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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Dec 1993
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Aug 1993
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Apr 1993
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Simulation and Measurement of Degradation and Movement of Insecticide Ethoprophos in Soil
Moon, Young-Hee ; Kim, Yun-Tae ; Kim, Young-Seok ; Han, Soo-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 209~218
The behaviour of insectcide ethoprophos (O-ethyl S,S-propyl phosphorodithioate) in soil was investigated. In a laboratory study, the degradation of ethoprophos in soil followed first-order reaction kinetics. The half-life of the insecticide in the soil incubated with 10, 18 and
was 12.4, 5.5 and 2.5 days, respectively. Arrhenius activation energy was 73.8 KJ/mole. The half-life was 46.4, 17.6 and 6.9 day in the soil with 7, 14 and 19% of soil water content, respectively. The moisture dependence B value in empirical equation was 1.67. The adsorption isotherm for ethoprophos in the soil agreed with freundlich equation. The adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) was 0.27. In a field study prepared in autumn with undisturbed soil column in a mini-lysimeter system, ethoprophos residues were largely distributed in the top
soil layer and moved down to the top 6cm soil layer. Persistence of ethoprophos in field soil was correlated with variation in weather pattern during the period of experiments. The half-life of ethoprophos treated at March and October was about 17 and 5 days, respectively. The ethoprophos woil was degraded up to 90% at 37day after the both treatment. In persistence and mobility of ethoprophos in field soil, the observed data were reasonably corresponded with predicted data by some computer model of pesticide behaviour.
Effects of Paper Mill Sludge-Fertilizer Application on the Growth Performances of Tree Seedlings
Kwon, Ki-Won ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 219~229
Effects of paper mill sludge-fertilizers were investigated on the growth performances of tree seedlings under field conditions. Two types of sludge-fertilizers applied were an organic sludge compost and a processed sludge-pellet fertilizer strengthened with several components of organic and inorganic nutrients. Three species of tree seedlings studied were ibota privet(Ligustrum obtusifolium) and yellow poplar(Liriodendron tulipifera) of 1-0 year seedlings and also eastern white pine(Pinus strobus) of 2-2 year seedlings. Nitrogen and phosphorus contents of plot soil treated with sludge compost+sludge-pellet fertilizer+sludge-pellet fertilizer plot were increased to 8 times and 2.6 times as those of control plot, respectively. The growth performances of root collar diameter and seedling height were repeatedly measured up to five times through the growing season and the results were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance of randomized block design and Duncan's multiple range test. The growth performances of dry weight were measured after last fifth measurements.
Development of Multifunctional Microorganisms for the Effective Wastewater Treatment by Synthetic Detergent Decomposing Microorganisms in Wastewater
Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Han, Mun-Gyu ; Lim, Yeong-Sung ; Ha, Yeong-Lae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 230~238
To develop multifunctional microorganisms for effective wastewater treatment, the cell of P. aeruginosa P1 enable to accumulate lead in its cell were conjugated with the cell of P. fluorescens S1 enable to degrade efficiently synthetic detergents. The plasmids of the P. aeruginosa P1 and the P. fluorescens S1 were found in the cell of the conjugants when determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The conjugants obtained from P. fluorescens S1 as a recipient cell and P. aeruginosa P1 as a donor cell possessed the ability to degrade synthetic detergents as well as to accumulate lead.
Pesticide residues in rice straw for livestock feed
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Cheon, Sam-Yeong ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Ihm, Yang-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 239~246
In order to clarify the possible contamination of rice straw used as a crude feed for livestock, Korean native cattle and cow, by pesticides, the samples collected from 21 sites in Korea were analyzed by a multiresidue method for 10 pesticides with GLC to obtain the following results. 1. Detection limits were 0.001ppm in butachlor, 0.002ppm in chlorpyrifos, 0.003ppm in BPMC, pirimiphos-methyl and diazinon, 0.004ppm in fenitrothion, 0.005ppm in phenthoate, 0.009ppm in IBP, 0.015ppm in carbofuran, and 0.03ppm in carbaryl. 2. In recovery tests, 73-101% of the pesticides applied were recovered, the recovery being low in carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. 3. Butachlor, 2-chloroacetanilide herbicide, and BPMC, carbaryl, and carbofuran, carbamate insecticides, were not detected in any sample. 4. In organophosphorus insecticides, the amounts of fenitrothion in sample No. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 20 and 21 were in the range of 0.01-0.05ppm, those of phenthoate detected in sample No. 10 and 12 were 0.4 and 0.17ppm, respectively, and those of IBP in all samples, with the exception of sample No. 7, 12, 16, 17, 20, and 21, were in the range of 0.01-0.20ppm. The residues of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and pirimiphos-methyl were not detected.
Study on the Application of Carbonized Rice Hull as an Environmentally Controlled Cultivation Media or Vegetable Crops;Effect of Acids for Neutralization of Carbonized Rice Hull on the Growth of Several Vegetable Crops
Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 247~254
The growth responses of Chinese Cabbage, lettuce, and spinach were evaluated to investigate the feasibility of carbonized rice-hulls as a sanitary cultivation media instead of soil. The carbonized rice-hulls were pretreated with several inorganic acid such as nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, and phosphoric acid for neutralization. The neutralization of the carbonated material using nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid did not alter the growth responses of these vegetables compared to those of control plants grown on the normal cultivation soil. Especially, the nitric acid pretreatment resulted in the better growth of these plants than the mixture of soil and compost. This is probably due to the additional supply of the nitrate-nitrogens. However the growth responses of lettuce and spinach on the carbonated materials neutralized with hydrochloric acid were different and appeared to be having symptom which is analogous to the chloride toxicity during the late stage of growing. Although no difference was observed in chemical composition, the contents of protein-nitrogen were higher in the plants grown on the carbonated material compared to those of plant grown on the mixture of soil and compost. Based on our preliminary results, the carbonized and neutralized rice-hulls are very useful bed material for the sanitary cultivation under the controlled environmental condition.
Problems in the Dietary Exposure Assessment of Pesticide Residues
Lee, Mi-Gyung ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 255~263
The demand of safety assessment for pesticide residues in foods is growing in Korea. In order to assess the actual dietary exposure toward pesticide residues, the problems in utilization of pesticide residue data were reviewed and optimization of food factors applicable to Korean population was conducted. The problems and current status in setting pesticide residue tolerance-domestic and foreign-in foods were also argued. The conclusion is summarized as follows: (1) Anticipated residue estimates(ARE) calculated from field trial residue data, the percentage of crop treated, and the effects of cooking or processing should be utilized for dietary exposure assessment in a real sense. (2) Average daily intake of total foods per person in Korea was 1,104g in 1970's and 1,240g in 1980's. Much variation was observed between the two decades by food commodities. (3) Pesticide residue tolerances in Korea have been established at relatively lower levels in comparison with FAO/WHO or western countries. More extensive studies and data accumulation as related to tolerance setting are called for in future for the sake of health protection and smooth interstate trade.
Oxidative Stress Resulting from Environmental Pollutions and Defence Mechanisms in Plants
Shim, Sang-In ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 264~280
The environmental pollutions were a serious problem in Korea recently. So many researcher have studied the effect of environmental pollution on plants and agro-ecosystem, but the basic mechanisms of environmental stresses were various. One of the important mechanisms was oxidative stress caused by active toxic oxygen. The toxic oxygen was generated by several stresses, abnormal temperature, many xenobiotics, air pollutants, water stress, fugal toxin, etc. In the species of toxic oxygen which is primary inducer of oxidative stresses, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen were representative species. The scavenging systems were divided into two groups. One was nonenzymatic system and the other enzymatic system. Antioxidants such as glutathione, ascorbic acid, and carotenoid, have the primary function in defense mechanisms. Enzymatic system divided into two groups; First, direct interaction with toxic oxygen(eg. superoxide dismutase). Second, participation in redox reaction to maintain the active antioxidant levels(eg. glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, etc.).
in Soil and Groundwater Quality
Yun, Sun-Gang ; Yoo, Sun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 281~297
Nitrogen is an element required to meet optimal plant growth. However, when it was applied (as chemical fertilizer or animal waste) more than the demand of plant and managed it unreasonably can be accumulated in subsoil and leached from soil system. Nitrogen also can be act as an pollutant to soil and water through water contamination if its concentration exceed the critical level. The concentration and downward movement of nitrate in soil is influenced by cultural practices and soil properties. High level of nitrate nitrogen in drinking water is harzadrous for animal and human health, especially for infants and the restoration of the quality of groundwater is impossible by now. Therefore it is the only way to prevent from leaching of nitrate nitrogen to keep the quality of groundwater as vital water resource. The aims of the presentation of this review paper are to understand the relationship between agricultural practices and the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in groundwater and to suggest further informations for the rational management methods to reduce the leaching of nitrate nitrogen in soil.
Use of ELISA for the Residue Analysis of Pesticides
Lee, Kang-Bong ; Suh, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 298~308
Immunochemical assay, ELISA for small molecules such as pesticides are rapid, sensitive, cost effective and can easily analyze with large samples. ELISA is one of several powerful biotechnologies immediately applicable to pesticide analysis. This review lists the advantages and disadvantages of the ELISA and elucidate the steps in assay development using examples from this laboratory. The focus is primarily on hapten synthesis strategies, protein conjugation, Immunization, assay format, and assay validation.
Elucidation of the Behaviour of Pesticides in Soil and Plant by the
Kyung, Kee-Sung ; Lee, Jae-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 309~318
A few technical methods including lysimeter, micro-ecosystem and soil column experiments which have been used for elucidation of the behaviour of pesticide residues in soil by means of the
were introduced. They are essential for the investigation of soil-bound residues of pesticides, and hence the continued development and support in this field are urgently required.
Study on the Tendency of Acid Rain in Korea
Lee, Joon-Bae ; Bae, Jeong-O ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 319~324
This reviews investigate to compare acid precipitation that caused by air pollutant. The ecosystem investigated the effect of acid precipitation. The study of foreign acid precipitation and acid precipitation of Korea investigated and injury of acid precipitation is prevented and consider a plan that it is presented.
Food Contamination and Risk Assessment
Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 12, issue 3, 1993, Pages 325~333