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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Flight Dynamics Analyses of a Propeller-Driven Airplane (I): Aerodynamic and Inertial Modeling of the Propeller
Kim, Chang-Joo ; Kim, Sang Ho ; Park, TaeSan ; Park, Soo Hyung ; Lee, Jae Woo ; Ko, Joon Soo ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 345~355
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.345
This paper focuses on aerodynamic and inertial modeling of the propeller for its applications in flight dynamics analyses of a propeller-driven airplane. Unsteady aerodynamic and inertial loads generated by the propeller are formulated using the blade element method, where the local velocity and acceleration vectors for each blade element are obtained from exact kinematic relations for general maneuvering conditions. Vortex theory is applied to obtain the flow velocities induced by the propeller wake, which are used in the computation of the aerodynamic forces and moments generated by the propeller and other aerodynamic surfaces. The vortex lattice method is adopted to obtain the induced velocity over the wing and empennage components and the related influence coefficients are computed, taking into account the propeller induced velocities by tracing the wake trajectory trailing from each of the propeller blades. Aerodynamic forces and moments of the fuselage and other aerodynamic surfaces are computed by using the wind tunnel database and applying strip theory to incorporate viscous flow effects. The propeller models proposed in this paper are applied to predict isolated propeller performances under steady flight conditions. Trimmed level forward and turn flights are analyzed to investigate the effects of the propeller on the flight characteristics of a propeller-driven light-sports airplane. Flight test results for a series of maneuvering flights using a scaled model are employed to run the flight dynamic analysis program for the proposed propeller models. The simulations are compared with the flight test results to validate the usefulness of the approach. The resultant good correlations between the two data sets shows the propeller models proposed in this paper can predict flight characteristics with good accuracy.
Flight Dynamics Analyses of a Propeller-Driven Airplane (II): Building a High-Fidelity Mathematical Model and Applications
Kim, Chang-Joo ; Kim, Sang Ho ; Park, TaeSan ; Park, Soo Hyung ; Lee, Jae Woo ; Ko, Joon Soo ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 356~365
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.356
This paper is the second in a series and aims to build a high-fidelity mathematical model for a propeller-driven airplane using the propeller's aerodynamics and inertial models, as developed in the first paper. It focuses on aerodynamic models for the fuselage, the main wing, and the stabilizers under the influence of the wake trailed from the propeller. For this, application of the vortex lattice method is proposed to reflect the propeller's wake effect on those aerodynamic surfaces. By considering the maneuvering flight states and the flow field generated by the propeller wake, the induced velocity at any point on the aerodynamic surfaces can be computed for general flight conditions. Thus, strip theory is well suited to predict the distribution of air loads over wing components and the viscous flow effect can be duly considered using the 2D aerodynamic coefficients for the airfoils used in each wing. These approaches are implemented in building a high-fidelity mathematical model for a propeller-driven airplane. Flight dynamic analysis modules for the trim, linearization, and simulation analyses were developed using the proposed techniques. The flight test results for a series of maneuvering flights with a scaled model were used for comparison with those obtained using the flight dynamics analysis modules to validate the usefulness of the present approaches. The resulting good correlations between the two data sets demonstrate that the flight characteristics of the propeller-driven airplane can be analyzed effectively through the integrated framework with the propeller and airframe aerodynamic models proposed in this study.
Simulation of Conceptual Designs of a Three-Surface Stealth Strike Fighter
Kuizhi, Yue ; ShiChun, Chen ; Wenlin, Liu ; Dazhao, Yu ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 366~373
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.366
A conceptual design of a three-surface strike fighter was studied and stealth performance was taken into account to enhance survivability and battle effectiveness. CATIA was used to design the aircraft's three-dimensional prototype model and the weapon carriage arrangement was also studied. The aircraft's RCS characteristics and distributions under X, S, C, and L bands were simulated using the RCSPlus software, which is based on the PO method. Pressure and velocity distributions of the flow field were also simulated using CFD. A turbulence model was based on standard
function and N-S functions were used during the CFD computation. Lift coefficients, drag coefficients, and lift-to-drag ratio were obtained by aerodynamic simulation. The results showed that: (1) the average value of head-on RCS between
is below -3.197 dBsm, and (2) the lift coefficient is 0.34674, the drag coefficient is 0.04275, and the lift-to-drag ratio is 8.11087 when the attack angle is
Computational Analysis of the Aerodynamic Performance of a Long-Endurance UAV
Jin, Wonjin ; Lee, Yung-Gyo ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 374~382
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.374
This paper presents the computational aerodynamic analysis of a long-endurance UAV that was developed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), named EAV-2. EAV-2 is a technical demonstrator of aerodynamically efficient design, as well as a hybrid electric-propulsion system for future long-endurance UAVs. We evaluated the aerodynamic characteristics of six low-Reynolds number airfoils, using a panel method code, XFOIL, to select an optimal airfoil for the long-endurance mission of EAV-2. The computational results by a CFD code, FLUENT, suggested that the aerodynamic performance of EAV-2 would be notably improved after adopting SG6043 airfoil, and modifying the fuselage design. This reduced the total drag by 43%, compared to that of a previous KARI model, EAV-1, at the target lift of
. Also, we achieved a drag reduction of approximately 14% by means of the low-drag fuselage configuration.
Wing weight estimation considering constraints of structural strength and stiffness in aircraft conceptual design
Bai, Chen ; Mingqiang, Luo ; Zhong, Shen ; Zhe, Wu ; Yiming, Man ; Lei, Fang ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 383~395
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.383
According to the requirement of wing weight estimation and frequent adjustments during aircraft conceptual design, a wing weight estimation method considering the constraints of structural strength and stiffness is proposed to help designers make wing weight estimations rapidly and accurately. This method implements weight predictions on the basis of structure weight optimization with stiffness constraints and strength constraints, which include achievement of wing shape parametric modeling, rapid structure layout, finite element (FE) model automated generation, load calculation, structure analysis, weight optimization, and weight computed based on modeling. A software tool is developed with this wing weight estimation method. This software can realize the whole process of wing weight estimation with the method and the workload of wing weight estimation is reduced because much of the work can be completed by the software. Finally, an example is given to illustrate that this weight estimation method is effective.
Piezoelectric shunt damping by synchronized switching on negative capacitance and adaptive voltage sources
Qureshi, Ehtesham Mustafa ; Shen, Xing ; Chen, JinJin ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 396~411
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.396
Synchronized switch damping (SSD) techniques have recently been developed for structural vibration control using piezoelectric materials. In these techniques, piezoelectric materials are bonded on the vibrating structure and shunted by a network of electrical elements. These piezoelectric materials are switched according to the amplitude of the excitation force to damp vibration. This paper presents a new SSD technique called 'synchronized switch damping on negative capacitance and adaptive voltage sources' (SSDNCAV). The technique combines the phenomenon of capacitance transient charging and electrical resonance to effectively dampen the structural vibration. Also, the problem of stability observed in the previous SSD techniques is effectively addressed by adapting the voltage on the piezoelectric patch according to the vibration amplitude of the structure. Analytical expressions of vibration attenuation at the resonance frequency are derived, and the effectiveness of this new technique is demonstrated, for the control of a resonant cantilever beam with bonded piezoelectric patches, by comparing with SSDI, SSDVenh, and SSDNC techniques. Theoretical predictions and experimental results show the remarkable vibration damping capability of SSDNCAV technique, which was better than the previous SSD techniques. The broadband vibration control capabilities of SSDNCAV technique are also demonstrated, which exceed those of previous SSD techniques.
Variable stability system control law development for in-flight simulation of pitch/roll/yaw rate and normal load
Ko, Joon Soo ; Park, Sungsu ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 412~418
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.412
This paper describes the development of variable stability system (VSS) control laws for the KFA-i to simulate the dynamics of KFA-m aircraft. The KFA-i is a single engine, Class IV aircraft and was selected as an in-flight simulator (IFS) aircraft, whereas the KFA-m is a simulated aircraft that is based on the F-16 aircraft. A 6-DoF math model of KFA-i aircraft was developed, linearized, and separated into longitudinal and lateral motion for VSS control law synthesis. The KFA-i aircraft has five primary control surfaces: two flaperons, two all movable horizontal tails, and one rudder. Flaperons are used for load control, the horizontal tails are used for pitch and roll rate control, and the rudder is used for yaw rate control. The developed VSS control law can simulate four parameters of the KFA-m aircraft simultaneously, such as pitch, roll, yaw rates, and load. The simulation results show that KFA-i follows the responses of KFA-m with high accuracy.
Opportunity Rover's image analysis: Microbialites on Mars?
Bianciardi, Giorgio ; Rizzo, Vincenzo ; Cantasano, Nicola ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 419~433
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.419
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity investigated plains at Meridiani Planum, where laminated sedimentary rocks are present. The Opportunity rover's Athena morphological investigation showed microstructures organized in intertwined filaments of microspherules: a texture we have also found on samples of terrestrial (biogenic) stromatolites and other microbialites. We performed a quantitative image analysis to compare images (n=45) of microbialites with the images (n=30) photographed by the rover (corresponding, approximately, to 25,000/15,000 microstructures). Contours were extracted and morphometric indexes were obtained: geometric and algorithmic complexities, entropy, tortuosity, minimum and maximum diameters. Terrestrial and Martian textures present a multifractal aspect. Mean values and confidence intervals from the Martian images overlapped perfectly with those from the terrestrial samples. The probability of this occurring by chance is
, less than p<0.004. Terrestrial abiogenic pseudostromatolites showed a simple fractal structure and different morphometric values from those of the terrestrial biogenic stromatolite images or Martian images with a less ordered texture (p<0.001). Our work shows the presumptive evidence of microbialites in the Martian outcroppings: i.e., the presence of unicellular life on the ancient Mars.
Performance Analysis of an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine using Particle Swarm Optimization
Choi, Jae Won ; Sung, Hong-Gye ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 434~443
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.434
A turbo fan engine performance analysis and the optimization using particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithm have been conducted to investigate the effects of major performance design parameters of an aircraft gas turbine engine. The FJ44-2C turbofan engine, which is widely used in the small business jet, CJ2 has been selected as the basic model. The design parameters consists of the bypass ratio, burner exit temperature, HP compressor ratio, fan inlet mass flow, and nozzle cooling air ratio. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters has been evaluated and the optimization of the parameters has been performed to achieve high net thrust or low specific fuel consumption.
Experimental study on the spray characteristics of a dual-manifold liquid-centered swirl coaxial injector
Lee, Ingyu ; Yoon, Jungsoo ; Park, Gujeong ; Yoon, Youngbin ;
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2014, Pages 444~453
DOI : 10.5139/IJASS.2014.15.4.444
A throttleable rocket engine enables operational possibilities such as the docking of spacecraft, maneuvering in a certain orbit and landing on a planet's surface, altitude control, and entrance to atmosphere-less planets. Thus, throttling methods have long been researched. However, dual-manifold injectors, which represent one throttling method, have been investigated less than others. In this study, dual-manifold and single-manifold injectors were compared to determine the characteristics of dual-manifold injectors. Also, the effects of gas injection were investigated with various F/O ratios. To investigate the characteristics, mass flow rate, spray pattern, spray angle, and droplet size were measured. The spray angle and droplet size were captured by indirect photography. About 30 images were taken to assess the spray patterns and spray angle. Also, 700 images were analyzed to understand the droplet distribution and targeting area, moving to the right from the centerline with 1.11-cm intervals. The droplet size was obtained from an image processing procedure. From the results, the spray angle showed two transition regions, due to swirl momentum in the swirl chamber regardless of the F/O ratio. The droplet size showed similar trends in both dual-manifold and single-manifold injectors except in the low mass flow rate region. In the case of the dual- manifold injector, the spray cone was not fully developed in the low mass flow rate region due to low angular momentum in the swirl chamber.