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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Machinability for Super Heat-resistant Alloys Inconel 600 in Turning Process
Won, Jong-Sik ; Lim, Eun-Seong ; Jung, Yoon-Gyo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1~8
Recently, super heat-resistant alloy Inconel 600 come into spotlight as the material of airplane parts but this material causes lots of problems that is, reduction of machinability and attritious wear and breakage of cutting tool during turning processing due to high temperature strength and cohesion between tool material and Inconel 600. Therefore, in this study, it was purposed to determine tool material kind and to select of proper cutting range when turning process was carried out for Inconel 600. In order to these Purpose, coated carbide tool and ceramic tool was used in this experiment and the machinability of Inconel 600 was investigated from perspective of the cutting force, chipping and wear of tool and deposition phenomenon of chip.
A Study on the Geometric Error Prediction of Workpiece in Turning
Lee, Mun-Jae ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Lee, Choon-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 9~15
Any relative deformation between the cutting tool and the workpiece at machining point results directly in geometric and dimensional errors. The sources of relative deformations between the cutting tool and the workpiece at the contact point may be due to vibration, thermal deformation and cutting forces. In this paper, geometric error prediction of workpiece in turning has been investigated. To reach this goal, turning experiments are carried out according to selected cutting conditions. The variable cutting conditions are cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The results will be useful as a guidance to select cutting conditions to improve the geometrical accuracy.
A Basic Study on the Surface Roughness in Turning Process Considering Taper Angle Variation
Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Choi, Jun-Young ; Lee, Choon-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 16~21
In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important factor for many turned products. In this paper, surface quality in turning machining considering angle variation has been investigated. To reach this goal, surface quality turning experiments are carried out according to cutting conditions with angle variation. The variable cutting conditions are cutting speed, feed rate and taper angle of workpiece. The surface roughness was measured and the effects of cutting conditions were analyzed by the method of analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the experimental results and ANOVA, it is found that a better surface roughness can be obtained as decreasing feed rate, increasing cutting speed. Taper angle variation has been more influenced by feed rate and cutting speed.
Micro Patterning of Roll using Fast Tool Servo System
Lu, Hong ; Choi, Soo-Chang ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Park, Chun-Hong ; Lee, Deug-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 22~26
The application of fast tool servo (FTS) for diamond turning has been investigated extensively. This paper focuses on the fabrication of the sinusoidal microstructure on a roller, which generated by a piezoelectric-assisted FTS. The influence of the machining parameters on the microstructure configuration was investigated. The experiment results point out that the configuration of the machined microstructure depends mainly on the spindle speed, the diameter of roller and the driving frequency of FTS. The calculation method of the microstructure dimension was reported. The turning test results show that the diamond tool can be moved up to 1kHz without any reinjected vibration in the machining and the peak-to-valley amplitude of the machined sinusoidal microstructure is about 12<
A Study on Cutting Characteristic of Tapered Groove in Turning
Choi, Chi-Hyuk ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Lee, Choon-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 27~32
In recently, it is demanded development of manufacturing techniques for machining of various mechanical parts. Therefore the development of turning is one of the important manufacturing techniques. In this study, an experimental shape in tapered groove turning was suggested, and the turning process was investigated by analyzing cutting speed, feed rate, tapered angle, depth of cut. The surface roughness and cutting force change in the workpiece was measured. From the results, the optimum machining conditions are obtained by design of experiments.
Wireless Communication Real-Time Travelling Control of Mobile Robot by Voice Command
Shim, Byoung-Kyun ; Han, Sung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 33~38
We describe a research about remote control of mobile robot based on voice command in this paper. Through real-time remote control and wireless network capabilities of an unmanned remote-control experiments and Home Security / exercise with an unmanned robot, remote control and voice recognition and voice transmission are possible to transmit on a PC using a microphone to control a robot to pinpoint of the source. Speech recognition can be controlled robot by using a remote control. In this research, speech recognition speed and direction of self-driving robot were controlled by a wireless remote control in order to verify the performance of mobile robot with two drives.
A Development of Control System for Agricultural Machinery by using Distributed Control
Yang, Sung-Soo ; Park, Kyoung-Seok ; Shin, Dong-Won ; Yi, Jae-Shik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 39~45
Due to the introduction of the electronic control systems, agricultural machine is getting complicated with its special function. The complex electronics system increases difficulty of maintenances in the wiring harness system. The heavy wiring harness has some poor reliability and workability in the production line of manufacture also. So, in this study, some small local control modules are developed to complement the difficulties with the benefits of distributed control system. All of the local control modules are connected by using CAN communication. This system developed this study has the advantages of modification or alteration of wiring and local modules. All the sensors and actuators can be easily monitored and controlled by the main controller with the appropriate communication protocol made by in this study.
A Study on Grinding for Inner Race
Kim, Woo-Kang ; Kim, Geon-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 46~49
The grinding is a popular process for studying constant velocity joint and process in automobile industry. In this study, The study gives the data of wheel type and grinding of inner race is developed. As a result I obtained the data of grinding conditions makes good surface roughness get a grinding conditions. The grinding characteristics and conditions of inner race were investigated with respect to grinding feed, cutting depth, grinding time. The results were suddenly increased and the detailed surfaces were extremely obtained. Grinding condition was big more affected by grinding time, grinding speed and grinding depth.
Position Control of a Pneumatic Cylinder Actuator using PLC and Proximity Sensors
Kwon, Soon-Hong ; Choi, Won-Sik ; Chung, Sung-Won ; Park, Jong-Min ; Kwon, Soon-Goo ; So, Jung-Duk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 50~55
The fluid power products are widely used in current industrial area such as automation of products and equipment assembly, high-tech machine tool, aircraft, train, and etc. As the development of industry is in progress, the development of the fluid power products is demanding and it is required in every industrial area. This research proposed a pneumatic system to evaluate displacement accuracy of the pneumatic actuator without external load and to analyze capability of integration of the valve system. The pneumatic system consisted of a combination of pneumatic actuator, four two-port valves, two three-port valves, two pressure valve, a check valve, two proximity sensors, and a program logic controller (PLC). The position controller is based on the PLC connected with the proximity sensors. The maximum air pressure applied for tests was 49.05N/
and the displacement accuracy of a stroke was measured using a dial gauge. The supply- and discharge-side of air pressure and the length of the stroke of the pneumatic cylinder were varied The test of the position control of the pneumatic cylinder was carried out 50 times at each supply- and discharge-side air pressure of 24.53/34.34, 29.43/39.24, 34.34/44.15, and 39.24/49.05N/
and replicated three times. The accuracy of the displacement of the pneumatic cylinder stroke increased as the supply- and discharge-side of air pressure increased with the stroke length of 133mm. Also the displacement accuracy increased as the stroke length increased with the fixed supply- and discharge-side of air pressure of the pneumatic cylinder as 34.34 and 44.15N/
, respectively. The most accurate displacement of the pneumatic cylinder was obtained at the supplyand discharge-side of air pressure of 39.24 and 49.05N/
, respectively, and strokes of 170 and 190mm.
A Study on the Press Forming by Rectangular Tube of Al6063 Alloys
Lee, Choung-Kook ; Kim, Won-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 56~62
In this study, a method for the press forming of rectangular aluminium tube has been proposed. Rectangular aluminium tube has high stiff as the cold steel which can be lighter over 30% weight. It is increased every year by being recycled over 80%. Press die consists of punch, wing-die and holder for aluminium tube bending. When punch is applied with aluminium tube, holder is operated as same punch and wing-die is rotated through hinge. Stress-strain relations and springback are considered by bending angle of aluminium tube. In this study, the behaviors on tubes of square aluminium and rectangular aluminium with different thickness and area are established by the analysis of
-3D program. Reducing fuel consumption is expected by using the aluminium tube deformation and it becomes the lightweight through recycling.
Study on Durability by Vibration and Fatigue of the Helicopter
Han, Moon-Sik ; Cho, Jae-Ung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 63~69
This study analyzes stress, fatigue and vibration on main rotor and body of helicopter. The maximum stress is shown on adjoint part between body and main rotor at the lower position of main rotor. As the maximum displacement amplitude is happened at 4000Hz, there is no resonance and the state of helicopter becomes safe at hovering without the abnormal air current and the disabled rotor. Among the cases of nonuniform fatigue loads, 'SAE bracket history' with the severest change of load becomes most unstable but 'Sample history' becomes most stable. In case of 'Sample History' with the average stress of 0MPa to -
MPa and the amplitude stress of 0MPa to 8.539
MPa, the possibility of maximum damage becomes 3%. This stress state can be shown with 5 times more than the damage possibility of 'SAE bracket history' or 'SAE transmission'. The structural result of this study by using the analysis of vibration and fatigue can be effectively utilized for safe and durable design of helicopter.
Molding Design Factors Optimization for Maximizing Shrinkage Uniformity of Injection Molded Part using Design of Experiments
Park, Jong-Cheon ; Kim, Kyung-Mo ; Yin, Jeong-Je ; Lee, Jae-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 70~76
This paper presents an optimization procedure for reducing warpage of injection molded part by using a volumetric shrinkage deviation as an objective function. A design of experiments based on orthogonal arrays was used in the optimization procedure, and the entire optimization was performed through a two stage process - a preliminary experimentation and a principal experimentation. Proposed optimization method was applied to the design of a CPU-base part in computer. With the moderate number of experiments, an optimal molding condition for uniform distribution of volumetric shrinkage was obtained, as a result, the warpage of the molded part was significantly reduced.
An Experimental Study on Oil Pressure Distribution in the Piston-Cylinder Mechanism
Kim, Yeong-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 77~82
The piston-cylinder mechanism is widely adopted in the hydraulic machine components. In these cases, the hydrodynamic pressures are generated in the clearance gap between the piston and cylinder under lubrication action of the piston. Under the eccentric and tilted condition of the piston in the cylinder bore, the non-symmetric pressure distributions in the circumferential direction result in lateral forces. When the lateral forces act as increasing the eccentricity and tilting ratios, excessive wear can be result in cylinder and piston which are well known 'hydraulic locking' phenomena. In this paper, the hydrodynamic pressures generated in the clearance are measured using a stationary piston and moving cylinder apparatus. The experimental results showed that the hydrodynamic pressure distributions are highly affected by the speed and eccentricity of the cylinder and the oil viscosity.
High Temperature Creep Strength of Mg-Nd-Zr-Zn Alloy in Sand Castings
Kang, Dae-Min ; Park, Kyung-Do ; Park, Ji-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 83~88
Magnesium alloys have been focussed for the applications for lightweight of vehicle and electronics due to their high strength, low specific density and good damping capacity. This paper deals with the creep strength of Mg-Nd-Zr-Zn alloy. For the alloy, pure magnesium(99.9%) was melt with atmosphere of 0.3%SF6 and 25%
. After melting, 0.3% of zinc was inserted to stir for 10min at elevated temperature of 770
. Master alloys of Mg-15%Nd and Mg-15%Zr were stirred in furnace. The creep tests were performed to obtain creep rate and rupture in the temperature range of 200 to 220
and 280 to 310
at an applied stress of 156 to 172MPa and 78 to 94MPa, respectively. The deformation mechanism was predicted dislocation climb from measured apparent activation energy and stress exponent. Also the increaser the temperature and stress the lower the stress exponent and activation energy. Finally, LMP parameter gives good information for the predicted creep rupture life.
Study on Friction Characteristics in Nonmetal between Metal Materials
Kim, Jung-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 89~94
The wear characteristics between nonmetal and metals have been investigated using a disc on disc system. The specimens of nonmetal are made by the nylon and teflon materials. The specimens of the metal are used as eight kinds of along their hardness. The kinds of metals are copper(Hv96), aluminum(Hv186), brass(Hv234), aluminum bronze(Hv294), stainless steel(Hv327), annealing mild steel(Hv345), mild steel(Hv372), Hard steel(Hv434). In this study, a upper and lower specimens have been used the same size and shape. Using experimental data we figured the relationship between friction coefficient of nonmetal and metals. We figured the relationship between friction temperature of nonmetal and metals. The result had been verified a wear characteristics of nonmetal and metals in the wear tests.
Tool Path Generation for Micro-Abrasive Jet Machining Process with Micro-Mask
Kim, Ho-Chan ; Lee, In-Hwan ; Ko, Tae-Jo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 95~101
Micro-abrasive jet machining(
AJM) using mask is a fine machining technology which can carve a figure on a material. The mask should have holes exactly same as the required figure. Abrasive particles are jetted into the holes of the mask and it collide with the material. The collision break off small portion of the material. And the
AJM nozzle should move all over the machining area. However, in general the carving shape is modeled as in a bitmap figure, because it often contains characters. And the mask model is also often modeled from the bitmap image. Therefore, the machining path of the
AJM also efficient if it can be generated from the bitmap image. This paper suggest an algorithm which can generate
AJM tool path directly from the bitmap image of the carving figure. And shows some test results and applications.
Flow Characteristics of Dual Impinging Jets using PIV
Kim, Dong-Keon ; Kwon, Soon-Hong ; Chung, Sung-Won ; Park, Jong-Min ; Choi, Won-Sik ; Kim, Jong-Soon ; Kwon, Soon-Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 102~108
The flow characteristics of unventilated dual impinging jets were experimentally investigated. Two nozzles with an aspect ratio of 20 were separated by 6 nozzle widths. The Reynolds number based on nozzle width and nozzle exit velocity was set to 5,000. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure turbulent velocity components. It was found that, when an impingement plate was installed in the converging region, there was a stagnation region in the inner area between nozzles. However, when it was installed in the combined region, both jets were merged and collided into the plate, showing single-jet characteristics. In addition, at a dual impinging jet, as the distance between a nozzle and an impingement plate decreased, the spanwise turbulent intensity at the plate increased.
The Selection of the Optimal Condition of Plug using the Taguchi Method
Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 109~114
Manufacturing process of plugs is firstly performed in the making of FRP yacht so it is an essential process for making original form. In the developed countries, it has been useful to manufacture structures of streamlined forms or complex forms, which have been difficult to manufacture due to limits of the traditional hand-made technology, by introducing 5-axis machining technology. In this study, the factors that affect most in the machining were found by using Taguchi Method in order to select the optimized machining conditions for 5-axis machines, and the ways to improve the surface roughness of machined products by applying those factors.
Comparisons of Dust Collection Efficiency on the Tangental Entry and Axial-vane Type Cyclone
Yi, Chung-Seob ; Lee, Chi-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 115~121
This study is about comparison of tangental entry type cyclone dust collector with axial vane type cyclone dust collector. Cut diameter and dust collection efficiency of both collector was compared by theory and experiment. Cut diameter was calculated by an quasi-empirical formula by Lapple and Shepherd. Measurement of cut diameter was conducted by particle counter through dust generator. As the result, cut diameter obtained by experiment was a little larger than that by theory. But the error is within 0.5
in both type of collector, so it could be confirmed that theoretical value and experimental value were almost identical. And, as flow rate increased, dust collection efficiency was increased. Also axial vane type showed higher dust collection efficiency than tangental entry type. Therefore, it can be said that axial vane type cyclone dust collector has higher performance than the other.
Comparison of Collecting Performance according to Contact Types of Heatpipe in Vacuum Tube Type Solar Collector
Yun, Ji-Hun ; Jeong, In-Guk ; Yi, Chung-Seob ; Chung, Kyung-Teak ; Suh, Jeong-Se ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 122~127
In this study, it was compared collecting performance according to contact types between heatpipe and manifold of vacuum tube type solar collector. Between two types, direct contact type is better in collecting performance. On the other hand, Indirect type have advantage in maintenance. In the result of numerical analysis, As the temperature of heatpipe and flow rate of working fluid increased, difference of outlet mean temperature of two types became large. Also, it could be confirmed, as contact resistance between heatpipe and copper tube in indirect type increased, the difference increased too. Useful data in selection and design in vacuum tube type solar collector were proposed by the results of numerical analysis.
Study on Optimal Welding Condition for Shipbuilding Steel Materials
Kim, Ok-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 128~133
In this study, the steel material for shipbuilding(LR-A class) was used, and FCAW was taken advantage of 3G attitude and they are welded by different welding ways. As a result of analyzing wave with welding monitoring system, the stable values are obtained which are the first floor(electronic current 164~182 A, voltage 24 V), the second floor(electronic current 174~190 A, voltage 22~25 V), the third floor(electronic current 158~188 A, voltage 22~25 V), and fourth floor(electronic current 172~184 A, voltage 22~25 V), at this time, the stable wave standard deviation and changing coefficient could be obtained. When the welding testing through nondestructive inspection was analyzed know defect of welding, there was no defect of welding in A, D, E, but some porosities in B, and slag conclusion near the surface in C, because the length of arc was not accurate, and the electronic current and voltage was not stable. After observing the change of heat affect zone through micro testing, each organization of floor formed as Grain Refinement, so welding part was fine, the distance of heat affect zone is getting wider up to change the values of the electronic current and voltage. As a result of degree of hardness testing, the hardness orders were the heat affect zone(HAZ), Welding Zone(WZ), and Base Metal(BM). When the distribution of degree of hardness is observed. B is the highest degree of hardness The reason why heat effect zone is higher than welding zone and base metal, welding zone is boiled over melting point(1539
) and it starts to melt after the result of analysis through metal microscope, so we can know that delicate tissue is created at the welding zone. Therefore, in order to get the optimal conditions of the welding, the proper current of the welding and voltage is needed. Furthermore the precise work of welding is required.
A Study on Numerical Analysis for Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics in a Ribbed Tube
Jeon, Jeong-Do ; Jeon, Eon-Chan ; Jeung, Hui-Gyun ; Lee, Chi-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 134~139
This study was conducted on the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in the ribbed tube used for a steam power plant. It was assumed that the air is incompressible and therefore, its density is not variable according to temperature. In addition, the gravity was ignored. A commercial code of computational fluid dynamics was used and standard k-
model was used together with the energy equation included to calculate heat transfer. As Reynolds No. was low at the velocity distribution in the axial direction, the air reached hydro-dynamically fully developed region shortly but high Reynolds No. yielded late full hydro-dynamic development. The velocity distribution and non-dimensional temperature distribution were all physically reasonable and thus had a good agreement with the experimental result.
Analysis of Anisotropic Structures under Multiphysics Environment
Kim, Jun-Sik ; Lee, Jae-Hun ; Park, Jun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 140~145
An anisotropic beam model is proposed by employing an asymptotic expansion method for thermo-mechanical multiphysics environment. An asymptotic method based on virtual work is introduced first, and then the variables of mechanical displacement and temperature rise are asymptotically expanded by taking advantage of geometrical slenderness of elastic bodies. Subsequently substituting these expansions into the virtual work principle allows us to asymptotically expand the virtual work. This will yield a set of recursive virtual works from which two-dimensional microscopic and one-dimensional macroscopic equations are systematically derived at each order. In this way, homogenized stiffnesses and thermomechanical coupling coefficients are derived. To demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach, composite beams are taken as a test-bed example. The results obtained herein are compared to those of three-dimensional finite element analysis.
A Three-Dimensional CFD Study on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wax Spin Coater for Silicon Wafer Manufacturing
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Kim, Dong-Joo ; Umarov, Alisher ; Kim, Kyoung-Jin ; Park, Jun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 146~151
Wax spin coating is a part of several wafer handling processes in the silicon wafer polishing station. It is important to ensure the wax layer free of contamination to achieve the high degree of planarization on wafers after wafer polishing. Three-dimensional air flow characteristics in a wax spin coater are numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques. When the bottom of the wax spin coater is closed, there exists a significant recirculation zone over the rotating ceramic block. This recirculation zone can be the source of wax layer contamination at any rotational speed and should be avoided to maintain high wafer polishing quality. Thus, four air suction ducts are installed at the bottom of the wax spin coater in order to control the air flow pattern over the ceramic block. Present computational results show that the air suction from the bottom is quite an effective method to remove or minimize the recirculation zone over the ceramic block and the wax coating layer.
Rigid-Thermoviscoplastic Finite Element Analysis of an Electric Upsetting Process
Choi, In-Su ; Kim, Min-Cheol ; Kim, Hong-Tae ; Joun, Man-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 152~158
An electric upsetting process by the rigid-thermoviscoplastic finite element method was simulated in this study. Several engineering assumptions were made to calculate the heat generation due to the electric resistance. The skin effect of the bar was taken into account for the heat generation. The approach was applied to simulate an artifical electric upsetting process for the exhaust valve of the ship engine.
Development of Buffer frame for ATV
Kim, Joon-An ; Jun, Jae-Uhk ; Ko, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, volume 10, issue 6, 2011, Pages 159~164
This paper is about the frame for an all terrain vehicle(ATV). An all terrain vehicle, also known as an ATV, has a seat designed to comfortably accommodate a rider over a wide variety of rugged terrain. This study developed and evaluated a buffer system to drive safely and reduce impact force on the load. The Frame includes a main frame portion which has one or more support frames. The buffer system with a double cushion system, one or more of the interaction of the shock absorber is constructed. The 3D modeling of ATV frame is built up with the software CATIA. According to the designing requirement, we analyzed the stress and the deformation of the frame.