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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
Fractionation of Heavy Metals and Correlation with Their Contents in Rice Plant Grown in Paddy near Smelter Area
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Moon, Kwang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~10
The contents of heavy metals in soil near the Janghang smelter area were observed to understand present status and relationship between their fraction and the absorption by rice. The soil samples were taken from the eight sites of the paddy fields in 1982 and 1990, and analysis on heavy metals including Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb was performed. The results were as follows: Total contents of heavy metals in the samples of 1990 were higher than those of 1982. The order of increasing ratio was Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd and the variation of Cd content by sequential differente extracting was residual > exchangeable > dilute acid-extractable fractions and its increasing range was from 38 to 71% during nine years. The ratio of immobile heavy metals bound within an oxide or silicate matrix of Fe-Mn oxide bound and residual in surface soil was that Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were 31.65, 42.22, 76.57 and 79.49%, respectively, and their mobile ratios of exchangeable, dilute acid-extractable and organically bound were more than 20.28%. Those of mobile Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were 68.35, 55.78, 23.43 and 20.28%, respectively. Correlation between the heavy metal contents in surface soil and those in tissue of rice plant, such as leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem and panicle axis, were significant, but were not significant in subsurface soil. The dilute acid-extractable and organically bound fractions of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in surface soil were more significantly correlated with those in tissues of paddy rice.
Uptake and Accumulation of Soil Strontium-90 by Peanut and Sesame
Choi, Yong-Ho ; Jo, Jae-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 11~18
A greenhouse experiment on the Sr-90 uptake by peanut and sesame was conducted through pot cultures on a sandy loam soil of pH 6.35 treated with Sr-90 in 5.2 and 31.2Bq per gram. The rate of Sr-90 transfer from soil to each plant part, the ratio of Sr-90 concentration in the part to the concentration in soil, and the patterns of their temporal changes were not, on the whole, significantly different between the two treatments. About 0.7 and 0.5 % of Sr-90 in soil transferred to all the mature plants of peanut and sesame, respectively, with the radioactivities in their roots not counted. Only 4% and less than 15% of Sr-90 absorbed by peanut and sesame, respectively, translocated to their seeds. Both crops showed the highest Sr-90 concentration in the leaf and the lowest in the seed. At maturities, the concentration ratio in dry seed was 0.4 in peanut and 3.3 in sesame and that in dry leaf was 12.5 and 10.7, respectively. Sr-90 concentrations in the top 15 cm soil after harvests averaged about 80 % of the concentrations at starting. Sr-90 uptake resulted in neither growth inhibition nor yield decrease.
Histological Perturbations of Crop Leaves after Exposure to Simulated Acid Rain;II. For rice, soybean, barley, and radish
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Jung, Goo-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 19~24
To investigate the alterations of ultrastructure of leaves by acid rain, 10mm of SAR(Simulated Acid Rain, pH 2.0, 2.5, 2.7, 3.0, 6.0) were applied to 4 crops(rice, soybean, barley, and radish) at the two day interval. The symptoms of leaf damage by SAR were observed by naked eyes and SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope). The results are summarized as follow: Visible leaf injury were more serious in dicots than monocots such as rice and barley with the order of bean, radish, rice, barley. With the SAR treatment of pH 2.0, histological perturbation of trichome were developed in bean and radish. And with the SAR treatment of pH 2.5, stomata of all tested crops except rice were deshaped.
Degradation Ability of Fungicide Myclobutanil by Several Soil Bacteria
Han, Seong-Soo ; Park, Pill-Jae ; Jeong, Jae-Hun ; Rim, Yo-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 25~36
This study was carried out to isolate some bacterial strains which had potentiality of good degrader of fungicides from herbicide free soil and to clarify degradation of a fungicide mycrobutanyl[2-p-chlorophenyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ylmethyl)-hexanenitrile]. Ten strains of the gram-positive and the gram-negative bacteria were isolated and identified. Most of them vigorously proliferated at 55ppm of mycrobutanil, but the stains were not grown when more than 70ppm of this fungicide were treated Staphylococcus spp. I, Actinobacillus spp. III, and another I of the isolated bacteria degraded more than 35% of the treated mycrobutanil. These three strains could utilize mycrobutanil as nitrogen and carbon sources. Mycrobutanil was rapidly decomposed by these strains when applied once or three times. Tested bacteria gradually increased in growth when mycrobutanil was applied repeatedly. Degradation of mycrobutanil and growth of these bacteria were greater in pH 5.5, and they were high in the order of
Identification of Water Soluble Metabolites of Pentachlorophenol(PCP) in the Suspension Cultures of Soybean and Rice Cells;2. Isolation and characterization of PCP glucose conjugates
Kim, Pil-Je ; Park, Chang-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 37~45
Abstracts From the previous metabolic study of Pentachlorophenol(PCP), PCP was found to be exclusively transformed into
conjugates of PCP in soybean and rice cell suspension cultures. In order to gather structural information of of the glucose conjugate, their aglycons and glycon have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS respectively, after thorough purification by chromatographic techniques. The glucose conjugates were effectively purified through a 1-butanol extraction followed by Silica gel TLC, Sephadex column chromatography and HPLC. Aglycons of the metabolites were identified as PCP, isomeric mixture of tetrachlorophenol, and tetrachlorocatechol and glycon were identified as glucose, suggesting that there are at least three kinds of glucose conjugates with different phenolic moieties. Under controlled conditions, the glucose conjugates were separated into three HPLC peaks which released respective aglycon upon a hydrolytic treatment. These results give valuable information on the structure of the glucose conjugates such that some PCP-driven chlorophenols, in addition to PCP, are also conjugated with glucose.
Application of Weed Species as the Diagnostic Indicator Plants of Environmental Pollution
Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Shim, Sang-In ; Lee, Sang-Gak ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 46~69
The studies were conducted to obtain the basic information of the effects of pollutants on plant species and to select the plant species showing specific responses to the pollutants. For these purposes, paraquat, ammonium, and cadmium as a source of oxidative stress, nitrogen toxicity, and heavy metal toxicity respectively were treated to the plant species. Among the tested plants, Lamiaceae, Brassicaceae, and Caryophyllaceae were tolerant to paraquat, whereas Poaceae and Asteraceae were sensitive. Especially Mosla dianthera of Lamiaceae, Hemistepta lyrata and Aster pilosus of Asteraceae, and Paspalum thunbergii of Poaceae showed higher tolerance than others. Paraquat resistance was related with life style, overwintering capacity, so perennial and biennial species showed higher tolerance than annual species. In response to ammonium, Poaceae showed higher resistance while Fabaceae and Caryophyllaceae showed sensitiveness. Weed species having tolerance to ammonium were Echinochloa crus-galli var. praticola, Panicum dichotomiflorum, Setaria glauca, Chenopodium album, and Solanum nigrum, while Mosla dianthera, Arenaria serpyllifolia and Perilla frutescens var. japonica showed sensitiveness. In the response of plant species to cadmium, Digitaria sanguinalis, Amaranthus lividus showed higher resistance, whereas Galinsoga parviflora, Plantago asiatica, Ambrosia trifida, and Paspalum thunbergii showed sensitiveness. The injured degree on germination stage by pollutants did not related with injured degree on matured stage. During germination, the root elongation was more sensitive than shoot elongation by pollutants, paraquat, ammonium, and cadmium.
in Mouse in vivo
Kim, In-Seon ; Lee, Kang-Bong ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Suh, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 70~76
Absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of
[1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10-=trinorborn-5-en 2,3-ylenebismethylene]sulfite) were studied in male mouse(Balb/c) after single intraperitoneal treatment as the dose level of 7.5 mg/kg body weights. After treatment of
, the radioactivity was rapidly excreted into the urine(63.9 %) within 4 days, thereafter the excretion ratio was constant. Radioactivity levels in the tissues was reached maximum 0.5 hr in heart, 2 hrs in liver and kidney after the treatment, then decreased with time. Endosulfan was metabolized to
, endosulfan ether(EE), endosulfan sulfate(ES), and endosulfan alcohol(EA). The main metabolites were EA(13.25 %) in liver and endosulfan hydroxyether(EHE)(19.37 %) in kidney. The urinary metabolites were EA(43.21 %), ES(4.78 %),
(7.21 %), EE(3.72 %) and EHE(18.04 %).
Responses of Castanea crenata to Injection Wound for Oxytetracycline(OTC)
Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Yun, Jeong-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 77~85
Chestnut(Castanea crenata) were trunk-injected by two methods to check the changes around the injection wound. In September 1993, high concentration of oxytetracycline(OTC) was injected through the injection wound of 1cm diameter and low concentration of OTC through 0.5cm diameter. Trunk diameter of injected trees ranged from 10cm to 20cm. All trees were in their vigorous conditions. Tree reaction was examined in June, 1994. None of them showed any sign of decay by the time. However, under the bark, sapwood was remarkably discolored. But, more severe discoloration was found in 1cm-injection wound than in 0.5cm one. Sapwood of some trees split from the injection wound, and the split was longer in 1cm-injection wounded trees than in 0.5cm trees. From the split, callus grew out and the split was closing. In this kind of trunk injection, the damage was more severe in 1cm-injection wound than in 0.5cm-injection wound.
Weed and Pest Control by means of Physical Treatments;Effect of infrared irradiation on viability of weed seeds
Kang, Whoa-Seug ; Yu, Chang-Yeon ; Kang, Wie-Soo ; Lee, Gwi-Hyun ; Oh, Jae-Heun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 86~90
This study was to provide the basic information for the development of thermal weeder which uses LPG as fuel. Weed seeds of Digitaria sanguinalis S. and Portulaca oleracea L. mainly developed in fram and forestry nurseries were used as experimental samples. At different irradiation temperature(60, 80, 100, 150,
), the dffects of weed seed species(digitalis, purslane), condition of seed(dry, soaked), and irradiation time(2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 180, 300 sec) on seed viability were investigated was investigated by examining interaction and main effect of experimental factors. The results showed that viability of weed seed was significantly affected by all irradiation temperature tested. Irradiation time significantly affected on viability of weed seed on all levels of irradiation temperature. also, there were interactions between condition of weed seed and irradiation time on seed viability at each irradiation temperature.
Weed and Pest Control by Means of Physical Treatments;Effect of infrared irradiation on loam for weed control
Kang, Whoa-Seug ; Yu, Chang-Yeon ; Shin, Hyun-Dong ; Kang, Wie-Soo ; Oh, Jae-Heun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 91~104
The viability loss or death of weed seeds buried in soil can be induced by infrared irradiation which has good penetration in moist soil. By using this principle of pre-emergence soil-treatment, the study was carried out to obtain basic information needed to develop the effective weed control method for the production of less polluted agricultural products. An apparatus for irradiating infrared was constructed by using ceramic material with high emissivity. The LPG was used as fuel for producing infrared by heating ceramic material. The soil heated in this study was loam with four levels of moisture contents (0.6, 5.7, 10.7, 15.1 % wb). The temperature distribution was measured at various soil depths when soil with different moisture content was irradiated with infrared for three different times (30, 60, 90 sec). The soil depths with duration time of minimum 3 minutes over
, temperature inducing viability loss of weed seeds, were investigated. When the moisture content of soil was 0.6 and 5.7 % wb, the soil depths which can induce viability loss of weed seeds was greatly increased with increasing irradiation time. However, any depths of soil tested in this study was not reached to the temperature of
when 30 seconds of irradiation time was applied on soil with moisture content of 10.7 or 15.1 % wb. Generally, the soil depth needed for viability loss of weed seeds was decreased with increasing moisture content of soil. Also, longer irradiation time was required to induce viability loss of weed seeds with increasing moisture content of soil.
On the Extension of Insecticidal Activity and the Preparation of New Mixture with Diazinon
Cho, Jeong-Rye ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 105~115
In this paper, we reviewed the degradation factors of diazinon which was known to be easily degraded by soil microorganisms and lost of its activity. Under submerged soil condition, the contribution of microorganisms to diazinon degradation was about 40% and these microorganisms preferred soil humus as substrates to diazinon itself. The effect of monooxygenase activity in submerged soil was more important than esterase activity on diazinon degradation and these enzymes were inhibited by several chemicals such as piperonyl butoxide(PBO), EPN and tricyclazole. From these results, new formulation type of diazinon (PBO and triphenyl phosphate were added to commercial diazinon formulation by 0.1% respectively.) and diazinon mixture formulation (diazinon was mixed with EPN, tricyclazole and carbofuran in equal amount) were prepared. The new formulation type of diazinon showed better insecticidal activity by 12% and more delayed diazinon degradation in ten days than commercial diazinon.
Use of Jumbo Formulation for Paddy-applicable Pesticides
Yu, Ju-Hyun ; Lim, He-Kyoung ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 116~127
Recent development in Japan on jumbo formulation of pesticides for paddy application by hand throw was reviewed. In addition, the diffusion of liquid formulations in water was examined to establish the research strategy for the jumbo formulation. Research on jumbo formulation in Japan has been focused on gas-generating formulations and self-emulsifiable formulations. Although continuous efforts to minimize the problem of pesticide deposit on the treated site have been made for the gas-generating formulations, much work is still needed to establish a generally acceptable formulation method and to commercialize a herbicide formulation. The self-emulsifiable jumbo formulations have recently been investigated. These formulations could simply be processed and showed relatively high biological efficacy. The emulsifiable concentrate was more diffusible than the suspension concentrate in water. The diffusion of the emulsifiable concentrate was not greatly disturbed by floating obstacles. And the diffusion rate was high when the specific grabity was lower than one.
Information Resources for the Establishment of Tolerance Standards on Pesticide Residues in Soils
Lee, Su-Rae ; Lee, Hae-Keun ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 1, 1996, Pages 128~144
The usage level of pesticides in Korea reached the relatively high extent of 13 kg a.i./ha for arable land, and therefore, establishment of legal standards on pesticide residues in soil environment has been requested. This paper presents relevant information on soil contamination and proposes tentative standards on 20 pesticides in agricultural, urban and forest soils, respectively, as well as needed background data to support the justification of the standards.