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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Nature as a Model for Mimicking and Inspiration of New Technologies
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.1
Over 3.8 billion years, through evolution nature came up with many effective continually improving solutions to its challenges. Humans have always been inspired by nature capabilities in problems solving and innovation. These efforts have been intensified in recent years where systematic studies are being made towards better understanding and applying more sophisticated capabilities in this field that is increasingly being titled biomimetics. The ultimate challenge to this field is the development of humanlike robots that talk, interpret speech, walk, as well as make eye-contact and facial expressions with some capabilities that are exceeding the original model from nature. This includes flight where there is no creature that is as large, can fly as high, carry so heavy weight, fly so fast, and able to operate in extreme conditions as the aircraft and other aerospace systems. However, there are many capabilities of biological systems that are not feasible to mimic using the available technology. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of some of the developed biomimetic capabilities, potentials and challenges will be reviewed.
Complexity Analysis of the Viking Labeled Release Experiments
Bianciardi, Giorgio ; Miller, Joseph D. ; Straat, Patricia Ann ; Levin, Gilbert V. ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 14~26
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.14
The only extraterrestrial life detection experiments ever conducted were the three which were components of the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars. Of these, only the Labeled Release experiment obtained a clearly positive response. In this experiment
radiolabeled nutrient was added to the Mars soil samples. Active soils exhibited rapid, substantial gas release. The gas was probably
and, possibly, other radiocarbon-containing gases. We have applied complexity analysis to the Viking LR data. Measures of mathematical complexity permit deep analysis of data structure along continua including signal vs. noise, entropy vs.negentropy, periodicity vs. aperiodicity, order vs. disorder etc. We have employed seven complexity variables, all derived from LR data, to show that Viking LR active responses can be distinguished from controls via cluster analysis and other multivariate techniques. Furthermore, Martian LR active response data cluster with known biological time series while the control data cluster with purely physical measures. We conclude that the complexity pattern seen in active experiments strongly suggests biology while the different pattern in the control responses is more likely to be non-biological. Control responses that exhibit relatively low initial order rapidly devolve into near-random noise, while the active experiments exhibit higher initial order which decays only slowly. This suggests a robust biological response. These analyses support the interpretation that the Viking LR experiment did detect extant microbial life on Mars.
Numerical Analysis of Unsteady Flow around a Transversely Oscillating Circular Cylinder
Moon, Ji-Soo ; Kim, Jae-Soo ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.27
The relationship between the excitation frequency and the vortex shedding frequency is analyzed during the oscillation of the circular cylinder. Two-dimension unsteady Navier-Stoke`s equation is calculated by using the Optimized High Order Compact (OHOC) scheme. The flow condition is Mach number 0.3 and Reynold`s number 1000. From the results acquired by calculation, it can be inferred that, when the excitation frequency is near the vortex shedding frequency at the fixed cylinder wake, the oscillation frequency of lift and drag coefficients appears to lock-on. The lock-on refers to a phenomenon in which the aerodynamic coefficient appears as one primary oscillation frequency through excitation and its amplitude is amplified. In the non-lock-on zone, the excitation frequency is not in the lock-on mode anymore and beat is formed in which two or more primary oscillation frequencies of the aerodynamic coefficient are mixed together.
Static Analysis of a Small Scale Ducted-Fan UAV using Wind Tunnel Data
Choi, Youn-Han ; Suk, Jin-Young ; Hong, Sang-Hwee ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 34~42
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.34
This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of a small scale ducted-fan UAV and examines its results in comparison to the wind tunnel test. A wind tunnel test is first performed, producing a substantial amount of test data. The acquired set of wind tunnel test data is then categorized and approximated as mathematical functions. Finally, the mathematically modeled forces and moments acting on the UAV are compared with the acquired wind tunnel data. The analysis involves a gradient-based algorithm and is applied to extract trim states with respect to various flight conditions. Consequently, a numerical analysis demonstrates that there exists a reasonable flight status with respect to airspeed.
Validation of a Robust Flutter Prediction by Optimization
Chung, Chan-Hoon ; Shin, Sang-Joon ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 43~57
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.43
In a modern aircraft, there are many variations in its mass, stiffness, and aerodynamic characteristics. Recently, an analytical approach was proposed, and this approach uses the idea of uncertainty to find out the most critical flight flutter boundary due to the variations in such aerodynamic characteristics. An analytical method that has been suggested to predict robust stability is the mu method. We previously analyzed the robust flutter boundary by using the mu method, and in that study, aerodynamic variations in the Mach number, atmospheric density, and flight speed were taken into consideration. The authors` previous attempt and the results are currently quoted as varying Mach number mu analysis. In the author`s previous method, when the initial flight conditions were located far from the nominal flutter boundary, conservative predictions were obtained. However, relationships among those aerodynamic parameters were not applied. Thus, the varying Mach number mu analysis results required validation. Using an optimization approach, the varying Mach number mu analysis was found out to be capable of capturing a reasonable robust flutter boundary, i.e., with a low percentage difference from boundaries that were obtained by optimization. Regarding the optimization approach, a discrete nominal flutter boundary is to be obtained in advance, and based on that boundary, an interpolated function was established. Thus, the optimization approach required more computational effort for a larger number of uncertainty variables. And, this produced results similar to those from the mu method which had lower computational complexity. Thus, during the estimation of robust aeroelastic stability, the mu method was regarded as more efficient than the optimization method was. The mu method predicts reasonable results when an initial condition is located near the nominal flutter boundary, but it does not consider the relationships that are among the aerodynamic parameters, and its predictions are not very accurate when the initial condition is located far from the nominal flutter boundary. In order to provide predictions that are more accurate, the relationships among the uncertainties should also be included in the mu method.
Morphing Wing Mechanism Using an SMA Wire Actuator
Kang, Woo-Ram ; Kim, Eun-Ho ; Jeong, Min-Soo ; Lee, In ; Ahn, Seok-Min ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 58~63
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.58
In general, a conventional flap on an aircraft wing can reduce the aerodynamic efficiency due to geometric discontinuity. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance can be improved by using a shape-morphing wing instead of a separate flap. In this research, a new flap morphing mechanism that can change the wing shape smoothly was devised to prevent aerodynamic losses. Moreover, a prototype wing was fabricated to demonstrate the morphing mechanism. A shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator was used for the morphing wing. The specific current range was measured to control the SMA actuator. The deflection angles at the trailing edge were also measured while various currents were applied to the SMA actuator. The trailing edge of the wing changed smoothly when the current was applied. Moreover, the deflection angle also increased as the current increased. The maximum frequency level was around 0.1 Hz. The aerodynamic performance of the deformed airfoil by the SMA wire was analyzed by using the commercial program GAMBIT and FLUENT. The results were compared with the results of an undeformed wing. It was demonstrated that the morphing mechanism changes the wing shape smoothly without the extension of the wing skin.
Development of Integrated Simulation Tool for Jitter Analysis
Lee, Dae-Oen ; Yoon, Jae-San ; Han, Jae-Hung ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 64~73
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.64
Pointing stability of high precision observation satellites must satisfy the stringent requirements to perform at a designed level. As even a small vibrational disturbance can result in severe degradation of the optical performance, the effects of inorbit vibrational environment on the performance of optical payload must be predicted and analyzed in the design phase in order to ensure that the requirements imposed on the payload are fully met. In this paper, an integrated framework for the evaluation of the performance of optical payloads is developed. The developed simulation tool comprises of the reaction wheel induced disturbance model, state space model of a structure in modal form and Cassegrain reflector model. The performance degradation of the optical system due to jitter is expressed by using modulation transfer function (MTF) and image simulation. Moreover, vibration isolator model is also added to show the effectiveness of using a vibration isolator for the elimination of the effects of jitter in the acquisition of an image.
Constrained Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Aircraft Landing in Wind Disturbance and Actuator Stuck
Yoon, Seung-Ho ; Kim, You-Dan ; Park, Sang-Hyuk ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 74~89
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.74
An adaptive backstepping controller is designed for the automatic landing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The backstepping control scheme is adopted by using the nonlinear six degree-of-freedom dynamics of the aircraft during the landing phase. The adaptive law is integrated along with the backstepping controller in order to estimate the aircraft modeling errors as well as the external disturbance. The dynamic constraints of the states and the actuator inputs are taken into account in the parameter adaptation. This is done to prevent an aggressive adaptation and to provide reliable control commands. Numerical simulations were performed to verify the performance of the proposed control law for the landing of the aircraft with the presence of gust and actuator stuck.
Integrated Design of Rotary UAV Guidance and Control Systems Utilizing Sliding Mode Control Technique
Hong, You-Kyung ; Kim, You-Dan ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 90~98
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.90
In this paper, the Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC) law is proposed for the Rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (RUAV). The objective of the IGC law is to consider the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the RUAV and to design a guidance law which takes into consideration the nonlinear relationship between kinematics and dynamics. In order to control the RUAV system, sliding mode control scheme is adopted. As the RUAV is an under-actuated system, a slack variable approach is used to generate the available control inputs. Through the Lyapunov stability theorem, the stability of the proposed IGC law is proved. In order to verify the performance of the IGC law, numerical simulations are performed for waypoint tracking missions.
A Track Scoring Function Development for Airborne Target Detection Using Dynamic Programming
Won, Dae-Yeon ; Shim, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Keum-Seong ; Tahk, Min-Jea ; Kim, Eung-Tai ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.99
Track-before-detect techniques based on dynamic programming have provided solutions for detecting targets from a sequence of images. In its application to airborne threat detection, dynamic programming solutions should take into account the distinguishable properties of objects in a collision course. This paper describes the development of a new track scoring function that accumulates scores for airborne targets in Bayesian framework. Numerical results show that the proposed scoring function has slightly better detection capabilities.
A Study on Earth-Moon Transfer Orbit Design
No, Tae-Soo ; Lee, Ji-Marn ; Jeon, Gyeong-Eon ; Lee, Dae-Ro ; Kim, Ghang-Ho ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 106~116
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.106
Optimal transfer trajectories based on the planar circular restricted three body problem are designed by using mixed impulsive and continuous thrust. Continuous and dynamic trajectory optimization is reformulated in the form of discrete optimization problem. This is done by the method of direct transcription and collocation. It is then solved by using nonlinear programming software. Two very different transfer trajectories can be obtained by the different combinations of the design parameters. Furthermore, it was found out that all designed trajectories permit a ballistic capture by the Moon`s gravity. Finally, the required thrust profiles are presented and they are analyzed in detail.
Design and testing of the KC-100 Spin Recovery Parachute System (SRPS)
Lee, Dong-Hun ; Nho, Byung-Chan ; Kang, Myung-Kag ; Kang, Kyung-Woo ; Lee, Ju-Ha ; Kim, Su-Min ; Kwon, Young-Suk ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 13, issue 1, 2012, Pages 117~125
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2012.13.1.117
This paper presented the design of SRPS, ground function test, and the deployment test on a high speed taxi of KC-100 airplane. KAI has developed a spin recovery system in collaboration with Airborne Systems for KC-100 general aviation airplane. Spin mode analysis, rotary balance and forced oscillation tests were performed to obtain the rotational, dynamic derivatives in the preliminary design phase. Prior to the detailed design process of SRPS, approximations for initial estimation of design parameters- fineness ratio, parachute porosity, parachute canopy filling time, and deployment method- were considered. They were done based on the analytical disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, and stability & control. SRPS consists of parachute, tractor rocket assembly for deployment, attach release mechanism (ARM) and cockpit control system. Before the installation of SRPS in KC-100 airplane, all the control functions of this system were demonstrated by using SBTB(System Breakout Test Box) in the laboratory. SBTB was used to confirm if it can detect faults, and simulate the firing of pyrotechnic devices that control the deployment and jettison of SRPS. Once confirmed normal operation of SRPS, deployment and jettison of parachute on the high speed taxiing were performed.