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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Dec 1982
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Jun 1982
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Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Soils-1981
Park, Chang-Kyu ; Ma, Yeon-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 1~13
Composite soil samples from 236 sites representing paddy field, up-land, orchard and plastic film house were examined for organochlorine residues by GLC-ECD. Detection frequencies and residual levels of most persistent organochlorine residues in the soil samples were found to depend on the cropping practices. Highest organochlorine residues were found in orchard soils and followed, in decreasing order, plastic film house, up-land and paddy field soils.
, dieldrin, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT were responsible for the observed high organochlorine residues in the orchard soils.
were detected in all 236 soil samples. The mean residue levels of both BHC isomers were, however, remained fairly low. Residues of PCNB and
in native soils are reported, for the first time, in present work. PCNB was present in up-land plastic film house soils while
was found in all agricultural soils studied. High levels of p,p'-DDT and dieldrin were discussed in relation to crops cultivated, amount and duration of the pesticides usage. Need for continued observations on the persistent residue of pesticides in soils, already banned for general use, is emphasized.
Studies on Analytical Methods for N-Methylcarbamate Residues in Crops by Spectrophotometry and Gas Liquid Chromatography
Oh, Byung-Youl ; Jeong, Young-Ho ; Park, Young-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 14~21
Analytical methods for residues of six N-methylcarbamate insecticides were investigated to compare the minimum detectability, recovery from several crops and feasibility of multiple residue analysis. Those methods studied in this work included spectrophotometry by diazotization and gas chromatography by N-trifluoroacetylation(TFA), pentafluorobenzylether(PFB) and dinitrophenylether (DNP) derivatization. Maximum absorbed wavelength of the diazotized MIPC, XMC, BPMC, propoxur and carbofu ran was around 460 ㎚, while that of carbaryl recorded 510 ㎚. Recovery from brown rice and apple by diazotization method ranged from 80 to 120% and minimum detectable limits were 0.03 to 0.05 ppm in 50 g of the sample. Minimum detectability of PFB derivatives by gas chromatography was superior to TFA and DNP derivatives. DNP derivatives showed the longest retention time among the given derivatives. Recovery from crops by gas chromatographic met hod ranged 74 to 94%, 78 to 93%, and 85 to 99% in brown rice, rice straw and apple, respectively. Limit of detection was 0.01 ppm for TFA, 0.005 ppm for PFB and 0.02 ppm for DNP derivatives in 50 g of the crop samples.
A Study on the Irrigation Water Pollution of the Gimhae Plain
Ha, Ho-Sung ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 22~30
Water quality of downstream of the Nagdong river, using for agricultural irrigation of the Gimhae plain, were observed. Water temperature, turbidity, residue, pH, BOD, COD, DO, hardness, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, inorganic nitrogenous compounds, sodium, general bacteria, E. coli and heavy metals of the water were investigated at Daejeo, Sikman, Bongrim, Noksan, Machal and Jangyou pumping stations in the Gimhae plain in May, July and October, 1981. The results obtained were as follows; 1) Average value of analyzed components of the water at all sampling sites were 7.8 pH, 6.3 ppm BOD, 6.5 ppm COD, 6.4 ppm DO, 231 ppm hardness, 582 ppm Cl-, 412 ppm
, 2.32 ppm
, 3.8 ppm
, 2964 No. /100 ml total coliform, 0.0040 ppm Cd, 0.0066 ppm Pb, respectively. 2) The most heavily polluted site of all investigated ones was Sikman. It seemed to be caused by the vast quantity of wastewater discharged from industrial district in Gimhae city. The next polluted sites were Bongrim, Daejeo and Noksan, and comparatively less polluted sites were Machal and Jangyou, judging from both appearance and physicochemical observation. 3) At Sikman, the most heavily polluted site, average value of components were 8.0 pH, 8.1 ppm BOD, 8.2 ppm COD. These values were close to the limit point of agricultural water quality standard of 8.0 ppm BOD (COD). 4) Any apparent variation was not observed by the sampling season in most components except DO and
. DO of October was higher than that of May or July but
was low. 5)
content was comparatively high in downstream of the Nagdong river of which water is used as the agricultural irrigation in the Gimhae plain. Therefore, fertilizer application on the farming land must make account of nitrogen content of the irrigation water 6) It was considered that chloride and sodium contents would not influence the crop cultivation in common season, but in dry season irrigation must be done carefully.
Studies on the Water Quality along the Midstream of Nakdong River in
Choi, Eon-Ho ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 31~38
The water quality at the Nakdong River stream was surveyed for 3 years from 1978 to 1980 at quarterly intervals of January, April, June and October at 12 sites along the main stream from Sangju to Imhaejin and at 2 sites of Geumho and Nam River tributaries. The overall results are summarized as follows: 1) The levels of dissolved oxygen in the Geumho River tributary on the basis of three-year average were 0.7 ppm in January, 1.3 ppm in April, 4.0 ppm in July and 0.8 ppm in October. BOD concentrations in the same period were 91 ppm in January, 37 ppm in April, 6 ppm in July and 24 ppm in October. The water of Geumho River was so highly contaminated that the water seems to be unsuitable for any type of water use. 2) The relatively clean water in the upstream of the main Nakdong River was rapidly polluted by the highly contaminated water of Geumho tributary. That is, dissolved oxygen and BOD at Hwawon site right after junction of the tributary were 10.4, 8.8 ppm in January, 5.8, 6.5 ppm in April, 6.3, 3.2 ppm in July and 7.0, 5.3 ppm in October, respectively. The values of turbidity, ammoniacal nitrogen and electrical conductivity were also observed to be quite high.
Assessment of Self-purification Capacity along the Midstream of Nakdong River
Choi, Eon-Ho ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 39~47
Dissolved oxygen, BOD and flow pattern of the Nakdong River stream were measured for 3 years from 1978 to 1980 at quarterly intervals of January, April, June and October at 12 sites along the main stream from Sangju to Imhaejin and at 2 sites of Geumho and Nam River tributaries. With these data, the self-purification factors of the river were computed to obtain the following results: 1) The average BOD loads per day at the tributary of Geumho River were 94 tons in January, 39 tons in April, 60 tons in July and 54 tons in October, and these are considered to be the main source of water pollution toward the main stream of the Nakdong River. 2) Self-purification factors for the Hwawon-Hyunpung region of the main stream after receiving Geumho River water were computed to give
. The oxygen-sag curves constructed for the main stream showed a remarkable decline at Hwawon and a quick recovery at Hyunpung, indicating a rapid decomposition of pollution loads received from the Geumho River. It was confirmed that the self-purification capacity of the Nakdong River was relatively high.
Application of Epifluorescence, Microscopy for Measurement of Bacterial Population in Water Supplies
Rhee, Young-Hwan ; Shin, Seung-Yee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 48~52
Methods for the measurement of aquatic bacteria can be divided into two groups. The first group of these methods is based on the 'replicon' concept that live bacterial cells, when diluted and transferred to a suitable medium, produce colonies. These methods distinguish living from dead bacteria, but they massively underestimate bacterial numbers. The second group of enumeration methods uses visual counting technique using specific apparatus such as a microscope. These methods are generally direct and simple, but it is very hard to distinguish between live and dead bacteria and between small particle and bacteria. Recently developed technique in staining methods has provided a reliable method of visual determination of aquatic bacteria. This uses epifluorescence microscopy to measure the total bacterial population. In order to present the fluorescence microscopy as a new methodology for the determination of bacterial numbers in water supplies, data were obtained from chlorine and monochloramine doses added to samples. Total counts by fluorescence microscopy were compared with standard plate count method. The total number of bacteria in water supplies can be determined with fluorescence microscopy. This technique allows better resolution of small bacteria and differentiation of particle from bacteria. Chloramine was found to persist longer in natural waters and prevent bacterial regrowth.
Effects of Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Gas Fumigation on Rice and Soybean Plants
Kim, Bok-Young ; Kim, Kyu-Sik ; Han, Ki-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 53~58
A study was carried out to examine the effects of chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas with various concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and
on rice and soybean plants. Symptoms, ratios of destroyed leaf, grain yield and chlorophyll contents in leaves were investigated. The results are as follows. 1) Hydrogen chloride gas damaged the margine parts of rice and soybean leaves, but chlorine appeared grayish subtle spots in whole parts of rice and soybean leaves. 2) Rice leaves showed higher damage ratio in hydrogen chloride fumigation than in soybean leaves, but less damage in chlorine. 3) Chlorophyll contents in rice leaves were higher in chlorine gas fumigated than hydrogen chloride fumigated. 4) The ratio of destroyed leaf was negatively correlated with chlorophyll contents.
Effects of Soil Moisture, Seasons, Harvesting Period and Fertilizer Application on the Nitrate Content of Radish(Raphanus sativus L. var. niger(Mill.) S. Kerner)
Park, Kuen-Woo ; Fritz, D. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 59~64
Studies on the effect of soil moisture, different seasons, harvesting periods and nitrogen application on the nitrate content of radish(Raphanus sativus L. var. niger(Mill.) S. Kerner) were carried out in pot and green house. The results are as follows; The low level of soil moisture leads to an increased nitrate accumulation in radish root. The nitrate content was found to be higher in spring crops and lower in summer ones. It was decreased during harvesting period. The application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the nitrate content in radish root. We found the highest content in petioles with lesser content in roots and leaf blades in that order. The multiple regression analysis and the nutritional value of nitrate content in radish were discussed.
Effect of Repeated Application of IBP on the Degradation of Pesticides in Flooded Soil
Song, Byeong-Hun ; Jeong, Young-Ho ; Park, Young-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 65~70
This experiment was conducted to see the effect of repeated application of IBP granular formulation(17%, 0,0-diisopropyl-S-benzyl thiophosphate) on the biodegradation of IBP and diazinon〔0,0-diethyl 0-(2-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate〕 in silt loam soil with 2.1% organic matter under flooded condition. The persistence of IBP in the soil was shortened by increasing the frequencies of application of the chemical. Enhanced degradation ability in the soil caused by repeated application of IBP was prolonged about 53 days, while the ability did not influence diazinon persistence in the soil. The half-lives of IBP in sterilized soil autoclaved at
for 30 minutes were about 3 times longer than those in viable soil, suggesting that microbial process was a major factor for IBP degradation in the soil. The total colony number of soil microbes showed little difference between the soils with and without repeated application of IBP. A possible concern of specific soil microorganisms on the pesticide degradation in soil was discussed.
Injury in Several Ornamental Trees and Shrubs as Influenced by Season and Growth Retardant Pretreatment
Lee, Jung-Myung ; Park, Tae-Gyoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 1, issue 1, 1982, Pages 71~73
injury was higher in the foliage of several ornamental plants when treated in July than in August or September. Spray of daminozide at 2,500 ppm 7 days before
fumigation had no effect on
injury whereas MH pretreatment increased
injury in Hibiscus syriacus.