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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Dec 1993
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Aug 1993
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Apr 1993
Selecting the target year
Survey on Heavy Metals Contents in Native Plant near Old Zinc - Mining Sites
Jung, Ki-Chai ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Han, Sang-Guk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 105~111
This study was carried out to find heavy metal contents in soil and in native plant in the regions near by zinc-mines, located at the Chilgok and Uljin Gun in Kyeongpook area. In the heavy metal contents during the to growth of native plants, Cd was contained in the order perennial > biennial > annual plant, but Cu was annual > perennial > biennial plant, and there was no difference in Zn contents. The native plants contained heavy metal highest were Osmunda japonica in Cd, Persicaria thunbergii H.G in Cu and Equisetum arvense L. in Zn. Cd was contained highest in Pteridaceae, Cu in Equisetaceae and Zn in Polygonaceae. In the heavy metal contents by the part of plant of Equisetum arvense L. and Erigeron canadensis, Cd and Zn were much contained in the order leaf > stem > root, but Cu was in the order root > leaf > stem. The average contents of Cd, Cu, Zn in soil were 1.27ppm. 12.04ppm. 64.28ppm in Chilgok, and 3.30ppm. 72.93ppm. 194.04ppm in Uljin respectively. There were positive correlations between Cd contents of heavy metals(Cd, Cu, Zn) in soil and in native plant, but not significant. It was estimated that Osmunda japonica, Pteridium aquilinum (KUHN) var and Equisetum arvense L. which most absorbed heavy metal have effect of exclusion of heavy metals near by zine-mines region.
Nitrification of the Soil Applied Urea for Winter Barley as Basal Dressing and Following Nitrate Release to the Environment
Kim, Sok-Dong ; Soh, Chang-Ho ; Kwon, Yong-Woong ; Lim, Ung-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 112~120
The use of fertilizer N is essential for maximum economic yield of crops. Meanwhile, enrichment of
in the environment has to be avoided. Winter barley crop has a short duration of growth before winter, but is used to receive N greater than 60 kg/ha at seeding. Experiments were performed to determine the quantitative aspect of the fate of soil applied urea N among the residual, leached, and uptaken by winter barley (cv. Olbori), and to evaluate the effect of soil temperature on nitrification. Four levels of urea (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg N/ha) was basal-dressed to Olbori.
appeared dominant in the soil until 40 days after seeding, whereas
did thereafter. Nitrification rate at
of soil temperature was 40 to 50% of that at
. Linear increases in the number of ammonia oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing bacteria of the soil was present as the level of urea fertilization was higher. Less than 60% of N applied at seeding was uptaken by winter barley until mid-March but 50% was lost from death of older barley leaves during overwintering. Thereby only 10% of the applied N remained in the barley in spring. Only 15% of the applied N was present in the rhizosphere. The 17 to 20% of the soil applied N leached out as
the rhizosphere. Nitrogen leaching during winter was estimated to be 16 and 20 kg/ha when the basal application level of urea fertilization was 80 and 120 kg/ha, respectively.
Degradation of the Herbicide Bentazon by Soil Microorganisms
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Cho, Kwang-Rae ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 121~128
In order to elucidate the degradation of the herbicide bentazon (3-isopropyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4-one-2,2-dioxide) by soil microorganisms, it was incubated at
under the submerged and upland soil conditions of the different soils in the Chung Buk area. When bentazon (200 ppm) was incubated in Cheong Won A soil (silty loam; pH, 5.2; organic matter 1.4%) under the submerged condition for 6 months, 6-hydroxy bentazon (1.27%) was formed as the major degradation product and 8-hydroxy bentazon (0.57%) and anthranilic acid (0.13%) were formed as the minor ones. Meanwhile, when 500 ppm of bentazon was incubated in the same soil for 2 months, a trace amount of 6-hydroxy bentazon was formed. Eight strains of microorganisms isolated from the soils did not give any distinct degradation products in the pure culture experiment. The greater dehydrogenase activity in Cheong Won A soil than in Cheong Ju A soil might be related to the greater bentazon-degradability of the former soil than that of the latter. When bentazon (10 ppm) was incubated for 14 days with 14 strains of bacteria and 8 strains of fungi, the identities of which were all known, Rhizopus stolonifer produced 4.6
31.6% of anthranilic acid as the major product from batch to batch, with trace amounts of 6-hydroxy bentazon and 8-hydroxy bentazon as minor products. The rest microorganisms did not produce any noticeable products.
A Study on the Characteristics of Water Pollution in Rural Areas
Kim, Han-Tea ; Kwun, Soon-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 129~143
The objective of this study is to understand the status of the water pollution in rural areas and to furnish a basic material for the management of the water pollution in rural areas. For this purpose, the Bokha river basin, Ichon-Gun, Kyungki-Do considering as a typical agricultural area was selected as a representative experimental watershed. The characteristics of water pollution in streams of the Bokha river basin was revealed by investigating and analyzing data collected for the source of pollution, water qualities in reaches of the stream, the degree of contribution to the river contamination by pollution mass produced from each source, and the status of the self-purification at the main stream. The most important source of the water pollution in investigated watershed was livestock, and the next important one were in the order of population, land use, and industry. The water quality of the Bokha river was relatively favorable judging from the BOD and COD concentration, however since the concentration of T-N and T-P showed significantly large values, it was concluded that the river was seriously contaminated by the nutrient material. The main cause of the river contamination was proved due to livestock waste. For the T-N, both land use and livestock were much more contributied to the pollution than any other source, which characterized the typical water pollution of rural areas. Run-off ratios for the Bokha river tributaries to the main stream were changed according to the similar trend to the variation of discharges in the branch streams. For the value of the self-purification constant at the main stream, it showed smaller value in the downstream reach than the middle-stream and upstream reaches, where could possibly have smaller reoxidation action due to slower velocity and deeper water depth.
Isolation of Synthetic Detergent Decomposing Microorganisms in Wastewater and Synthetic Detergent Decomposition Characterization of the Microorganisms
Lee, Hong-Jae ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Han, Mun-Gyu ; Choi, Jeong-Ho ; Lee, Chun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 144~152
A bacterium which degrades efficiently synthetic detergents was isolated from the polluted waters, activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants or polluted soil. This bacterium showed considerably higher growth rate in the agar plate containing
of synthetic detergents than any other isolated strains, was identified as a Pseudomonas fluorescens or strains similar to it. The strain was named as a Pseudomonas fluorescens S1. Optimum pH and temperature for the growth of the Pseudomonas fluorescens S1 were pH 7.0 and
, respectively. The strain was resistant to streptomycin and gentamycin, but sensitive to kanamycin. The strain was greatly resistant to zinc chloride, lead nitrate and copper sulfate, but unable to grow in the presence of relatively low concentrations of mercury chloride and silver nitrate. This strain utilized benzene, catechol, cyclohexane and xylene as a sole carbon source. The strain was well grown in the medium containing ABS 10,000
/ml. Degradation of ABS was 55% and 60% at 20
/ml and 100
/ml of ABS, respectively. Benzene ring was degraded 45% in 100
/ml of ABS. During the incubation of the strain in the medium containing ABS 100
/ml and COD 10,000
/ml for 4 days, degradation of ABS and COD were reduced to 40
/ml and 3,200
/ml, respectively. Total amino acid content of the Pseudomonas fluorescens S1 grown with 1,000
/ml of ABS was 115mg/g cell, whereas its content was decreased in the bacterium grown without synthetic detergent by 9.4%.
Study on the Screening of the
Resistant Species for Landscape in Air Polluted Area
Lim, Soo-Kil ; Lee, Joong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 153~161
This study was conducted to compare the resistance and sensitivity of trees with 6 native species exposing to 4 different levels of
gas(0.4, 0.7, 1.5 and 3.0 ppm) respectively. The results are summarized as follows : 1. Visible injuries appeared as spots in the region of intervein on the leaves for all the species and the color of the spots changed from light green and/or brown to light brown, dark brown, and/or redish brown. 2. The sensitivity of the species to
was high in the descending order of Zizyphus jujuba, Cataegus pinnatifida, Viburnum sargentii, Weigela subsessilis, Euonymus japonica, and Acer ginnala. 3. The resistance of the species to
was high in the descending order of Acer ginnala, Eunymus japonica Viburnum sargentii, Weigela subsessilis, Zizyphus jujuba, and Crataegus pinnatifida. 4. When the trees were exposed to
gas, the contents of chlorophyll a, b, and a+b were consostently lower than those of control, and water soluble sulfur contents in the leaves were higher than those of control. 5. There was no significant correlation between stomatal resistance and the sensitivity(or resistance) of the trees exposed to
gas. 6. In this study, it was concluded that Acer ginnala was more suitable species than the others for landscape in air polluted area because it showed high resistance, low sensitivity, and low stromal resistance to
Influence of Humic or Fulvic Acid on Phytotoxicity of Bentazone
Han, Dae-Sung ; Yang, Jae-E ; Shin, Yong-Keon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 162~168
This research was conducted to assess the influence of humic or fulvic acid on Bentazone phytotoxicity using a bioassay with hydroponically grown cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. napus var. pekinensis Makino). Concentrations of Bentazone in the water culture media were ranged from 0 to 32
and those of the organic ligands were 1.0mM as a soluble carbon. Media were prepared in a complete factorial combination with pHs of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5. The phytotoxicity indices on growth rate and dry weight decrement were employed to evaluate the effects of organic ligands on the Bentazone phytotoxicity. Humic or fulvic acid without Bentazone treatment enhanced the growth of cabbage and this effect was evident at low pH of 4.5. Bentazone led to chlorosis and necrosis on cabbage leaves resulting in the decreases of dry and fresh weights and growth rate. This phytotoxic effect was increased with Bentazone concentration and evident at low pH. At pH 4.5, dry weight was decreased about 63% with 8
M of Bentazone treatment. Effective concentration of Bentazone causing 50% decreases in fresh weight as compared to the control was estimated to be 21
M. Presence of organic ligand reduced the phytotoxicity of Bentazone to cabbage significantly by increasing yields and growth rates as compared to the treatment of Bentazone alone. At pH 4.5, fulvic acid reduced phytotoxicity of Bentazone upto 46%, and this efficiency of fulvic acid was better than that of humic acid under the same condition.
chemical shift variation of O-ethyl ethylphosphonic acid with change of pH's and solvents in metabolic and chemical oxidation of O-ethyl S-methyl ethyphosphonothioate
Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 169~175
O-Ethyl S-methyl ethylphosphonothioate was studied for chemical and metabolic oxidation using
analyses. The chemical shifts of O-ethyl ethylphosphonic acid (2) which is one of major metabolites were changed with the variation of oxidation systems.
chemical shifts of 2 were observed at 40.15ppm from oxidaton by MCPBA, 30.98 ppm by MMPP, 29.31 ppm from in vitro rat liver microsomal oxidation, and 29.10 ppm from in vivo metabolism in houseflies.
chemical shift of 2 in two different solvents such as deutero-chloroform and deuterium oxide were observed at 30.70 ppm and 40.15 ppm, respectively. And those of the metabolites were also observed at around 30 ppm under the conditions of pH 3, 5.6 and 14 and 47.91 ppm under pH 1 which is a strong acidic condition. It could be explained that the ionized form of 2 should have greater shielding effect on phosphorus atom and hence shows upfield chemical shift in polar solvents and alkaline conditions. On the other hand, a protonated form under organic solvents and the strong acidic condition should have less shielding effect than its ionized form, shifting the peak downfield.
Photolysis of a New Insecticide KH-502 [O,O-diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3- trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazolyn) thiophosphoric acid ester]
Cho, Boo-Yeon ; Han, Dae-Sung ; Yang, Jae-E ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 176~183
Photolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the stability of a new insecticide, [O,O-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl) thiophosphoric acid ester: KH-502] under the various conditions. In the photolysis experiment, KH-502 was, after being added into the acetone or acetonitrile solution, irradiated under the sunlight or UV lamp
, where acetone or acetonitrile solution was varied with water and
contents and was treated with humic acid, rosebengal or tryptophan. Results for stability and degradation pattern of KH-502 from the above experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. The significant difference in KH-502 decomposition due to photolysis was shown for between KH-502s irradiated at
nm and non-irradiated. KH-502 was photolyzed in the acetone by the sensitizing effect, but was stable in the acetonitrile. 2. The degradation pattern of KH-502 in the photolysis was different as compared to that in the thermal decomposition, and the decomposed products were O,O-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl)phosphoric acid ester (KH-502 oxo form), O,S-Diethyl O-(1-phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-pyrazoyl)phosphorothiolate(S-ethyl KH-502), 1-Phenyl-3-trifluoromethyl-5-hydroxy pyrazole (PTMHP) and several unknown compounds. 3. Treatments of acetone or acetonitrile solution with humic acid, rosebengal or tryptophan revealed no-sensitizing effect on the photolysis of KH-502. Dissolved oxygen in the acetone played as a cosensitizer with acetone competitively to enhance the photolysis of KH-502. 4. Treatments of acetone with humic acid or paddy soil water collected from fields decreased the photolysis of KH-502.
Optimization of Food Factors Applicable to Korean Population
Lee, Su-Rae ; Lee, Mi-Gyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 184~192
In order to provide food factors necessary for safety assessment and standard setting of hazardous substances in foods, per capita consumption of food items by Korean population was optimized for the periods of 1970's and 1980's from nutritional survey and food supply data. Average daily intake of total foods per person was 1,104 g in 1970's and 1,240 g in 1980's. Much variation was observed between the two decades by food commodities.
Physiological and Ecological Studies on the Seed Dormancy of Dominant Weed Species in Korea
Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Shim, Sang-In ; Lee, Sang-Gak ; Shin, Hyeun-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 2, 1993, Pages 193~207
The seed dormancy of weed species is the important mechanisms to unfavorable conditions but it brings about critical problems in weed control. The factors which induced dormancy were varied with species and their physiological conditions. More than 20 of 50 species of dominant weed species showed the seed dormancy. When several physical treatments were given to seeds to break the dormancy, each species showed the different responses. The germination percentage and germination velocity were increased with alternating temperature. The treatment of more than 4 weeks of stratification had strong effect on dormancy breaking. The
activities of germinating seeds were increased in proportional to the period of stratification treatment of dormant seeds. The contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar were changed slightly with stratification.