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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Dec 1994
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Aug 1994
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Apr 1994
Selecting the target year
Variation of Cadmium and Zinc Content in Paddy Soil and Rice from the Janghang Smelter Area
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 131~141
To investigate differences in Cd and Zn contents in paddy soils and rice plants polluted by aerial emissions from the Janghang smelter, soil samples in the different directions and at the surface (0-15cm) and subsurface (15-30cm) in 1982 and 1990, and rice plants at the corresponding sampling sites in 1990 were collected from the Janghang Smelter Area. Soil samples were extracted with
and plant samples were digested with a mixture of
for analyzing by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cd and Zn contents in soils ranged from 0.09 to 4.42 and from 16.0 to 959.5mg
, respectively. The average contents of Cd and Zn in 1990 were higher than those in 1982. The Cd and Zn contents of soils near the center of the smelter were higher than those of soils farther from the center and also decreased in the order of east > north-north east > north east > north. The Cd and Zn levels in surface soils were higher than those in subsurface soils. The contaminated areas of Cd and Zn were within 4km in the east, and within 3km in the north-north east and the north east. Metal contents in brawn rice were the lowest in rice plants. The Cd content of brown rice was one sixth of that in leaf blade and in leaf sheath. The Cd content of leaf blade, stem and panicle axis were significantly correlated with the levels of Zn, Cu and Pb in soils, and Zn content of stem was significantly correlated with the levels of Cu and Pb. The Cd and Zn content in brown rice ranged from 0.05 to 0.25mg
and from 10.5 to 30.9㎎
in the smelter area, respectively.
Variation of Cadmium and Zinc Content in Rice and Soil of the Mangyeong River Area
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Kim, Un-Sung ; Yoon, Ki-Woun ; Moon, Kwang-Hyun ; Kang, Gyeong-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 142~150
To investigate differences in Cd and Zn contents of paddy soils and rice plants polluted by the municipal and industrial waste water in the Mangyeong River Area, soil and plant samples were collected at several distances from the main inlet and at different depths of the soil. Soil samples were extracted with
and plant samples were digested with a mixture of
for analyzing heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The contents of Cd and Zn in soils ranged from 0.38 to 1.17 and from 33.8 to 464.6mg
, respectively. The average Cd level in 1990 was less than that in 1982, but the Zn level in 1990 was higher than that in 1982 in general. No variation in Cd contents was observed in soils at the different distances from the source of waste water, but Zn contents in soils were lower with the increasing distances from the source of waste water. A significant correlation was observed among Cd content, OM, available silicate, CEC and
. Similar results existed among Zn content of 1982, OM and
. The Cd content in subsurface soils of 1992 was significantly correlated with Zn, Cu, and Pb in soils, and the Zn content in soils was significantly correlated with the Cu and Pb in soils, regardless of years. The Cd content in leaf blades of rice was more than seven times higher than that in brown rice. The Zn content in rice was higher than that in leaf blades and in panicle axis. The Cd content in panicle axis and the Zn content in all parts of rice were correlated with Zn, Cu and Pb contents in soils. The Cd and Zn contents in brown rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.90mg
and from 4.2 to 95.9mg
in the Mangyeong River Area, respectively.
Concentrations of the Pollutants in Ground Water and their Behavior in Soils in Cheju Island;II. Nitrate-nitrogen concentration and tis relation to other ions in ground water near the district of pig arming complex in the northwest region
Hyun, Hae-Nam ; Koh, Seung-Hak ; Oh, Sang-Sil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 151~159
This study was conducted to investigate the
concentration, the relationship between
and other ions, and patterns of ions in ground water used as drinking water in Cheju Island. Samples were collected from 19 wells in the northwest region, near the district of poultry complex, and 9 wells in the northeast region. In the northwest region,
concentrations in D-14 and D-202 wells near the pig farming facilities were 10.95 and 13.1 mg/L, respectively, exceeding the standard concentration of drinking water. The concentration in D-65, D-35, and D-120 wells were slightly lower than the standard concentration. However,
concentrations in the wells in the northeast region were lower than 3mg/L. In wells in the northwest region,
concentrations were negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with
. However, in the northeast region, they were not related with pH and the ions. The chemical compositions in D-65, D-35, and D-41 wells showed higher concentrations of
than the unpolluted D-42 well. These results suggest that ground water near the pig farming complex was polluted by pig farming waste in the northwest region.
Changes in the Climate in recent 60 years and Distribution of Agroclimatic Resources in Korea
Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Yun, Seong-Ho ; Park, Moo-Eon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 160~167
Meteorological elements such as air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine duration, and so on observed by Korea Meteorological Administration, were analyzed to estimate the climatic change and to establish countermeasures in agriculture. Climatic differences were compared between two periods, early(
) and late(
), by calculating climatic resource indices, coldness index and warmth index of the two periods. Annual mean air temperatures of Seoul, Taegu, and Pusan in 1910's were 10.7, 12.3, and
, respectively, having increased by
in Seoul and Taegu and by
in Pusan in 1990's. Mean air temperature in the spring(
) increased by
, which is a higher increasing rate than in the other seasons (
). Regional differences exist in annual mean air temperature between the early and late part of the 20th century with little increase in this experiment did not germinate at pH 1.0. At pH 2.0, the flowering cabbage and geranium in the middle northern area, while in the southern part about
increase was recorded during the last period. In the late period the annual rainfall increased by 100mm, except for the western coast area and the middle northern area. The P/E ratio showed a trend of an annual increase in the late period, being higher in the summer and lower in the winter. Relative humidity showed slight differences in seasons and regions but annual values did not. Duration of sunshine decreased by about an hour in the spring. Coldness index and warmth index of the late period were higher by 3.7 and 1.0 than those of the early period, respectively.
Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination of several floricultural crops.
Lee, Jae-Seog ; Kim, Jung-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 168~174
The experiments were performed to examine the effects of simulated acid rain (pH 1.0
5.0) prepared by mixing sulfuric acid and nitric acid at the ratio of 3 : 1 on germination and growth of seedlings of some floricultural crops. Days to germination showed a one to three days' interval among crops, but pH level did not show any effect on germination for each crop. All seeds used in this experiment did not germinate at pH 1.0. At pH 2.0, the flowering cabbage and geranium still did not germinate, and even though the radicles of seeds were germinated, root hairs did not develop. The length of hypocotyls and radicles appeared to be significantly different according to the pH levels.
Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth, Pigments and Leaf Surface Morphology of the Seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor L.
Kim, Jung-Sook ; Lee, Jae-Seog ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 175~182
The experiment was performed to investigate the effects of simulated acid rain of several pH levels (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0) on growth, injury, pigment compositions and leaf surface morphology of the seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor L. by foliar application. The growth of the tops and roots was markedly retarded below pH 3.0 and speck spots appeared on the leaf. Seven different peaks were detected by the absorption spectra of pigments of the leaf. But cv. Early splendor did not show the peaks at 473nm and 535nm, and nor did cv. Tricolor show the peaks at 476nm and 546nm. The pigment composition of leaves was affected by strong acid rain. As pH levels decreased, chlorophyll content increased. Leaf surface was eroded by acid rain, and leaf surface tissues were broken down and collapsed at the lower pH levels.
Stress Effects on Photosynthesis of Greenhouse Plants as Measured by the Fluorescence Method
U, Zang-Kual ; Song, Sung-Jung ; Hansen, Ute ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 183~190
To assess the effects of plant stress by light, temperature, NaCl and soil moisture on photosynthetic activity, the fluorescence method was used for Chinese cabbage(Brassica perkinensis Rupr.), strawberry(Fragaria grandiflora Ehrh.) and citrus tree(Citrus unshiu Marc.). With decreasing the light intensity, Fv/Fm ratios of intact leaves of Chinese cabbage and strawberry increased significantly, indicating lower photochemical efficiency in PS II system, resulting in an inverse relationship with the photosynthetic activity. Chinese cabbage and strawberry that were grown at higher temperature had higher Fv/Fm ratios and photosynthetic activities, while those given high concentration of NaCl and having low soil moisture had lower values. Chinese cabbage more resistant to salt stress and requiring more water had a greater Fv/Fm ratio than strawberry. In citrus tree, Fv/Fm ratio was lower in the non-irrigated group than the irrigated one. From these results, the fluorescence method was found to be a useful tool which can be used to assess the degree of in vivo stress induced by various environmental factors.
A Study on the Synthesis of 2-Thiophenyltriisopropoxytitanium and its Reactivity to Carbonyl Compounds
Kyung, Suk-Hun ; Joo, Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 191~198
2-Thiophenyltriisopropoxytitanium was prepared in situ by trans-metallization of 2-thiophenyllithium and chlorotitaniumtriisopropoxide. It could be isolated at room temperature and preserved at
for weeks. The reactivity of 2-thiophenyltriisopropoxytitanium to carbonyl compounds proved to be high. Complete aldehyde-selectivity was observed in competition reactions of 2-thiophenyl-triiso-propoxytitanium with a 1 : 1 mixture of aldehyde and ketone. In the competitive reaction of 2-thiophenyl-triisopropoxytitanium to ketone-ester function, ketone adduct was perfectly obtained.
Derivatization and Residual Determination of MCPP in Soil Leachate
Hong, Moo-Ki ; Smith, Albert E. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 199~208
Analytical methods for the determination of the derivatives of the herbicide (
)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP) by capillary column gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) were studied. A successful procedure was introduced for the ester preparation using
, as the catalyst and the alcohol 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) or 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). The identificaiton and elucidation of MCPP by GC-MS spectrometry following the esterification with diazomethane,
/methanol, TCE, TFE, or pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB) were carried out. A comparison of the response-sensitivities among those MCPP esters was made with GC-ECD. Although the methylation product of MCPP was confirmed by GC-MS, its low sensitivity to the ECD limited the detection of MCPP. TCE, TFE, and PFB derivatization methods resulted in a high rate of MCPP esterifications and very sensitive ECD molecular responses. Based on efficiency, convenience, worker safety, and least sample contamination, TFE esterificaiton was considered as the superior method for MCPP analysis to the other methods of derivatization. An accurate method is described for quantifying MCPP in soil leachates by GC-ECD at very low concentrations without the requirement of a complicated clean-up process. As a result, MCPP residues at concentrations of less than
in 100ml soil leachate were detected.
Studies on the Selectivity of the Herbicide Alachlor;II. A Metabolic Approach to Selectivity
Hwang, Eul-Chul ; Park, Chang-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 209~215
Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the herbicide alachlor in soybean, Chinese cabbage, and barnyard grass seedlings were examined and compared with each other using [phenyl-U-
] alachlor in search of a primary factor contributing to the selectivity of alachlor. When root of each seedling was immersed into the solution containing [
]alachlor, the amount of absorbed radioactivity/mg dry matter of seedling which was suggested to be correlated with the susceptibility of plants to alachlor decreased in the order of soybean
barnyard grass and the rate of translocation to shoot was Chinese cabbage
soybean. These orders did not consistently explain the selective phytotoxicity of alachlor. Analyses of extracts by reverse phase chromatography showed that alachlor was detoxified by conjugation with glutathione in all three plants and the rate of glutathione conjugation of soybean, the resistant species to alachlor, was the greatest, while that of barnyard grass, the susceptible, was the lowest among three plants. This result explained well the selective phytotoxicity of alachlor. Both absorption and translocation contribute undoubtedly to the selectivity by influencing the active internal concentration of alachlor. However, neither of them appeared to be a primary factor. It was concluded that the most important primary factor was the rate of glutathione conjugation, which detoxifies alachlor and plays an important role in selectivity.
A study on the Development of a Drying and Fermentation Process of Domestic Animal Manure;I. Change in Water Content of Pig Manure under Different Drying Condition
Yun, Sun-Gang ; Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Woo, Ki-Dae ; Yoo, Sun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 216~222
This study was conducted to obtain practical information on the efficient drying of animal manure under the sunny dry condition. The effects of the height of manure pile (5, 10, 15, and 20cm), stirring times (0, 1, 2, and 4 times/day), the addition of dried manure (30%, w/w), and the type of drying bed on the removal of water from fresh pig manure were investigated in a plastic house. Pig manure was dried very well by lowering the height of manure pile and the drying efficiency was the highest at 10cm height. Water evaporation rate was the greatest at the twice stirring per day treatment. The addition of dried manure as bulking material enhanced the water evaporation rate of wet pig manure. The amounts of water removed for 19 days under the condition of 10cm height of manure pile and twice-stirring in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 75.6, 73.3, 54.6 and
A study on the Development of a Drying and Fermentation Process of Domestic Animal Manure;II. Demonstration of a Pig Manure Treatment System on a Farm
Yun, Sun-Gang ; Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Park, Woo-Kun ; Kwon, Sun-Ik ; Park, Hong-Jae ; Yoo, Sun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 223~230
A practical study on a drying and fermentation system equipped with a stirring machine operated mechanically, of pig manure was conducted to prove the efficiency of and practicability to an ordinary pig farm. The type of the drying bed was a round-shaped (r=3m) concrete structure and the stirring machine was adopted to stir and transfer dried pig manure to the fermentation tank. The dried pig manure was put into a fermentation tank (
), which was aerated from pipe lines installed at the bottom. While water content of pig manure passing through a drying bed was remarkably reduced than before drying, the drying efficiency of this system decreased in winter. However, the temperature of pig manure piled up in the fermentation room in winter reached over
and excess water of pig manure was removed during the fermentation process. The reduction rate of water content of pig manure, to which dried pig manure was added as bulking material on the drying bed, was 52.1%, but when dried without bulking material it was only 19.7%. Although the content of
of dried pig manure was slightly higher than that of fresh pig manure, progressive changes in chemical composition between fresh and dried pig manure made no great difference. Among the contents of minerals of fresh and dried pig manure, CaO was the highest and the rest were in the decreasing order of
, MgO, and
. Population density of E. coli and Streptococci of dried pig manure was reduced by 142 and 236 times that of fresh pig manure, respectively. The installation cost of this drying and fermentation system was 4,185,630 won (approximately 5,232 US $) and operating cost per year was 190,000 won (237.5US $) on the basis of self-labor condition.
Purification of Animal Wastewater Using a Reed-Sand-Filter System;I. Retention Period and Seasonal Variation
Lee, Deog-Bae ; Kim, Jong-Gu ; Kang, Jong-Goog ; Kim, Sun-Kwan ; So, Jae-Don ; Rhee, Kyeong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 2, 1994, Pages 231~239
A reed-sand-filter system was used to purify swine wastewater economically. Reeds (Phragmites communis Trin) were planted on the sand / gravel bed of a 20/30cm layer depth. After the input of waste-water up to a depth of l0㎝, the effluent was monitored for pollutants on the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day thereafter. As swine wastewater stayed longer, the pollutants in the effluent such as T-N,
, COD and BOD were removed more effectively. The sand-filter system with reeds showed a superior removal efficiency to that without reeds. Especially in summer, the former showed greater purification rates than the latter, being 30% greater in T-N, 37% in
, 42% in COD and 30% in suspended solids. The seasonal purification efficiency was in the decreasing order of July, October and April. Reeds took up 40.1g N, 10.8g
, 2.8g CaO, 2.1g MgO per square meter of the above surface area.