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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
Effect of Heavy Metal Contents in Soils Near Old Zinc-Mining Sites on the Growth of and their Uptake by Soybean
Lee, Jong-Pal ; Park, No-Kwuan ; Park, Seon-Do ; Choi, Boo-Sull ; Kim, Bok-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 275~281
When soybean was cultivated in the polluted soil with heavy metals, the content of these heavy metals affected. The results were summarized as follows. 1. The growth of soybean was remarkably poor and the content of heavy metals in polluted soil were higher than in unpolluted soil. 2. In leaves of all surveyed crops, the content of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and As was higher in soybean, followed by corn and rice. 3. Except for Pb, the content of heavy metals in the leaves of soybean was higher than in the stem of soybean, and the components of heavy metals in each part of soybean were shown in order of Zn > As > Cd > Cu > Pb. 4. The relationship between the content of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As and the growth of soybean was negatively correlated, respectively. 5. A higher correlation seemed to exist among the content of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As in soil, of Zn, Cu and As in soybean leaves, and of Pb, Cd and As in stems of soybean. The results indicated that heavy metals were absorbed and accumulated by plants grown in the polluted area.
Effects of Coal Fly Ash on Composting Process of Household Garbage
Seong, Soon-Hee ; Kim, Woo-Seong ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 282~288
Because of the high water content of the household garbage, it is difficult to compost it. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using coal fly ash as humidity conditioner for the household garbage composting. The summarized results are as follows : 1. The maximum temperatures were
in summer, and
in winter during the composting periods. 2. The mass was reduced to 70.5% after 60 days. The average volume reduced down to 74.7% after 60 days. 3. The seasonal variation of pH values showed a similar tendency and reached 8.5 after 60 days. 4. The water content was reduced at an early stage of composting and not much changed thereafter. It had 49.7% in spring, 33.9% in summer, and 56.5% in winter after 60 days. Ash contents were not much changed during the composting periods. 5. The contents of inorganic compounds were in the range of
. Heavy metal contents were in the range of
Pb mg/kg, and
Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Red-pepper Caused by Phytophthora capsici;I. Selection of a Bacterial Antagonist against Photophthora capsici
Chang, Yoon-Hee ; Chang, Sang-Moon ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 289~295
This study was attempted to select an antagonist against Phytophthora blight of red-pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici. The three strains, A-35, A-67 and A-183 were isolated from the rhizosphere in soil where red-pepper had been cultivated continuously for a long time, and the strain A-83 was estimated to be the strongest antagonist against P. capsici. The A-183 strain was identified as a strain of Pseudomonas sp., showing the maximum antifungal activity, when cultured at
for 5 days in the potato extract medium(pH 6.5) containing 2.0% mannitol and 0.3% peptone.
Degradation Characteristics of Paper Sludge and Changes of Heavy Metals in Soil
Lee, Hong-Jae ; Jeong, In-Ho ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 296~305
Chemical characteristics of paper sludge, degradation of the sludge in soil and
generation, and changes of nitrogen and heavy metals in soil treated with the sludge were investigated. The results obtained was summarized as follows: 1. Degradation rate of paper sludge in soil was 19% at room temperature, and 28% at
temperature after 12-weeks treatment. 2. T-C, T-N and the C/N ratio of the sludge in soil at room temperature were 15.5%, 0.22% and 71 respectively, and 14.5%, 0.24% and 60, respectively, at
temperature after 12-week treatment. 3.
genaration in soil treated with 1%, 3% and 5% of the sludge was 247mg/100g, 334mg/100g and 458mg/100g, respectively, at room temperature, and 385mg/100g, 550mg/100g and 618mg/100g, respectively, at incubation temperature after 12 weeks treatment. 4. Mineralization ratio of organic nitrogen in soil treated with 1%, 3% and 5% of the sludge was 8.7%, 13.4% and 16.2%, respectively, at
temperature after 12-weeks treatment. 5. The amounts of DTPA-extractable Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cr in Soil treated with paper sludge were
, respectively. Mean while, those of
extractable Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cr were
Characteristics of Lead Accumulation in Lead-Tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 306~315
This study was performed to develop the biological treatment technology of wastewater polluted with heavy metals. The lead-tolerant microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa which possessed the ability to accumulate lead, was isolated from the industrial wastewater polluted with various heavy metals. The characteristics of lead accumulation in the cells and the recovery of the lead there from were investigated. Removal rate of lead from the solution containing 100mg/l of lead by the lead-tolerant microorganism was more than 97% at 48 hours after inoculation with the microorganism. A large number of the electron-dense granules were found mainly on the cell wall and cell membrane fractions, when determined by transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the electron-dense granules were lead complex with the substances binding heavy metals. The lead accumulated into cells was not desorbed by distilled water, but more than 87% of the lead accumulated was desorbed by 0.1M-EDTA. The residues of the cells after combustion at
amounted to about 30% of the dry weight of the cells. EDS analysis showed that the residues were relatively pure lead compounds containing more than 86% of lead.
Differential Tolerance of Plant Species to Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Oxyfluorfen
Kuk, Yong-In ; Guh, Ja-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 316~324
The four tolerant and one susceptible plant to oxyfluorfen were selected from 26 species and investigated for the inhibition of protox activity, the PPIX accumulation, and the activity of antioxidative enzymes by oxyfluorfen treatment. When treated, the oxyfluorfen-tolerant plant species showed a less decrease in fresh weight and height than the susceptible one. The susceptible barnyardgrass showed more inhibition of protox activity due to the treatment of oxyfluorfen than the tolerant species. Especially at the concentration of
, protox activity of the susceptible barnyardgrass was inhibited completely, but tolerant species maintained
of the activity. Under the light and dark condition, the susceptible barnyardgrass showed more PPIX accumulation than the tolerant.
Effects of Depth and Duration of Flooding on Growth and Yield at Different Growth Stage in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.);I. Response to Flooding at Seedling Stage
Guh, Ja-Ock ; Kuk, Yong-In ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 325~334
Pepper plants were flooded at 0, 5, 10 and 15cm at seedling stage under the condition of greenhouse. Treatment of flooding times are 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hours. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Plant height, number of leaves, shoot and root fresh weight were not recovered the flooding damages regardless of flooding time and depth. Pepper plant died in flooding depth of 5cm or more for over 48 hours. Plants in fallen leaves were found at more than 5cm depth and 6 hours of floodings. Photosynthesis and respiration rate decreased in the 5cm flooding depth or more for 24 hours. Chlorophyll content and root activity decreased for 12 hours or more at all the flooding depth. Also, diffusion resistance of stomata cell increased as increased flooding time and depth. Diseases occurred remarkably in proportion to the depth and hours of flooding treatment. It was not possible to control the desease by fungicide, also then was no effects of foliar spray of urea. Weight of fruit per plant not decrease by the 12 hours of 0cm and the 6 hours of 5cm flooding but decreased at deeper and longer flooding. Average weight of a fruit increased. The yield could not expected in the depth of 5cm or more for over 48 hours, There was significant positive correlation between all the investigated characteristics of growth and yield. There was, however, negative correlation between number of leaf and diffusion resistance of stomata.
Response of Chinese Cabbage, Radish and Soybean Exposed to Sprinkle and Mist of Simulated Acid Rain
Park, Suen-Do ; Lee, Suk-Soon ; Kim, Bok-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 335~340
A green house experiment was conducted to investigate the growth of Chinese cabbage, radish and soybean and change in the chemical properties of the soil after the 10mm application of the simulated acid rain(SAR) of pH 2.7 in the form of sprinkle and mist. It was applied 30 times for Chinese cabbage and radish and 62 times for soybean at the two-day intervals. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Visual damages caused by SAR were dark-brown or red brown leaf spots in Chinese cabbage, and dark-brown and wrinkled leaf margins in radish and soybean. 2. The degree of visual damages became severer as the number of SAR applications increased and it was severer with mist than with sprinkle of SAR. 3. Chlorophyll content was reduced by SAR, but it was not affected by the form of SAR application(sprinkle or mist) in all crops, although it was slightly lower with mist than with sprinkle of SAR. 4. Fresh weight of Chinese cabbage heads and radish roots and grain yield of soybean were reduced by SAR, and were not affected by the form of SAR application. 5. Contents of K, Ca, and Mg in leaves were reduced, while S content increased by SAR in all crops. The forms of SAR application did not affect contents of mineral nutrients in all crops. 6. SAR decreased soil pH and the contents Ca, Mg, and K of soil, while increased
content. However, the contents of soil organic matter, N, and P were not affected by SAR. Forms of SAR application did not affect soil chemical properties either.
Crop Performance and Soil Chemical Properties Affected by Amounts of Normal Water after Simulated Acid Rain
Kim, Bok-Jin ; Park, Suen-Do ; Lee, Suk-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 341~347
A green-house experiment was conducted to investigate the growth of Chinese cabbage, radish, and soybean and changes in soil chemical properties after application of 5 and 10mm of pH 2.7 simulated acid rain(SAR) followed by 0, 5, and 10mm of pH 6.0 normal water at the three-day intervals 20 times for Chinese cabbage and radish and 42 times for soybean. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Visual damages by SAR were white-yellow leaf spots, dark brown or light green leaf color, and wrinkled leaf margins in all crops. The degree of visual damages was severer at 10mm than at 5mm SAR and it was reduced as the amounts of normal water increased after SAR application. 2. Chlorophyll content was higher at 10mm than at 5mm SAR application and increased as the amounts of normal water increased after SAR application in all crops. 3. Fresh weights of Chinese cabbage heads and radish roots and grain yield of soybean were higher at 10mm than at 5mm SAR, while they increased as the amounts of normal water increased at the same SAR level. 4. Changes in the mineral contents of plants were not consistent, while S content in radish and soybean increased as the amounts of SAR increased. 5. SAR lowered soil pH, while it increased soil N and S contents. Contents of soil organic matter, P, and exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K were not affected by the amounts of SAR.
Changes of Chemical Contents in Groundwater at Controlled Horticulture in Honam Area
Lee, Deog-Bae ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ; Rhee, Kyeong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 348~354
This study was carried out to investigate factors influencing on the groundwater quality at controlled horticulture in Honam area in 1995. The deeper groundwater sampling, the lower concentrations of
were observed. There was no difference in concentrations of
in the groundwater below 15m. Contents of
in groundwater were the highest at rice transplanting season(the late May) and that of
were the highest at dry season(the mid-February). Continuous cultivation of horticultural crops showed higher concentration of
in groundwater than rotational culture with rice. The longer cultivation years with horticultural crops, the higher concentrations of
were shown, and constitutional ratio of
among the anions increased gradually. Nitrate-N level, exceeded 20mg/l, the critical level for agricultural usage, frequently at Yongjinmyeon Wanju and Janglockdong Kwangju, and
levels were higher at Seogtandong Iksan than the other places.
Improvement in the Operating Conditions of the Rotary Mixing Compost Plants
Kim, Eun-Kyoung ; Lee, Taek-Soon ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 355~361
The Purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Change in the operating conditions on rotary turning compost plants. The major parameters investigated were moisture content and mixing of the sawdust and pig farm wastewater. Pig farm scale composting plants with mixing rotary were used in this study. Wastes used for the study were sawdust, pig manure, urine and wastewater. When the moisture content was 75%, the compost product obtained from the plants had better physical characteristics than that obtained from the plants with moisture contents of 70%, 80% and 85%.(two a day mixing). When the turning was twice a day, the compost product obtained from the plants had better characteristics than that obtained from non-mixing.(moisture content 75%). C/N ratio, pH value and coliform bacterial population were stable in the compost.
Study on Low Temperature Tolerant Methane-Producing Bacteria for the Treatment of Agricultural and Livestock Wastes;III. Isolation of Low Temperature Tolerant Methanogens
Kim, Kwang-Yong ; Kim, Jai-Joung ; Daniels, Lacy ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 362~371
This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical properties of isolated bacteria, low temperature tolerant methanogens which were selected for use as inoculum for anaerobic fermentation of agricultural and livestock wasted at low temperature. The results, obtained were summarized as follows: Low temperature tolerant methanogens were isolated from the samples which showed the high methanogenesis rate by enrichment culture at low temperature in methanol medium. These methanogens, Methanobacterium M-251 and Methanobacterium M-253 were isolated from swampy sediment at latitude
, Methanosarcina mazei M-372 from lake sediment IV at latitude
N, and Methanobacterium formicicum M-375 from tidal land soil at latitude
, respectively. The isolated anaerobic bacteria could not use sugars as carbon sources. The optimum pH value for the growth of M-251 and M-375 was 6.8, but those for M-253 and M-372 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. The minimum growth temperature of isolated, M-251 and M-253 were
and the optimum temperature
, while the minimum of M-392 and M-395 were
and the optimum
. The growth rate of isolates at
were lower by 32-50% than that of
. The isolated Methanobacterium strains such as M-251, M-253, and M-375 have lower cell yield, 0.38-1.21g/1M
of Methanosarcina mazei M-372.
A Correlation between the Fractionation of Heavy Metals in the Paddy Soil of the Mangyeong River Basin and their Uptake by Rice Plants Grown on it
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Moon, Kwang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 372~382
In order to elucidate the relationship between the mobility of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants, the soil samples collected from the Mangyeong River area were analyzed for the contents and existing forms of the heavy metals and the correlation between the contents of heavy metals in the soil and those in various parts of rice plants therefrom. The soil samples were collectes from ten sites in the paddy fields in 1982 and 1990, respectively, and the analysis on heavy metals including Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb was performed. The results are as follows: Total contents of heavy metals in the samples of 1990 were higher than those of 1982. The extent of increase was that Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb were 3, 29, 59 and 8% in top soil and 8, 50, 91 and 8% in sub-soil, respectively. The order of increasing ratio was Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd and the variation of Cd content by sequentially different extraction was organically bound > dilute acid-extractable=Fe-Mn oxide bound > exchangeable > residual fractions and the content of Cd with organically bound was
of total Cd in top and sub-soil, respectively. The ratios of immobile heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn, bound within an oxide or silicate matrix of Fe-Mn oxide in top-soil were 21.25, 35.98, 74.18 and 82.12%, respectively, and consequently their mobile ratios of exchangeable, dilute acid-extractable and organically bound were more than 17.88%. Those of mobile Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were 78.25, 64.02, 25.82 and 17.88%, respectively. Except for Pb a correlation between the contents of Cd, Zn, and Cu of exchangeable and dilute acid-extractable in top-soil and those in leaf blade, stem and panicle axis was significant, but was not significant in sub-soil.
Nitrate Reductase Activity by Change of Nitrate Form Nitrogen Content on Growth Stage of Radish
Cho, Sung-Min ; Han, Kang-Wan ; Cho, Jae-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 383~390
This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of nitrogen fertilizer forms, fertilizer and herbicide application rates on growth of radish. The nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity of radish were analyzed along with the growing stage. Nitrate nitrogen was more efficient than ammonium nitrogen for radish. With increasing the fertilizer application rate, accumulated of nitrate content was increased. The amount of nitrate nitrogen was highest at 25days after seeding in petioles, and
after seeding in root. Nitrate content was decreased as sampling date was delayed, whereas the content increased in the root at early growing stage and then decreased. The nitrate cotent increased in the order of petioles, roots, and leaf blades and nitrate reductase activity increased petioles, leaf blades, and roots. The higher nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide application increased nitrate nitrogen accumulation in radish as compaired with control treatment and nitrate reductase activity showed similar trend.
Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions on Bark(I)
Paik, Ki-Hyon ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Yoon, Seung-Lak ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 3, 1996, Pages 391~398
The pretreatment of bark powder with sodium hydroxide and formalin showed the most excellent adsorption ratio, but this method could not practically be used because of the occurrence of dark-colored pigments in filtrates during pretreatment. Instead, acid and formalin were the most affirmative and effective among the pretreatment methods tested, and could be used for this purpose. Among tested species, Quercus acutissima and Robinia pseudo-accacia showed the largest amount of metal adsorption, and
was the best(83 to 96%) among the four heavy metals tested. The order of adsorption ratios other metals was as follows;
, and the ratio was approximately 45 to 55%. In addition, as the substrate amount increased, the amount of adsorbed heavy metals in subtrates gradually increased, but the adsorbed amount was not proportional to the substrate amount. The order of heavy metal adsorption was as follows;
. Depending on flow rate and column size, pine bark power adsorbed more heavy metals in the 5ml/min flow rate and 3.5cm column size rather than the 10ml/min and 2.0cm. However, oak bark power showed contrary results compared with pine bark powder. The adsorption of
occurred rapidly in the incipient stagte. Even though bark powders were repeatedly used three times, there was no change in the adsorption ratio(45%), but after four times, the adsorption ratio was significantly reduced to 35%.