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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Marine Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Present Status of Fisheries Wealth in Angola
Konda, Fredy Ditomene Mbala ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~6
Angola has a coastline of about 1,650 km long. Two diverging current namely, the Angola current with its warm water from the north and the cold Benguella Current in the south create a strong up-welling with a high productive ecosystem for marine resources. The area from Lobito to the mouth of the Cunene River, also known as the Southern fishing zone is by far the most productive of Angola's fishing zones. In 1977, the total potential of its marine fisheries sector was estimated at more than 700,000 tonnes per annum. In 2003, the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) established for demersal species was 57,600 tonnes and 160,000 tonnes for pelagic species. The most important resources are various marine demersal and pelagic fish including pilchard and the Cape and Cunene horse Mackerel (Tranchurus capensis and T. trecae). Sardinellas (Sardinella aurita and S. maderensis) are fished in parallel with horse mackerel. The rest of the catches are mainly demersal spp. and some deep water crustaceans. The demersal sppecies consist of Hake (Merluccius polli and M. capensis) and the large eye dentex spp. Tunas are caught at certain times of the year whilst some marine shrimp are also harvested from the Angolan waters. Angola also has several high value freshwater fish species, exploited by about 255 fishers. Tilapia sp. is among the most important and abundant fresh water fish found in Angola. Other species include the catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and fresh water prawns (Macrobrachuin rosenbergii). Some aquaculture ponds have been established in the country side, but due to lack of investment, proper training and the impact of civil war have seriously limited developments in the sub sector.
Aquatic Resources of Cameroon
Chuba, Leunga Didier ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 7~12
Cameroon is a country in Western Africa with 16 million inhabitants. Located between Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea, the country is bordered by the Bight of Biafra. It has a 402 km long coastline. It covers an area of about 475,440 sq km. Cameroon obtains its fish supply from five distinct sources notably-small scale maritime Fisheries, inland fisheries, industrial fisheries, aquaculture and importation. Despite its enormous potential, Cameroon produces only 180,000 metric tons fish annually. The total artisanal annual catch is estimated to be 55,000 t of which bonga/Sardinella, white shrimp and demersal fish contribute 58%, 27% and 15% respectively. The industrial fleet expanded rapidly during the sixties and by 1973 there were 29 trawlers and 13 shrimpers which landed a total of about 17,600 t of fish and shrimp. The total catch of the industrial fisheries peaked at about 20,400 t in 1976 and since then catches have generally declined. The per capita fish consumption in Cameroon stands at about 17.9 kg per inhabitant per year. This means that the demand of fish in Cameroon stands at about 280,000 tons. There is a deficit of in fish supply for which the government always resort to massive importation of fish products to meet the local demand. The main fish product for export from Cameroon is the prawn (Panacus duorarum). The main export market of Cameroon's prawn is the European Union (EU). Between 1998 and 2003, Cameroon's export value has been on the decline, dropping from 1,836 metric tons of prawns for a value of 264 millions USD in 1998 to 51 tonnes, for an estimated value of 315,000 USD in 2003. This drastic drop in exportation is consequential to Cameroon's auto suspension from the exportation of prawns towards the EU as a result of non compliance with EU standards. Today, a good quantity of the catches is being exported illicitly through neighbouring countries.
Overview of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Ekoma, Christian Ngunda ; Mangala, Rapael Bukura ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 13~17
The Congo has a maritime coastline of 40 km, covering an area of
. The fluvial system covers around
in a network of more than 33,000 km of rivers, principal tributaries, and streams. There are around 1,000 known species of fish, essentially freshwater and some brackish. The lakes of the Rift Valley contain the richest lacustrine fauna in the world. The family of Cichlidae alone has more than 900 species. At the same time, the lakes are profoundly different. Lake Tanganyika has 250 species of fish, of which 216 are endemic, whereas Lake Kivu contains only 32 and 16, respectively. A dense hydrographic network of water surfaces, inundated plains and lakes cover around
(3.5% of the national area) and have a considerable aquatic potential. The large peripheral lakes of the East cover around
of which 47% are under Congolese jurisdiction. The respective areas belonging to the Congo are: Lake Tanganyika,
; Lake Albert,
; Lake Kivu,
; Lake Edward,
; Lake Mo
. Another two important lakes in the interior, Lake Tumba and Lake Mai-Ndombe, cover (between them) 2,300 and
, depending on season (less in the dry season and more in the rainy season). There are also the lakes of the Kamalondo depression (
), Lake Tshangalele (
) and Lake N'Zilo (
Introduction to the Fisheries Industry in Ghana
Otumfuo, Samuel Kabu ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 18~23
Fisheries constitute an important sector in national economic development, and estimate to contribute about 3% of the total GDP and 5% of the GDP in agriculture. Fish production from aquaculture has been estimated at 950 tonnes for 2004. In 2003, Ghana produced only 51.7% of its requirements from its domestic sources and in 2004, achieved 68.1% of its fish requirement through domestic production and imports. It has been estimated that the production from ponds and culture-based fisheries is worth about US$ 1.5 million a year. The aquaculture sub sector comprises largely small-scale subsistence farmers who practice extensive aquaculture in earthen ponds in contrast to the intensive practices of commercial farmers. There is one cage facility which produces 200 tonnes or 21.1% of the total output. There are several laws to regulate and govern the sector and the government has set up institutions that are responsible for developing fisheries and aquaculture policy and directing and establishing research priorities. The Directorate of Fisheries (DoF) is the lead government agency for aquaculture development and the Water Research Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is mandated to carry out aquaculture research. To promote fish farming, imports of farm fish are not allowed.
Current Status of Fishery Resources in Kenya
Ibuuri, Peter Kimathi ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 24~30
Fishing in Kenya, until the discovery of Nile perch as an export commodity in the early 1990s, has basically a subsistence occupation for the lake and coastal communities. The government also did not recognize the importance of fisheries as a contributor to the macro-economy and therefore, did not pay much attention in terms of resource allocation for the development of the sector. Most fishing in Kenya is artisanal, with a little industrial fishing by prawn trawlers. The deep sea (EEZ) fishery resources are currently exploited by DWFNs through a licensing system. Only a small quantity of catch from the EEZ is landed in Kenya, primarily tuna loins for processing for export. Currently capture fisheries, mainly from Lake Victoria, earn local fishers over Kenya shillings (K Sh) 7 billion, while exports earn the country K Sh 5 billion (US$ 50 million) in foreign exchange annually. The government has been putting in place an enabling environment to promote investment activities in order to achieve economic recovery as well as for the development and sustainable use of fisheries resources in the country within the specified period. The Department's major roles are to ensure sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources; to promote aquaculture development; to assure quality and safety of fish and fishery products; and to facilitate fish marketing in order to maximize the benefits that can be derived from fisheries. The contribution of fisheries to local incomes, subsistence and food nutrition is significant, as this occurs in areas with the highest incidences of poverty in the country.
Overview of Fisheries Resources in Namibia
Endjala, Jason Tshuutheni ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 31~37
Off the 1,572 km long coastline of Namibia lies known as the Benguela upwelling system, a very rich source of marine life supporting traditional and modern forms of fishery. Commercial fishing and fish processing is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the Namibian economy in terms of employment, export earnings, and contribution to GDP. The fishing industry has grown to the extent that it is currently Namibia's second biggest export earner of foreign currency after mining (90% of national output is marketed for export). In 2005, Namibia harvested about 552,164 tonnes of fish. The final value of processed products (export value) that year was around US$ 376.0 million. Besides the marine captured fisheries, Namibia also has a small but vibrant aquaculture sector. Inland captured fisheries exist in the north-east and north-west of Namibia where as commercial freshwater aquaculture of tilapia and catfish is also undertaken. The inland fisheries are mainly subsistence based and typically labour intensive, with low catch per unit effort. However the subsistence fisheries from these regions play a significant role in the lives of rural community. The domestic market for marine fish products is extremely limited due to the small size of the population (2 million). The fishing industry is a source of considerable employment for many Namibians. Huge potential to increase production exists in Namibia, unpolluted high quality marine waters, high natural primary productivity of the seawater, availability of inexpensive fish by-products from established fish processing sector for inclusion in wet aqua-feeds and well-established processing, packaging and marketing systems due to the marine capture fisheries that can be adopted for aquaculture purpose.
Fisheries Resources -A Brief Introduction of the Republic of Senegal
Mbengue, Modou ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 38~41
Fish is a major source of protein for the Senegalese population. Fishing plays a dominant role in the Government's policy towards generating employment. It currently generates about 100,000 direct jobs (fishermen) for nationals, of which more than 90% are in small-scale fishing. The fishing industry also contributes to Government revenue through different agreements. In addition to associated dues, fishing agreements imply a series of economic, trade and technical counterparts. Under the latest fishing agreement concluded by Senegal and the European Union (1997-2001), direct financial compensation amounts to about CFAF 32 billion. Despite its economic and social importance, the sector has to face serious disequilibria both in resource exploitation and market supply: the coastal demersal (deep lying fish) stocks with high market value (mostly exported) are fully and even over-exploited, with a serious risk of local market supply shortages looming ahead as the fishing effort shifts from locally consumed species to export-oriented ones.
Fisheries Resources of Sudan
Abd El Magid, Magda Ahmed ; Elseed, Salah Mahmoud Hamed ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 42~47
Sudan is the largest country in Africa with an area of
, of water constitutes
, and cultivable land is 34%. Sudan has a total land boundary of 7,687 km with 9 border countries. This vast country embraces different vegetation patterns reflecting various climatic zones, grading from tropical rain forests in the south through semi-tropical savannah to arid zone in the extreme north, with annual rainfall ranging from 1,600 mm in the south to 25 mm in the north. The aquaculture industry is not developed as yet. Because of their basic characteristics, the Sudan inland and marine capture fisheries are of a small-scale and semi-industrial nature. The demand for fish and fish preparations is growing steadily. The animal resources sector (which includes fisheries) contributes 21% of Sudan GDP. The contribution of fisheries to Sudanese GDP is currently marginal. The per caput supply is only 1.6 kg/year, which is mostly obtained by capture fish landings. Despite the fact that fisheries GDP is extremely low, fish and fish preparations contribute to the food security of a wide sector of the rural and urban communities. Fisheries also provide work opportunities in the form of secondary employment as a source of income that indirectly contributes to household food security.
Overview of Fisheries Industry in Tanzania
Alfanies, Margaret George ; Nyambika, Seif Bakari ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 48~53
Tanzania is a coastal state on the western Indian Ocean in Africa. In an artisanal or small scale fishery, the combination of large numbers of fishers and landing places, mixed gears and migrant fishers makes fisheries management an often complex task. Lack of capital, low level of technology, poverty and high cost of transport are major socio-economic problems in Tanzanian fisheries. The combined approach of community-based management and provision of education and training for extension workers and fishers themselves are required. It is also necessary to build the capacity of fisheries institutions to meet the human resources development challenge.
Current Status of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Tunisia
Bellakhal, Meher ; Shel, Abdel Majid ;
Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 1, 2008, Pages 54~60
Compared to other North African countries, Tunisia has reached a significant level of fish consumption. The only relevant historical dimension of aquaculture in Tunisia are traditional lagoon management (80,000 ha of lagoon and coastal lakes) and culture of shellfish. Semi-intensive and intensive cultures are relatively new concepts in Tunisia and only recently also the public sector is involved. The Tunisian fishing industry has expanded over the last 20 years and annual catches at present are more than four times those registered in mid-fifties. Production of the year 2007 reached 105 thousand tons against 111 thousand tons during the same period of 2006 thus recording a fall of 5%. Unfavorable weather conditions mainly during the last quarter year had the effect to reduce the number of days out at sea. Exports reached 24.3 thousand tons for one value 240.5 MD against respectively 22.2 thousand tons and 234.1 thus recording MD at the end of the past year a rise of 9% in volume and from 3% in value. Commercial value such as shellfish - consequence of one regression of the production - with in parallel raises blue fish exports. The imports were stabilized in volume of 39.1 thousand tons and increased from 6% in value with respectively 67.4 MD in 2007 against 63.7 MD at the end of 2006. The importation in larger quantities of intended fish to the fattening of tuna in floating cages explains partly this rise. Nevertheless, the pay of balance import/export of produced fishing remains positive with a surplus of 173.1 MD against 170.4 MD in 2006.