We examined the rate of strength development of lean base concrete in relation to the temperature change and derived an appropriate analysis formula for FRC base structures by assigning the accumulated strength data and existing maturity formula. METHODS : We measured the strength changes at three curing temperatures (5, 20, and
) by curing the concrete in a temperature range that covered the lowest temperature of the cold period,
, to the highest temperature of the hot period,
. We assigned the general lean concrete and FRC as test variables. A strength test was planned to measure the strength after 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days. RESULTS : According to the results of compressive strength tests of plain concrete and FRC in relation to curing temperature, the plain concrete had a compressive strength greater than 5 MPa at all curing temperatures on day 5 and satisfied the lean concrete standard. In the case of FRC, because the initial strength was substantially reduced as a result of a 30% substitution of fly ash, it did not satisfy the strength standard of 5 MPa when it was cured at
on day 7. In addition, because the fly ash in the FRC caused a Pozzolanic reaction with the progress into late age, the amount of strength development increased. In the case of a curing temperature of
, the FRC strength was about 66% on day 3 compared with the plain concrete, but it is increased to about 77% on day 28. In the case of a curing temperature of
, the FRC strength development rate was about 63% on day 3 compared with the plain concrete, but it increased to about 88% on day 28. CONCLUSIONS : We derived a strength analysis formula using the maturity temperatures with all the strength data and presented the point in time when it reached the base concrete standard, which was 5 MPa for each air temperature. We believe that our findings could be utilized as a reference in the construction of base concrete for a site during a cold or hot weather period.
Application Methodology of Greenhouse Gases Emission Table for Various Types of Roads and Vehicles
Lee, Jonghak ; Choi, Jaisung ; Noh, Kwansub ; Hu, Hyejung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 23~31
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.023
PURPOSES : This study aimed to offer a greenhouse gases table to assist a road designer in calculating the greenhouse gases for a road environment when making a decision about an alternative road. METHODS : This study developed an operation mode table of greenhouse gases using the MOVES program. Similar factors for Korean vehicles and fuels are reflected in the MOVES program, which was made in the USA. Finally, a paired t-test was conducted to calculate the site data and MOVES data. Through these studies, a methodology was suggested for calculating carbon emissions based on various types of roads alignments. RESULTS : The site results for a passenger truck on the road were statistically significant when the vehicle speed was above 65 km/h. However, a future study will consider factors for various road alignments and vehicles. CONCLUSIONS : This study will contribute to the theoretical basis for reducing carbon emissions from roads by helping road designers make decisions about road alternatives in terms of the road environment.
Evaluation of 4.75-mm Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS) Mixture Performance Characteristics to Effectively Implement Asphalt Pavement System
Chun, Sanghyun ; Kim, Kukjoo ; Park, Bongsuk ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 33~41
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.033
PURPOSES : This study primarily focused on evaluating the performance characteristics of 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) asphalt mixtures for their more effective implementation to a layered flexible pavement system. METHODS : The full-scale pavements in the FDOT's accelerated pavement testing (APT) program, including 4.75-mm mixtures at the top with different thicknesses and asphalt binder types, were considered for the faster and more realistic evaluation of the rutting performance. The results of superpave indirect tensile (IDT) tests and hot-mix asphalt fracture mechanics (HMA-FM) based model predictions were used for cracking performance assessments. RESULTS : The results indicated that the rutting performance of pavement structures with 4.75-mm mixtures may not be as good as to those with the typical 12.5-mm mixtures, and pavement rutting was primarily confined to the top layer of 4.75-mm mixtures. This was likely due to the relatively higher mixture instability and lower shear resistance compared to 12.5-mm mixtures. The energy ratio (ER) and HMA-FM based model performance prediction results showed a potential benefit of 4.75-mm mixtures in enhanced cracking resistance. CONCLUSIONS : In relation to their implementation, the best use of 4.75-mm mixtures seem to be as a surface course for low-traffic-volume applications. These mixtures can also be properly used as a preservation treatment that does not necessarily last as long as 12.5-mm NMAS structural mixes. It is recommended that adequate thicknesses and binder types be considered for the proper application of a 4.75-mm mixture in asphalt pavements to effectively resist both rutting and cracking.
Experimental Study on Performance of MgO-based Patching Materials for Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavement
Lee, Hyeongi ; Ann, Kiyong ; Sim, Jongsung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 43~55
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.043
PURPOSES : This study aims to develop a repair material that can enhance pavement performance, inducing rapid traffic opening through early strength development and fast setting time by utilizing MgO-based patching materials for repairing road pavements. METHODS : To consider the applicability of MgO-based patching materials for repairing domestic road pavements, first, strength development and setting time of the materials were evaluated, based on MgO to
ratio, water to binder ratio, and addition ratio of retarder (Borax), by which the optimal mixture ratio of the developed material was obtained. To validate the performance of the developed material as a repair material, the strength(compressive strength and bonding strength) and durability (freezing, thawing, and chloride ion penetration resistance) was checked through testing, and its applicability was evaluated. RESULTS : The results showed that when an MgO-based patching material was used, the condensation time was reduced by 80%, and the compressive strength was enhanced by approximately 300%, as compared to existing cement-based repair materials. In addition, it was observed that the strength (compressive strength and bonding strength) and durability (freezing and thawing, and chloride ion penetration resistance) showed an excellent performance that satisfied the regulations. CONCLUSIONS : The results imply that an emergent repair/restoration could be covered by a rapid-hardening cement to meet the traffic limitation (i.e. the traffic restriction is only several hours for repair treatment). Furthermore, MgO-based patching materials can improve bonding strength and durability compared to existing repair materials.
Evaluation of Reflection Cracking Resistance of Grid-Reinforced Asphalt Pavement Using Overlay Tester
Yoo, Byung Soo ; Seo, Woo Jin ; Kim, Jo Soon ; Park, Dae Wook ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.057
PURPOSES : Reflection cracking has been one of the major causes of distress when asphalt pavement is laid on top of concrete pavement. This study evaluated the reflection cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures reinforced with asphalt embedded glass fiber and carbon fiber using a Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) overlay tester. METHODS : Different asphalt mixtures such as polymer-modified mastic asphalt (PSMA) and a dense graded asphalt mixture were reinforced with asphalt-embedded carbon fiber and glass fiber. For comparison purposes, two PSMA asphalt mixtures and one dense graded asphalt mixture were evaluated without fiber reinforcement. Two different overlay test modes, the repeated overlay test (R-OT) and monotonic overlay test (M-OT), were used to evaluate the reflection cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures at
. In the R-OT test, the number of repeated load when the specimen failed was obtained. In the M-OT test, the tensile strength at the peak load and tensile strain were obtained. RESULTS : As expected, the fiber-reinforced asphalt mixture showed a higher reflection cracking resistance than the conventional nonreinforced asphalt mixtures based on the R-OT test and M-OT test. The dense graded asphalt mixture showed the least reflection cracking resistance and less resistance than the PSMA. CONCLUSIONS : The TTI overlay tester could be used to differentiate the reflection cracking resistance values of asphalt mixtures. Based on the R-OT and M-OT results, the carbon-fiber-reinforced asphalt mixture showed the highest reflection cracking resistance among the nonreinforced asphalt mixtures and glass-fiber-reinforced asphalt mixture.
Experimental Study on Correlation Analysis of Air-void, Air-spacing factor and Long-term Durability for Roller-compacted Concrete pavement
Lee, Jun Hee ; Lee, Seung Woo ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 63~72
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.063
PURPOSES : The use of roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) is an environmentally friendly method of construction that utilizes the aggregate interlock effect by means of a hydration reaction and roller compacting, demonstrating a superb structural performance with a relatively small unit water content and unit cement content. However, even if an excellent structural performance was secured through a previous study, the verification research on the environmental load and long-term durability was conducted under unsatisfactory conditions. In order to secure longterm durability, the construction of an appropriate internal air-void structure is required. In this study, a method of improving the long-term durability of RCCP will be suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and relevant durability of roller-compacted concrete. METHODS : The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of the air content, air voids, and air-spacing factor in RCCP that experiences a change in terms of the kind of air-entraining agent and chemical admixture proportions. This test should be conducted on the basis of test criteria such as ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. RESULTS : Freezing, thawing, and scaling resistance tests of roller compacted concrete without a chemical admixture showed that it was weak. However, as a result of conducting air entraining (AE) with an AE agent, a large amount of air was distributed with a range of 2~3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging from 200 to
) coming from PCA was secured. Accordingly, the freezing and thawing resistance was improved, with a relative dynamic elastic modulus of more than 80%, and the scaling resistance was improved under the appropriate AE agent content rate. CONCLUSIONS : The long-term durability of RCCP has a direct relationship with the air-void spacing factor, and it can be secured only by ensuring the air void spacing factor through air entraining with the inclusion of an AE agent.
Accuracy Improvement of Analysis Results Obtained from Numerical Analysis Model of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement
Cho, Young Kyo ; Seok, Jong Hwan ; Choi, Lyn ; Kim, Seong-Min ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 73~83
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.073
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to develop a method for improving the accuracy of analysis results obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D) numerical analysis model of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). METHODS : The analysis results from the 2-D numerical model of CRCP are compared with those from more rigorous three-dimensional (3-D) models of CRCP, and the relationships between the results are recognized. In addition, the numerical analysis results are compared with the results obtained from field experiments. By performing these comparisons, the calibration factors used for the 2-D CRCP model are determined. RESULTS : The results from the comparisons between 2-D and 3-D CRCP analyses show that with the 2-D CRCP model, concrete stresses can be overestimated significantly, and crack widths can either be underestimated or overestimated by a slight margin depending on the assumption of plane stress or plane strain. The behaviors of crack width in field measurements are comparable to those obtained from the numerical model of CRCP. CONCLUSIONS : The accuracy of analysis results from the 2-D CRCP model can be improved significantly by applying calibration factors obtained from comparisons with 3-D analyses and field experiments.
Study of Deterioration Phenomenon and Causes in Pavement of Ramp Area
Hwang, Sung-Do ; Mun, Sungho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.085
PURPOSES : The objective of this paper is to understand the deterioration phenomenon and causes in the pavement of a ramp area. METHODS : Ramp areas need to be sloped because of the centrifugal force, which depends on the vehicle speed and grade of the ramp area. As a result, vertical and horizontal forces are applied on the pavement surface of the ramp area. Furthermore, the horizontal force depends on the vehicle speed and grade of the ramp area. In order to analyze the pavement structure of a ramp area, a multi-layered elastic analysis program was used to evaluate the weakest link of fatigue cracking deterioration, according to the simultaneously applied vertical and horizontal forces. RESULTS : From case studies related to the bonding conditions between the surface and base layer in a ramp area, it was found that the partially bonded cases resulted in a critical potential of fatigue cracking deterioration, in a comparison of 50%, 70%, and fully bonded cases. CONCLUSIONS : According to the results of the case studies, the pavement structure system should be reinforced by upgrading the material or increasing the thickness compared to the general pavement areas, in order to provide a performance life similar to the mainline pavements in the ramp areas.
Pavement Performance Model Development Using Bayesian Algorithm
Mun, Sungho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 91~97
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.091
PURPOSES : The objective of this paper is to develop a pavement performance model based on the Bayesian algorithm, and compare the measured and predicted performance data. METHODS : In this paper, several pavement types such as SMA (stone mastic asphalt), PSMA (polymer-modified stone mastic asphalt), PMA (polymer-modified asphalt), SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) modified asphalt, and DGA (dense-graded asphalt) are modeled in terms of the performance evaluation of pavement structures, using the Bayesian algorithm. RESULTS : From case studies related to the performance model development, the statistical parameters of the mean value and standard deviation can be obtained through the Bayesian algorithm, using the initial performance data of two different pavement cases. Furthermore, an accurate performance model can be developed, based on the comparison between the measured and predicted performance data. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the results of the case studies, it is concluded that the determined coefficients of the nonlinear performance models can be used to accurately predict the long-term performance behaviors of DGA and modified asphalt concrete pavements. In addition, the developed models were evaluated through comparison studies between the initial measurement and prediction data, as well as between the final measurement and prediction data. In the model development, the initial measured data were used.
Estimation of the Expressway Traffic Congestion Cost Using Vehicle Detection System Data
Kim, Sang Gu ; Yun, Ilsoo ; Park, Jae Beom ; Park, In Ki ; Cheon, Seung Hoon ; Kim, Kyung Hyun ; Ahn, Hyun Kyung ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 99~107
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.099
PURPOSES : This study was initiated to estimate expressway traffic congestion costs by using Vehicle Detection System (VDS) data. METHODS : The overall methodology for estimating expressway traffic congestion costs is based on the methodology used in a study conducted by a study team from the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI). However, this study uses VDS data, including conzone speeds and volumes, instead of the volume delay function for estimating travel times. RESULTS : The expressway traffic congestion costs estimated in this study are generally lower than those observed in KOTI's method. The expressway lines that ranked highest for traffic congestion costs are the Seoul Ring Expressway, Gyeongbu Expressway, and the Youngdong Expressway. Those lines account for 64.54% of the entire expressway traffic congestion costs. In addition, this study estimates the daily traffic congestion costs. The traffic congestion cost on Saturdays is the highest. CONCLUSIONS : This study can be thought of as a new trial to estimate expressway traffic congestion costs by using actual traffic data collected from an entire expressway system in order to overcome the limitations of associated studies. In the future, the methodology for estimating traffic congestion cost is expected to be improved by utilizing associated big-data gathered from other ITS facilities and car navigation systems.
Operational Effects of Special Roundabouts at Large-Scale Rotaries
Lim, Jin Kang ; Park, Byung Ho ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 109~117
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.109
PURPOSES : The goal of this study is to analyze the operational effects of special roundabouts at large-scale rotaries in Korea. In pursuing the above, this study gives particular attention to comparing standard roundabouts with special roundabouts. METHODS : This study reviews the various types of roundabouts, creates 270 scenarios, builds networks, and comparatively analyzes the operational effects by using VISSIM simulation model and SSAM(Surrogate Safety Assessment Model). RESULTS : First, the operational effects of standard and signalized roundabouts were analyzed, and it was determined that standard roundabouts are the best in the case of under-saturated traffic volume, and signalized roundabouts are the best in the case of over-saturated traffic volume. Second, the operational benefits of a Turbo roundabout were evaluated to be generally lower than the benefits of a standard roundabout, and the benefits of a Turbo roundabout increase when right-turn traffic volume increases. Finally, the safety conflicts of a Turbo roundabout were determined to be the least and decrease when right-turn traffic volume increases. CONCLUSIONS : This study suggests that Turbo roundabouts rank highest for safety, and signalized roundabouts are best for over-saturated traffic volume. This study can be expected to provide some implications for policy decision-making.
Estimating Carbon Emissions due to Freeway Incidents by Using Macroscopic Traffic Flow Models
Son, Young Tae ; Han, Kyu Jong ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 119~129
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.119
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for estimating additional carbon emissions due to freeway incidents. METHODS : As our country grows, our highway policy has mainly neglected the environmental and social sectors. However, with the formation of a national green growth keynote and an increase in the number of people interested in environmental and social issues, problems related to social issues, such as traffic accidents and congestion, and environmental issues, such as the impact of air pollution caused by exhaust gases that are emitted from highway vehicles, are beginning to be discussed. Accordingly, studies have been conducted on a variety of environmental aspects in the field of road transport, and for the quantitative calculation of greenhouse gas emissions, using various methods. However, in order to observe the effects of carbon emissions, microscopic simulations must use many difficult variables such as cost, analysis time, and ease of analysis process. In this study, additional greenhouse gas emissions that occur because of highway traffic accidents were classified by type (incident handling time, number of lanes blocked, freeway level of service), and the annual additional emissions based on incidents were calculated. According to the results, congestion length and emissions tend to increase with an increase in incident clearance time, number of occupied lanes, and worsening level of service. Using this data, we analyzed accident data on the Gyeong-bu Expressway (Yang-Jae IC - Osan IC) for a year. RESULTS : Additional greenhouse gas emissions that occur because of highway traffic accidents were classified by type (incident handling time, number of lanes blocked, freeway level of service) and annual additional emissions caused by accidents were calculated. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, a methodology for estimating carbon emissions due to freeway incidents was developed that incorporates macroscopic flow models. The results of the study are organized in the form of a look-Up table that calculates carbon emissions rather easily.
A Suggestion for Improved Road Signs Providing Efficient Road Information
Kown, Sung-Dae ; Kim, Yoon-Mi ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
International Journal of Highway Engineering, volume 18, issue 1, 2016, Pages 131~141
DOI : 10.7855/IJHE.2016.18.1.131
PURPOSES : While road networks are becoming increasingly complex, traffic signs are being indiscriminately installed and operated, which makes drivers who depend on traffic signs to reach their destination confused and unable to understand road information efficiently. In order to promptly and exactly guide road users to their destinations, traffic signs should be able to satisfy the functions of connectivity, visibility, and location suitability. However, the results of a site survey shows that most of the traffic signs currently installed in the Jeollanam-do Province do not satisfy these functions. METHODS : This study analyzed the problems of traffic signs after an actual site survey and focused on a total on 9,353 traffic signs and 70 road routes in Jeollanam-do Province. RESULTS : This study analyzed the problems of traffic signs based on their required functions (connectivity, visibility, suitability) and suggested improvements by establishing a guide system that considered the problems found in the study. CONCLUSIONS : The guide system can be utilized as a basic material that provides efficient road information for future installation and maintenance of traffic signs in Jeollanam-do Province.