Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Dec 1994
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Aug 1994
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Apr 1994
Selecting the target year
Influence of Heavy Metal Contents in Soils Near Old Zinc-Mining Sites on the Growth of Corn
Lee, Jong-Pal ; Park, No-Kwuan ; Kim, Bok-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 241~250
This research was carried out to investigate how the growth of corn was affected by the heavy metal contents in soils near the old zinc-mining sites, by analyzing correlation between the growth of corn and heavy metal contents in soils collected from Yonghari Ilwoulmyun YongyangGun in Kyeongpook province in 1993. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. The contents of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and as in the Youngyang area were very high compared with those in a normal area. Heavy metal contents in soils collected from
distance from the mining area were the highest, and those from 3.0 Km than those from 1.5 Km were even higher. 2. For heavy metal contents in leaves of all surveyed crops, Zn, Pb, Cu and As were the highest in soybean, followed by corn and rice. 3. Growth parameters of corn in polluted fields were comparatively poor and heavy metal contents in soils of the respective sites were higher than those in fields where rice was cultivated 8 years ago and irrigation was not done previously. 4. Heavy metal contents in the leaf part of corn plant showed a similar tendency to those in soils, being the highest among the different parts of corn plant, and they were in the decreasing order of Zn > Cu > As > Cd > Pb in each part. But the differences of metal contents in each part varied. 5. Generally, a negative relationship existed between the growth of corn and heavy metal contents in soil, of which Cu and Pb were significantly correlated with plant height, ear height, diameter of stem, ear length and yield of corn. 6. There existed a positive correlation between the contents of Pb,Cd and As in soils and those in the different parts of corn plant. The higher contents of Pb, Cd, and As in soil, the more those in corn plant incressed. The contents of Pb and As in corn grains showed a highly significant positive correlation with Cd and As contents in soils.
Estimation of Development Rate and Heading Time of Various Rice Varieties as affected Air Temperature and Day Length
Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Kim, Dal-Ung ; Yun, Seong-Ho ; Im, Jung-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 251~261
This study was conducted to get some basic information about rice plant development rate and heading ecology in various climatic conditions, growing nine varieties at three locations, Jinbu as the mountainous cool area, Suweon and Iri as the plain area for two years from 1987 to 1988. Average daily air temperature and day length from transplanting to heading date were analyzed in relation to the heading. Heading date and development rate of each variety were estimated by the Symplex method and the fitness of the model was evaluated. The results obtained as follows: Average daily air temperatures among varieties during the period from transplanting to heading ranged from 18 to
in Jinbu, from 22.5 to
in Suweon, and from 23.5 to
in Iri, the late-maturing varieties requiring the higher temperatures. The average heading days were about 20 days longer in Jinbu and
days shorter in Iri than those in Suweon in all varieties. Little differences in accumulated temperature from transplanting to heading were observed in regions and years, and also among varieties. Developmental stages could be expressed as the accumulation of daily development rate and the predicted heading dates by the Symplex method were similar to the observed ones. The development rate of each variety varies with air temperatures. The early maturing Japonica types including the Unbong variety were fast in development rate at lower temperatures, but the late-maturing varieties of the Japonica type were late. A model to predict the heading dates of rice varieties by the Symplex method using air temperatures and day lengths was feasible.
Development of Radioimmunoassay(RIA) for Residue Analysis with Endosulfan in Water and Carp(Cyprinus carpio L.)
Lee, Kang-Bong ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Suh, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 262~270
The established methods in the residue analysis of endosulfan require an extensive sample clean-up prior to quantification by relatively complex equipment. A radioimmunoassay(RIA) provides a simple procedure with theoretically higher sensitivity and specificity necessitating only a minimum of sample clean-up. Endosulfan-specific antibodies were developed in rabbits by using a bovine serum albumin(BSA) conjugate wherein the alcohol form of endosulfan was multiply bound to the protein via succinylation. Produced antibodies showed the high titers to endosulfan-BSA(1 : 32,000). An RIA method was developed in water and carp by using
endosulfan as a tracer. The lowest detection amount of endosulfan was 1 ng in the liver, kidneys, gut and water samples, and 3 ng in the whole body sample of carp without any clean-up, corresponding to 0.1 ppb of endosulfan.
Investigation of Herbicide Safeners and its Mode of Safening Action Ⅰ. Effect of N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleimide on Metolachlor Absorption and Metabolism
Chun, Jae-Chul ; Ma, Sang-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 271~278
Mode of safening action of N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleimide (CPMI) on metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-l-methylethyl) acetamide] was investigated in sorghum(Sorghum bicolor L.). CPMI was synthesized by dehydration of N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleamic acid (CPMA) which was obtained from amination with maleic anhydride and 4-chloroaniline. Melting points of CPMA and CPMI (>95% purity) were
, respectively. Growth response study indicated that seed treatment of CPMI increased tolerance of sorghum shoot to metolachlor approximately threefold. Sorghum shoot was more sensitive to injury caused by metolachlor and CPMI activity than the root. Metolachlor was initially absorbed by sorghum shoot and metabolized to the metolachlor-glutathione conjugate in CPMI-untreated and treated shoots. However, CPMI treatment significantly accelerated metabolism of
metolachlor in sorghum shoot, resulting in decrease in metolachlor content and increase in formation of the glutathione conjugate. It was concluded that the protection against metolachlor injury conferred by CPMI appeared to be correlated to detoxification of metolachlor in sorghum shoot tissue.
Development of Mixed Pesticides Containing Herbicide and Topdressing Fertilizer for Paddy Rice
Park, Yang-Ho ; Lee, Byung-Moo ; Park, Seung-Soon ; Lee, In-Yong ; Kim, Young-Koo ; Park, Young-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 279~287
To develop mixed pesticides of herbicide and topdressing fertilizer for paddy rice, twelve mixtures were formulated with combination of urea coated with different level of acrylic acid wax(AAW) and four herbicides, which were thiobencarb, pretilachlor, mefenacet + bensulfuron-methyl and mefenacet + bensulfuron-methyl + dymron, and effects of the mixtures for weed control, phytotoxicity and rice tillering were investigated in the laboratory and the field experiments. Release rates of active ingredient of herbicides in the distilled water were over 90% during 24 hours same as that of the reference herbicides. The release rates of nitrogen showed different patterns according to coated level of granular urea with acrylic acid wax. Optimum release rate of nitrogen as
was obtained by 5.5% AAW coating on urea for thiobencarb or pretilachlor mixture, and by 4.0% AAW coating on urea for mefenacet + bensulfuron-methyl or mefenacet + bensulfuron-methyl + dymron mixture. The pesticide active ingredients of the mixtures were stable, which showed
of degradation rate after 90 days of storage under
. Effects on weed control of mixtures were acceptable for both annual and perennial weeds, while ACRI-M9213 mixture showed considerable phytotoxicity at double dose of standard. When treated the mixed pesticides to paddy rice, rice growth status including culm length, ear length, panicle number and polished rice yield exhibited no significant differences compared with the conventional treatment.
Biological Management of Virulent Fusarium Species on Asparagus with Avirulent Fusarium Species In Vitro
Lee, Youn-Su ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 288~300
Fusarium oxysporum was isolated most frequently, followed by F. moniliforme, and F. solani from infected asparagus plants grown in the field. In pathogenicity tests both with seedlings and plantlets, F. moniliforme showed higher virulence than Fusarium oxysporum did in general. Fusarium moniliforme showed more consistent virulence on both seedlings and plantlets than F. oxysporum did. Fusarium oxysporum showed higher virulence on plantlets than on seedlings. Fusarium solani showed very weak or no sign of virulence on seedlings and plantlets, respectively, in both tests. In protection tests with plantlets, most protection of asparagus against virulent fusarial infections occurred when challenge isolates were inoculated five or seven days after inoculation of protective fusarial species. Avirulent F. oxysporum was a more effective protective agent against infection of F. moniliforme than it was against F. oxysporum. Fusarium solani was more effective against infection of F. oxysporum than it was against F. moniliforme.
Screening and Identification of Fungicidal Compounds Derived from Medicinal Plants against Cucumber Powdery Mildew
Paik, Su-Bong ; Kyung, Suk-Hun ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Oh, Yeon-Sun ; Park, Byoung-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 301~310
This experiment was conducted to test the fungicidal activity of extracts from 50 medicinal plants to powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fulinginea) and identify the bioactive substances. Among the medicinal plants tested, the water extract of Rheum undulatum was the most effective in spore germination inhibition, which inhibited by 100% at 200-fold dilution. Also, 50-fold dilution of water extract, 100-fold dilution of alcohol extract, 500-fold dilution of crude extract from Rheum undulatum and even 1000-fold dilution of reference chemical inhibited powdery mildew of cucumber more than 60%. 500-fold dilution of crude extract inhibited powdery mildew of cucumber 100% by twice spray treatment. There was phytotoxcity at the 100-fold dilution, but was not recognized this injury at the 500-fold dilution of crude extract. From our research to identify bioactive substance using HPLC, GLC and Mass spectrum analysis, it indicated that Rheum undulatum extract contained tentatively 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione and 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione.
Study on Low Temperature Tolerant Methane-Producing Bacteria for the Treatment of Agricultural and Livestock Wastes
Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Kim, Jai-Joung ; Daniels, Lacy ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 311~320
This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical properties of isolated bacteria, low temperature tolerant methane-producing clostridia which were selected for using them as inoculum to anaerobic fermentation of agricultural and livestock wastes at low temperature. The results were; 1. Low temperature tolerant methane-producing clostridia were isolated from the samples which showed the high methanogenesis rate by enrichment culture at low temperature in cellulose medium. These clostridia, Clostridium botulinum SRC-64, Clostridium scatologens SRC-91 and Clostridium tyrobutyricum SRC-100, were isolated from swampy sediment at latitude
, lake sediment IV at latitude
, and tidal land soil II at latitude
, respectively. The optimum growth temperature for these isolates was
and the minimum, around
. They all had detectable amount of
, specific coenzyme of methanogens. 2. As anaerobic fermentation products of glucose SRC-64 produced
, acetic, isovaleric and caproic acid, SRC-91 produced
, propionic, butyric, valeric, and caproic acid, and SRC-100 produced only acetic and propionic acid. The isolates were produced
ranged from 2.6 to 8.68 n moles/ml for 2 days at
Decentralized Composting of Garbage in a Small Composter for Dwelling House I. Laboratory Composting of the Household Garbage in a Small Bin
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ; Joo, Woo-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 321~337
The garbage from the dwelling houses was composted in two kinds of small composter in laboratory to investigate the possibility of garbage composting. They were general small composters. One (type 1) was insullated but the other (type 2) was not. Because it was found that type 2 was not available for composting under our meteorological conditions through winter experiment, only type 1 was tested in spring and summer. The experiment was performed for 8 weeks in each season. The seasonal variation of several compounds in compost was evaluated and discussed. The result summarized belows are those taken at the end of the experiment, if the time was not specified. 1) The maximum temperature was
in summer and
in winter. This temperature was enough to destroy the pathogen except for winter. 2) The mass was reduced to average 62.5% and the volume reduction was avergae 74%. 3) The density was estimated as 0.7kg/l in spring, 0.8kg/l in summer and 1.1kg/l in winter. 4) The water content was not much changed for composting periods. It had 75.6% in spring and 76.6% in summer and winter. 5) There was a great seasonal difference in pH value. It was reached to pH 6.13 in spring, pH 8.62 in summer and pH 4.75 in winter. 6) The faster organic matter was decomposed, the greater ash content was increased. Cellulose and lignin content were increased, but hemicellulose content was reduced during composting period. 7) Nitrogen contents were in the range of 3.1-5.6% and especially high in summer. After ammonium nitrogen contents were increased at the early stage of composting period, they were decreased. The maximum ammonium nitrogen content was 3,243mg/kg after 2 weeks in winter, 6,053mg/kg after 3 weeks in spring and 30,828mg/kg after 6 weeks in summer. C/N-ratios were not much changed. Nitrification occurred actively in spring and summer. 8) The contents of volatile and higher fatty acids were increased in early stage of composting and reduced after that. The maximum content of total fatty acid was 10.1% after 2 weeks in winter, 5.8% after 2 weeks in spring and 15.7% after 4 weeks in summer. 9) The contents of inorganic compounds were not accumulated as composting was proceeded. They were in the range of 0.9-4.4%
, 2.4-4.6% CaO and 0.30-0.80% MgO. 10) CN and heavy metal contents did not show any tendency. They were in the range of 0.11-28.99mg/kg CN, 24-166mg/kg Zn, 5-129mg/kg Cu, 0.8-14.3mg/kg Cd, 7-42mg/kg Pb, ND-30mg/kg Cr and
Decentralized Composting of Garbage in a Small Composter for Dwelling House II. Changes in Microbial Flora in laboratory Composting of Household Garbage in a small Bin
Lee, Yon ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 338~345
In the course of developing a small composter for dwelling house, we designed two different small bins; one is insullated (type 1) and the other uninsullated (type 2). Several interesting results were abtained from the study using these bins for garbage composting in winter, spring and summer. Changes in microbial number were very similar to those observed in the general composting process. However, microbial flora was relatively simple. The genera Streptomyces and Nocardia of actinomycetes and the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Absidia, Rhizopus of hypomycetes was observed from the composted materials. Thermophiles secreted most of the
secreted in winter but mesophilic actinomycetes did in summer. The amount of secreted protease was much lower in winter than in summer. Lipases were secreted more by mesophiles than thermophiles. Only Aspergillus of hypomycetes was observed to degrade cellulose. Generally, the appearance of enzyme producing microorganisms increased in summer than in the other seasons. In the point of seasonal increase of temperature and changes in microbial flora, the number of microorganisms was higher in summer or spring than in winter.
Effect of Acid Rain on Vegetation
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 346~358
In this paper, the current knowledge on the formation of acid rain and its effect on vegetation are reviewed. The pollutants which were emitted into the air are oxidized by photochemical reaction and affect the vegetation by dry and wet deposition. Acid rain at pH 4.0 affected sensitive plants and when it was below pH 3.0, visible symptoms developed in most of the crops. The acid rain treatment at pH 2.0 decreased dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll contents in soybean but it increased rate of photosynthesis and respiration rate. Rain treatment at pH 2.8 increased ethylene production, but it’s not a suitable indicator of sensitivity to acid rain. At pH 2.0 treatment, the contents of soluble Mn and Al were increased but the cultivated soil pH at upper layer(0-5cm) was significantly decreased. The pertubation of glandular trichome which is existed along the vein was developed at all treatment except the control(pH 6.0) and non-treatment. Histological pertubation of spiked trichome and disintegration of chloroplast were developed only on the leaves of sesame treated with SAR(simulated acid rain) of pH 2.0.
Methods for Measurement of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Fields
Shin, Yong-Kwang ; Kim, Kwang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 359~372
A simplified closed static chamber method was devised for measurement of methane flux from paddy fields. Compared to automatic methane measuring system(AMMS) this chamber method provides availability with moderate costs of setup and maintenance, while it also provides the time-effectiveness compared to other closed top-type chamber method. It accomodates 30 chambers within 2 hours sampling period with two persons. And it provide a rapid and accurate analysis of methane, 30-40 samples per hour. Modified method for
measurements provides a precise and accurate analysis of nitrous oxide without upgrading additional heating zones for gas sampling(switching) valves.
Mode of Resistance and/or Tolerance Action of Paraquat
Ma, Sang-Yong ; Chun, Jae-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 373~385
Resistance to paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridilium ion) has developed in 12 species of 8 genera to which paraquat has been applied 6 to 10 times per year for 5 or more years. In recent years, tolerance to paraquat has been found in Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Liboch. ex Fisch. & Mey. which has never been applied with any herbicides involving paraquat. In this review, we differentiate the terms, resistance and tolerance, on the basis of the paraquat-exposure history. Five hypotheses have been evaluated in several species as potential mechanisms of paraquat resistance and/or tolerance. In a species, the mode of action may be due to 1) reduced quantities of paraquat absorbed through the leaf surface, 2) detoxification of paraquat caused by the enhanced paraquat-metabolic activity, 3) rapid sequestration reducing level of paraquat at the site of action in chloroplast, 4) alteration of site of action in photosystem I resulting in interruption of electron transport to paraquat, and 5) rapid enzymatic detoxification of superoxide and other toxic forms of oxygen.
Utilization of Microorganisms for Treating Wastewater Polluted with Heavy Metals
Heo, Jong-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 13, issue 3, 1994, Pages 386~395
As a basic research on applying the microbial strains which had been isolated and proved to remove heavy metals, such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in This laboratory to actual wastewater treatment, optimum condition of the treatment system with addition of single or multiple species of pollutants and microorganisms were investigated at small scale. Concentration of the bacterial inoculum was 3000mg/L and 1500mg/L of MLSS for treatment with single and multiple species, respectively. Removal rates of heavy metals were expressed at HRT’s (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 12, 24, and 48 hr. Removal rates of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu after 12 days at HRT of 24hr with addition of single and multiple species were 93%, 90%, 80%, and 39%, and 75%, 90%, 74%, and 48%, respectively. Judging from these results, treatment capability of the isolated strains is excellent. Hence, the microorganisms are expected to be applicable to actual wastewater treatment.