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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Dec 1995
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Aug 1995
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
Selecting the target year
Effect of Heavy Metal Contents in Upland Soil on the Uptake by Green onion and Lettuce and their growth
Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 253~262
The heavy metal contents of soils which had been contaminated with mine residues and green onion and lettuce which were grown on these soils were analyzed. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Heavy metal contents in the soil where green onion and lettuce died back or were poor in growth were unusually high. 2. Heavy metal contents in the plants grown in the soil of high level of metals were also high, in the order of root > leaf > stem. In case of Mn, however, the content was the highest in the leaf. 3. Contents of Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni in soil were positively correlated with those in plant. In case of Pb, there was no consistent relationship between the contents in soil and plant. 4. Even in the soils where plant growth appeared to be normal the heavy metal contents both in soil and in plant were higher than the national average.
Changes of Chemical Species in Soil Solution Induced by Heavy Metals
Yang, Jae-E. ; Lee, Ki-Won ; Kim, Jeong-Je ; Lim, Hyung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 263~271
Chemical assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals was made by analyzing the changes in pH, ionic strength, cationic concentration and chemical species in the soil solution. Saturated pastes of the unpolluted soils were made by adding solutions containing Cu or Cd and the final Cu or Cd concentrations were in the range of 0 to 400 mg/kg. After equilibrating for 24 hours at
, the soil solution was extracted from the saturated pastes by the vacuum extraction method and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, Cu, Cd, cations and inorganic ligands. Chemical species in soil solution were calculated by the GEOCHEM-PC program employing the input variables of pH, ionic strength(
), molar concentrations of cations and ligands. Increasing Cu or Cd additions lowered pH of the soil solution but increased concentrations of Ca, Mg and K resulting in increases of
of the soil solution. Effects of Cu on lowering pH and increasing
were greater than those of Cd. Concentrations of Cu or Cd in soil solution were relatively very low as compared to those of additions, but increased linearly with increasing additions representing that concentrations of Cu were higher than those of Cd. At 400 mg/kg additions, concentrations of Cu were in the range of 0.51 to 11.70 mg/L but those of Cd were 34.4 to 88.5 mg/L. Major species of Ca, Mg and K were free ions and these species were equivalent to greater than 95 molar % of the existing respective molar concentrations. These cationic species were not changed by Cu or Cd additions. Major species of Cu in lower pH soils such as SiCL and SL were free
(>95 molar %), but those in LS having a higher pH were free
and Cu-hydroxide complex. At 100 mg Cu/kg treatment,
and Cu-hydroxide complex were equivalent to 73 and 22.4 molar %, respectively. These respective percentages were decreased and increased correspondingly with increasing Cu treatments. Major species of Cd in soil solution were free
and Cd-chloride complex, representing 79 to 85 molar % for
and 13 to 20% for Cd-chloride complex at 10 mg Cd/kg treatment. With increasing Cd additions to 400 mg/kg,
species decreased to
but Cd-chloride complexes increased to
molar %. These results demonstrated that soil contamination with heavy metals caused an adverse effect on the plant nutritional aspects of soil solution by lowering pH, increasing cations temporarily, and increasing free metal concentrations and species enough to be phytotoxic.
Residual Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) in the Sediment of the Kumho River
Kim, Jung-Ho ; Moon, Chul-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 272~281
The residual Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in the sediment of the Kumho River basin were measured because the Nakdong River was considered to be affected by the environmental quality of Kumho River. PCBs in the sediment were chlorinated and converted into Decachlorinated biphenyl(DCB) which showed the single peak in the GC-ECD chromatogram. The detectable concentrations of PCBs was 0.5ng/g in the sediment. PCBs in the 21 sediment samples was of Kumho River located at 7.5km from conjunction of Nakdong River were not detected from 100 samples. 49% of samples was showed lower than 50ng/g, and 9% did more than 400ng/g. The mean of PCBs concentrations was 131ng/g. The means of COD and organic carbon were 14.5mg/g and 3.41%, respectively. The relationship between PCBs were concentration and the distance from conjunction with Nakdong River was not significant. The concentration of PCBs were varied with the depth of the sediment down to the 250cm depth. The concentrations of PCBs in the depth 0-20cm and 50-90cm were higher than the mean concentration of PCBs. Along the cross of the stream, the concentrations of PCBs were 142ng/g at the center and 126 and 131ng/g at the river sides.
Study on Histological Perturbations of Crop Leaves after Exposure to Simulated Acid Rain;I. Red pepper, Perilla and Eggplant
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Bok-Yong ; Choi, Sun ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 282~288
To investigate the alterations in the ultrastructure of leaves by acid rain, 10mm of SAR(Simulated Acid Rain, pH 2.0, 2.7, 3.0, 6.0) was applied to three crops(red-pepper, perilla, eggplant) at a two-day interval. The symptoms of leaf damage by SAR were observed by naked eyes and SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope), and the peroxidase activity in the leaves was measured. The results are summarized as follows : The severity of SAR damages to the crops observed by naked eye were in the decreasing order of red-pepper, perilla, and eggplant. The Symptoms were characterized by brown or white spots on the leaf surface. In the SAR treatment of pH 3.0, trichomes of all crops except for eggplant were damaged. By the SAR treatment of pH 2.7, stomata were damaged in all crops. With one time treatment of SAR, the peroxidase activity of perilla was rapidly increased.
Physicochemical Characteristics and Efficacy of Controlled-release Insecticide Formulation
Kim, Jin-Hwa ; Oh, Byung-Youl ; Oh, Kyeong-Seok ; Kim, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Mee-Hea ; Kim, Young-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 289~295
This study was carried out to develop a controlled-release insecticide formulation for the control of rose aphid (Macrosiphum ibarae) in rose and cotton aphid (Myzus persicae) in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum var. Meibung) in greenhouse. Imidacloprid[1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine] was chosen as a toxicant. Two synthetic polymers, low density polyethylene(LDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA), were used as polymer matrices. The tested plastic sheet formulations were prepared by heat-aided extrusion procedures after mixing imidacloprid technical and the polymers of three different combinations, and physicochemical properties as well as efficacy of the formulations were investigated. The amounts of imidacloprid recovered and incorporated in the formulations were recorded over 90% and 80%, respectively. Release of the active ingredient from the formulations was remarkably affected by mixing rates of polymers. The active ingredient in the formulations was chemically unstable with over 10% degradation rates after 90 day storage at
. The residual amounts of imidacloprid in the soil treated with the formulations were paralleled with the release pattern of the formulations. Efficacy of the formulations on rose and cotton aphid was maintained over 90% even 120days after treatment under greenhouse.
Solubilizability, foliar wettability and phytotoxicity of nonionic surfactant-acetone aqueous solutions for the herbicide screening
Yu, Ju-Hyun ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 296~301
For studying the role of acetone and surfactant in solution, and selecting the best surfactant for spray solution in herbicide screening, the solubilizability of 6 nonionic surfactant-acetone aqueous solutions to 18 herbicide technicals, their foliar wettability and phytotoxicity to soybean and rice plant were tested and evaluated. The solubilizability of surfactant-acetone aqueous solutions to herbicide technicals was dependent on the acetone content of solutions, and was less affected by nonionic surfactant. Foliar wettability of the surfactant solutions was good to soybean, but only polyoxyethylene lauryl ether HLB 13.6(LE-13.6) solution showed good wettability to rice plant within the concentration range of no phytotoxicity. Tween 20(0.1%), LE-13.6(0.01%) and polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether HLB 16.0(0.01%) solutions didn't induce phytotoxicity to soybean, and most of the surfactant solutions didn't induce phytotoxicity to rice plant. There was no surfactant that showed superior emulsifiability to various herbicide technicals, good foliar wettability to plants, and no phytotoxicity, but LE-13.6 was better than others.
Comparative Assessment of the Half-lives of Benfuresate and Oxolinic Acid Estimated from Kinetic Models Under Field Soil Conditions
Yang, Jae-E. ; Park, Dong-Sik ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 302~311
Benfuresate or oxolinic acid, as an experimental pesticide, was applied to the different textural paddy or upland soil respectively under the field condition and the residual concentrations were determined. Six kinetic models were employed to characterize the best-fit kinetic model describing the residual pattern of benfuresate or oxolinic acid and the
estimated from each model was comparatively assessed. All of the six models explained significantly the residual patterns of the pesticides but the empirical models such as PF, EL, and PB were not recommendable for the
estimation. Among theoretical models, the residual patterns were followed in the orders of the second-order(SO)>first-order(FO)>zero-order(ZO) kinetics, judging from the size and significance of coefficient of determination and standard error. However, the multiple FO model, consisting of the fast and slow decomposition steps, was better than the single FO model for the residual pattern and the
in this case became similar to that of SO kinetic model. Thus the multiple FO and SO models were represented as the best fit model of the experimental pesticide. The
of benfuresate estimated from the single FO kinetic model in Weolgog and Cheongwon series was 49 and 63 days, respectively, which were 20 and 13% longer than the respective
from the SO kinetic model. The
of oxolinic acid from the FO model in Yonggye and Ihyeon series were 87 and 51% longer than those from the SO kinetic model, respectively. These results demonstrated that the best-fit model representing the residual pattern of a pesticide and the resultant
might be variable with the kinds of pesticides and the environmental conditions. Therefore it is recommended that the half-life of a pesticide be assessed from the best-fit model rather than from the FO kinetic model uniformly.
Assessment of the Residues of Benfuresate and Oxolinic Acid in Crops
Park, Dong-Sik ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Han, Dae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 312~318
Residues of benfuresate in rice and oxolinic acid in Chinese cabbage were determined through the field experiments in order to establish the safe use and the maximum residue limit(MRL) of these pesticides in Korea. The herbicide benfuresate powder was sprayed into the paddy field with a level of 0.6kg(active ingredient)/ha and rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown. At harvest, residues of benfuresate in brown rice and stem were analyzed using gas chromatograph. The residue of oxolinic acid in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. napus var pekinesis MAKINO) was analyzed using HPLC after foliar-spraying this fungicide into the cabbages at a level of 15kg/ha. The recovery efficiencies of benfuresate and oxolinic acid were 87-89% and 90-95%, respectively. The respective residues of benfuresate in rice and oxolinic acid in Chinese cabbage were in the range of 0.27-0.46 mg/kg and 0.23-1.53kg/kg. Residual concentrations of these pesticides in crops increased with the increased application frequencies, followed the first-order kinetics and linearly decreased with time. The highest residue of 1.53 mg/kg of oxolinic acid was observed when this fungicide was sprayed six times until three days prior to harvest, but this level was far lower t㏊n 5 mg/kg, which is the maximum residue limit(MRL) set by FAO/WHO.
Investigation of resistance mechanism for Botrytis cinerea to procymidone
Cho, Jeong-Rye ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 319~328
This study was carried out to investigate the resistance mechanism by three different kinds of procymidone-resistant and susceptible isolates of Botrytis cinerea which had been collected from green houses. The average resistance level of the resistant strains was 1,000 times higher than that of susceptible ones. Also, it was revealed that the resistance was not originated from components excreted by Botrytis cinerea, based on the result obtained from the treatment with piperonyl butoxide and triphenyl phosphate as an inhibitor of monooxygenase and esterase, respectively. The total lipod content of resistant strains was 1.3 times higher than that of susceptible ones, among fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linoleic and being 3.0, 2.5, and 2.0 times higher, respectinely. Also slight differences in sterol contents and components were observed. The crude chitin content was slightly higher in susceptible strains but contents of N-acetyl glucosamine, a hydrolysate of chitin, were about 2 times higher in resistant ones.
Investigation of Herbicide Safeners and their Mode of Safening Action;II. Effect of N-(4-chlorophenyl) maleimide, Plant Growth Regulators, and Alkylating Agents on Glutathione Content and Glutathione S-transferase Activity
Chun, Jae-Chul ; Ma, Sang-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 329~337
The effect of N-(4-chlorophenyl) maleimide(CPMI), plant growth regulators, and alkylating agents on gluathione(GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase(GST) activity was examined with 3-day-old etiolated sorghum(Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) seedlings. The GSH content and GST activity of untreated seedlings were higher in shoots than that in roots. Response of GST activity in coleoptile was significantly greater than in other tissues of sorghum seedling. In CPMI-treated seedlings, GSH content was not significantly different from that in untreated seedlings. CPM treatment resulted in 2.3-fold increase in GST activity measured with metolachlor as substrate in the coleoptile region. In contrast, change in GST activity measured with metolachlor as substrate in the coleoptile region. In contrast, change in GST activity measured with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene did not occur. The increase of GST activity was caused by induction of a GST isozyme, which is substrate-specific to metolachlor. Subsequently, two hypotheses related to metolachlor detoxification were evaluated on the basis of regulation of plant growth regulators and substrate induction of GST activity. In coleoptile, GST activity measured with metolachior was increased to 2.1-and 3.4-fold by both 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D) and metolachlor treated at the germination stage of sorghum, respectively. Treatments of 2.4-D and metolachlor also induced isozymes exhibiting the activity toward metolachlor. One of the isozymes was co-eluted with that induced by CPMI. These results indicated that increase in GST activity by CPMI may be partially related to auxin regulation and substrate induction.
Comparison of the analytical methods for Cd in brown rice
Kim, Bok-Young ; Lee, Min-Hyo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 338~344
The wet ash method has been used as an official standard procedure for the analysis of Cd in brown rice in Korea, but this method involves several disadvantages. Thus, four analytical methods were compared in this experiment in order to find a more efficient method for the Cd analysis in brown rice. Evaluation was made based on both the Cd recovery percentages from the Cd-spiked samples and the relationships between Cd contents obtained by the official procedure and other methods. Results showed that ashing 50g brown rice at
(dry ash method) recovered nearly 80% of the spiked Cd. This recovery percentage was a little lower than that of the wet ash method(87%) but higher than those of other methods. The dry ash method had the lowest standard deviations and revealed the highest correlation coefficient(
) in Cd contents with the standard wet ash method. These results demonstrated that the dry ash method, ashing 50g brown rice at
, would be as efficient as the wet ash method and could be employed as a recommended procedure for the Cd analysis of brown rice.
Decentralized Composting of Garbage in a Small Composter for Dwelling House;IV. Changes in Microbial Flora in Laboratory Composting of the Household Garbage in a Samll Bin with the Double Layer Walls
Lee, Youn ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Seo, Jeoug-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 345~350
Another two different small composters with the double layer walls(Type 3 and Type 4) were made for dwelling house. One was insulated(Type 4) but the other uninsulated(Type 3). The change in microbial flora has been investigated through laboratory composting using these composters. The results were summarized as follows. 1. While the number of mesophilic bacteria decreased, that of thermophilic bacteria increased in winter. But thermophillic bacteria and mesophillic bacteria showed a tendency to increased in winter. But thermophilic bacteria and mesophillic bacteria showed a tendency to increase and decreas simultaneously in spring and summer at the early stage of composting. 2. The number of mesophilic actinomycetes ans thermophilic actinomycetes were decreased after I week in winter, while thermophilic actinomycetes rapidly increased in spring and mildly increased in summer. 3. The number of mesophilic fungi and thermophilic fungi had a tendency to increase and decrease simultaneously at an early stage of composting except after I week in winter. 4. Mesophilic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi showed no difference in the number of microbes, but the number of fungi in spring was smaller than in other sensons. 5. At the late stage of composting process, the number of mesophilic fungi was decreased in winter and summer but increased in spring.
Information Resources for the Establishment of Tolerances on Pesticide Residues in Water Quality
Lee, Su-Rae ; Kim, Yong-Hwa ; Lee, Mi-Gyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 14, issue 3, 1995, Pages 351~373
The objective of this paper is to present relevant information and data from domestic and foreign references and to propose legal standards on pesticide residues in order to mitigate the pesticide contamination in the water environment. Among 200 pesticide ingredients in use in Korea, items necessary for standard setting were selected and theoretical residue limits were computed. The results are summarized as follows. In advanced countries, drinking water standards are established on the basis of health index ADI and water intake, whereas standards for surface water are established temporarily on the basis of different parameters, inconsistent with different countries. Pesticide residue limits applicable in Korea were proposed for 24 pesticides in drinking water(health basis) and for 25 pesticides in surface water(ecotoxicological basis), as selected by risk priority. It was recommended to accumulate scientific data by persistent research efforts in order to maintain the justification of the pesticide residue limits in water and relevant research topics to be undertaken in future were proposed.