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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Red-pepper Caused by Phytophthora capsici.;II. Isolation and Antifungal Activity of the Substances
Chang, Yoon-Hee ; Chang, Sang-Moon ; Choi, Jyung ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 399~405
In the culture medium, the three antifungal fractions against P. capsici were separated by Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and Silica-gel chromatography. The substance A in white powder and the substance B in sticky oil were isolated by ethyl acetate : acetone mixture(7 : 3), and the substance C in yellow powder was isolated by chloroform : ethyl acetate mixture(95 : 5). The crude extract by ethyl acetate from the culture medium acidified to pH 2 was known to inhibit completely the growth of P. capsici at the level of
. The substance A and B were known to be effective above the level of
, and the substance C was effective above the level of
. However, at the level of
, the efficiency was in the order of A>C>B. It is apparent on a pot-experiment scale that the three substances effectively control Phytophthora blight of the red-pepper plant grown in the soil inoculated with P. capsici.
Effects of Depth and Duration of Water-logging on Growth and Yield at Germination and Seedling Stage in Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Guh, Ja-Ock ; Roh, Sang-Eun ; Kuk, Yong-In ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Lee, Young-Man ; Oh, Yun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 406~418
Tomatoes are water logged differently 0, 5, 10 and 15 cm, according to the developing stages such as germination and seedling stage under the condition of greenhouse. Along with this, they are treated according to the time condition such as 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hours. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The result at germination stage Remarkable germination failure was observed when tomatoes were water-logged for 25 to 27 hours in the depth of 0 to 5 cm. Plant height recovered within 24 hours regardless of the water-logging depths. In the case of leaves, the recoverable time limit became shorter gradually in accordance with the increase of the water-logging depth. The decrease of the fresh weight showed acute response in the shoot rather than the root. It recovered with the 24 hours of water logging. Significant correlation was observed in all characteristics of plant height, number of leaves, fresh weight and germination rates according to the depth of water-logging. 2. The result at seedling stage Plant height recovered within the 24 hours of water-logging in the depth of 0 cm. On the deeper level, there was significant decrease regardless of time. With regard to the number of leaves, there was recovery up to 120 hours in the depth of 0 cm, up to 24 hours in the depth of 5 cm. There was, however, significant decrease when done for more than 6 hours on the deeper level. Growth of the shoot displayed the same tendency as in plant height and number of leave. The length of the longest root could be maintained by 80% in the water-logging of 0 cm compared with control. However in depth of 5 cm or more, it could not be maintained by the 120 hours water-logging. Root activity became conspicuously diminished with the logging over 0 cm. Respiration showed conspicuous decrease by the depth of 5 cm as a turning point. On the other hand, photosynthesis became decreased linearly by the depth of water-logging. Chlorophyll content displayed gradual decrease up to 48 hours, but conspicuously decreased up to 120 hours according to the varying depth of water-logging. Dieases tended to increase according to the depth and hours of water-logging. Diseases would be prevented by dint of insecticide, but there was no effect of fertilization. Weight and number of fruit per plant displayed gradual decrease as the depth and hours of water-logging became increased. Average weight of a fruit became increased. There was no statisticaly reciprocal effects between the depth and hours of water-logging. There was significant positive correlation among all the investigated characteristics, such as traits of growth and yield.
Chinese Cabbage and Radish Performance and Soil Chemical Properties Affected by Simulated Acid Rain
Lee, Suk-Soon ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Park, Suen-Do ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 419~424
A green house experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of Chinese cabbage and radish and changes in soil chemical properties after application of different amounts of simulated acid rain (SAR). About 10mm of normal water (pH 6.0), 5mm of SAR followed by 5mm of normal water, and 10mm of SAR were applied 24 times at the two-day intervals. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. Visible symptoms were dark brown, red brown, or grey brown leaf spots, reduced leaf size, or some times wrinked leaves in both crops. The visible symptoms started after the third application of SAR. The degree of damages was greater as the amounts and the number of times of SAR application increased. 2. Chlorophyll contents of SAR applied leaves decreased as the amounts of SAR application increased. 3. As the amounts of SAR increased, length, diameter, and fresh weight of Chinese cabbage heads and radish roots decreased. 4. In both crops sulfur content increased, while calcium content decreased as the amounts of SAR increased. Contents of N, P, K, and Mg were not significnatly affected by the amounts of SAR. 5. SAR decreased soil pH and exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K), while increased soil sulfur content.
Effects of Depth and Duration of Water-logging on Growth and Yield at Transplanting and Flowering Stage in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Guh, Ja-Ock ; Kuk, Yong-In ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 425~433
Pepper plants were water-logged at 0, 5, 10 and 15 cm at transplanting and flowering stages under the condition of greenhouse. Treatment of water-logging times were 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hours. The results obtained are summarized as follows. At the transplanting stage, plant height, number of leaves, shoot and root fresh weight decreased by water-logging at 0cm for 24 hours and at 5cm or more for 6 hours. Number of fallen leaf was negligible by 12 hours water-logging at 0cm, however, its increased by more increased the water-logging depth and time. Diffusion resistance and chlorophyll content of leaf, and root activity decreased at more than 24 hours of water-logging regardless of the water-logging depth treatments. Photosynthesis and respiration rate diminished by increased the water-logging depth at 120 hours water-logging treatment. Plant diseases, mainly anthracnose(Colletotrichum) occurred in proportion to increase the depth and time of water-logging. It was not possible to control the diseases by fungicides. At the treatment of foliar spray of urea for recovery to water-logging damage, the efficiency was not found on plant height, but the number of leaves. Number of fruit and weight of fruit per plant showed no difference from no water-logging to 24 hours water-logging at 0cm, but its decreased that more than 24 hours water-logging at 0cm and more than 6 hours water-logging at 5cm or more. The averaged weight of a fruit on survival plants increased by more hours and deeper water-logging. There was positive correlation between all the investigated characteristics of growth and yield. There was, however, negative correlation between the characteristics and diffusion resistance of leaf stomata. The correlation between number of fallen leaf and averaged weight of a fruit was not significant. At flowering stage, number of fruit and weight of fruit per plant showed a similar tendency to no water-logging and by 12 hours water-logging at 0cm and 5cm, but significantly decreased at more than 24 hours water-logging from 0 to 5cm, and more than 6 hours water-logging at 10cm or more. The averaged weight of a fruit on survival plants increased by more hours and deeper water-logging except for 120 hours water-logging at all water depths.
Residues of Benomyl and Bitertanol in Apples Treated as Postharvest Fungicides under Different Storage Conditions
Lee, Eun-Joo ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 434~441
This study was conducted to clarify the degradation pattern, safety evaluation and penetration ratio of benomyl and bitertanol to apple used as postharvest fungicides during CA(controlled atmosphere) and cold storage. In CA storage, the degradation of benomyl and bitertanol in stored apple was slow at the early stage, while that in cold storage was, on the contrary, faster at the early stage. The initial concentrations of benomyl and bitertanol in apples applied at the standard application concentrations were 2.24 and 1.54mg/kg, respectively, and their residual amounts were below the maximum residue limits, 1mg/kg at 135 and 96 days in CA storage, 115 and 70 days in cold storage, respectively. The half-lives of benomyl and bitertanol in stored apples were 124 and 130 days in CA storage, 101 and 111 days in the cold storage, respectively, indicating that the degradation was faster in cold storage than in CA storage. The residual amount of benomyl and bitertanol in stored apples was retained more in peels than in pulps of apples.
Soil Adsorption of Herbicide Quizalofop-Ethyl
Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Park, In-Jin ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Shu, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 442~447
Quizalofop-ethyl is a herbicide which is extensively applied to soybean, onion, garlic, strawberry and watermelon to control broad-leaf weeds. The experiment was conducted to find out soil adsorption of this chemical. The soil adsorption of quizalofop-ethyl in both Yeongok and Namwon soil series reached an equilibrium 24 hours after shaking incubation. Correlation coefficients of Freundlich plot of both soils were 0.998 and 0.995, respectively. Adsorption constants(K) were 4.710 and 10.414, respectively. Amounts of soil adsorption of quizalofop-ethyl increased with an increase in soil organic matter and incubation temperature.
Characteristics of Initial Growth of Tilia Amurensis Rupr. Seedlings by an Environmental Stress Ultraviolet-B Irradiation
Kim, Jong-Jin ; Hong, Sung-Gak ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 448~454
This studies was carried out to know the effects of
irradiation on the initial growth of Tilia amurensis Rupr. seedlings. UV-B irradiation inhibited the hypocotyl elongation, height growth, leaf growth, and chlorophyll formation. The inhibition was dose-dependent, and consequently those growths were more inhibited depending on the increase of UV-B levels. Morphological change such as leaf length/leaf width ratio was also observed in the leaves of irradiated seedlings. UV-B irradiation produced scorching, glazing or chlorosis, and stunting or dwarfing in the first or second leaf of the seedlings.
Varietal Responses of Ten Soybean(Glycine max L.) to Sulfur Dioxide Tolerance : A Comparison of Foliar Injuries and Yields in Relation to Physiological Properties of Leaves.
Park, Ki-Sun ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 455~463
Studies were carried out to determine the effect of sulfur dioxide on leaf injury and yield of ten soybean cultivars. Plants were fumigated with 2.0 ppm of
for 4 or 8 h in a closed-top field chamber. In the comparison of foliar injury, Paldalkong and Eunhakong were more susceptible to
than Bogwangkong, Jangsukong, and Jangkeungkong. Correlations between chlorophyll contents, peroxidase activity, and stomatal resistance of leaves and foliar susceptibility were insignificant. However, significant correlations
were found between superoxide dismutase activity and foliar injury rates. Dry weight, number of pods and total grains were significantly reduced by
fumigation but plant height, number of nods and weight of 100 grains were not affected. Yield reduction rates were higher in Eunhakong and Paldalkong than in Bogwangkong and Jangkeungkong. A liniar relationship was found between foliar injury rate and the percent crop loss with a significant coefficient of b=-1.17 in the susceptible cultivar of Paldalkong, but Bogwangkong, insusceptible cultivar, showed lower value of -0.165.
Leaching of Trifluralin in the Commerce Clay Loam Soil
Kim, Jung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 464~471
Trifluralin was selected to study the leaching potentials related to the pollution on Commerce silty clay loam soil near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. The batch equilibrium of trifluralin resulted in the Koc value of 875. When the soil columns(5.4 cm i.d.
26 cm length) were leached with three pore volumes of water, the distributions of trifluralin in soil and leachate were 99.993% and 0.007% of the total recoveries, respectively. When applied at the rate of 1,683 g/ha in the field, the amount of trifluralin within the
cm soil depth was 96.9% of that within the
soil depth 31 days after application. The concentrations of trifluralin detected in 1- and 2m- depth wells during 62 days after application ranged from 0.04 ng/mL to 0.08 ng/mL, which were lower than 2.0 ng/mL of the U.S. EPA advisory levels for drinking water. Trifluralin was strongly adsorbed on soil and hardly reached ground water. The leaching properties of trifluralin in the fields were predicted and concurred with those in the columns.
Parameters for Evaluating the Sink Capacity of Broad Leaves Trees for the Gas Phase Air Pollutants
Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Koh, Kang-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 472~478
It was conducted to compare the availabilities of parameters for evaluating the sink capacity of the broad leaves trees such as Acer saccharium, Ailanthus altissima, Ginkgo biloba, Platanus occidentalis and Salix pseudolasiogyne. These trees, repoted as resistant species to air pollutants, were exposed to
and CO within a phytotron at
with 70% of relative humidity. Since the amount of ad- or absorbed gas does not always agree with the amount of accumlated pollutants in leaves and with the stomatal density, it is assumed that the amount of ad- or absorbed gas is the most basal index to evaluate the sink capacity of trees. The stomatal diffusive resistance, which has a good agreement with the amount of ad- or absorbed gas, is also available for evaluating the sink capacity of broad leaves trees.
Effect of Uniconazole Treatment on Plant Tolerance to
Injury and Enzymatic Activity and Platanus Occidentalis
Cho, Jeong-Hee ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ; Choi, Jong-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 479~487
This study was conducted to investigate the phytoprotective effects of uniconazole on
injury in P. occidentalis. The detoxification role of free radical scavengers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was also examined under the conditions of combined treatment with uniconazole and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). Uniconazole drenching significantly reduced the occurrence of visible injuries. Though shoot length, leaf area, and T/R rate were greatly decreased by uniconazole application, the tolerance to
was enhanced through increased chlorophyll content and activities of SOD and POD. Spray of DDTC decreased the activity of SOD and POD resulting in the increase of visible injury. Plant tolerance to
induced by uniconazole application was reduced by the additional application of DDTC. These results indicate that plant tolerance to
induced by uniconazole is associated with the reduction of vegetative growth as well as the increase in free radical scavengers such as SOD and POD.
Fate of the Herbicide Quizalofop-Ethyl in Soil.
Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Yun, Bong-Ki ; Park, In-Jin ; Shu, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 488~493
This study was conducted to find out the residual aspect and the effect of quizalofop-ethyl on microorganisms used to control broad-leaf weeds at Yeongok soil series, the experiment field, Chonnam R.D.A. and Namwon soil series, the experiment field, Jeju R.D.A. More than 60 percent of quizalofop-ethyl treated in soil was degraded within 7 days. The degradation of quizalofop-ethyl in soil increased rapidly with incubation temperature. The half-life of quizalofop-ethyl in soil was 15 days(Yeongok series) and 16 days(Namwon series). The number of microorganisms in soil treated with quizalofop-ethyl decreased prominently with incubation time. But the number of Fusarium did not reduce in comparison with that of other soil microorganisms. Therefore, it was thought that the decomposition of quizalofop-ethyl in soil was affected by
Relation between the Pollution Level of the Atmosphere and that of the Soil in the Vicinity of Roads
Lee, Jin-Ha ; Park, Gi-Hark ; Jeoung, Young-Do ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 494~500
To investigate the relationship between the atmospheric pollution level and the pollution level of soil adjacent to the roadside in Suwon suspended particles and soil samples were collected in August to October 1993, and analyzed by AAS and ICP. The Ca, K, Mg concentration in atmosphere were observed as high level and assumed that it was effected by the acid-rain originated from the erosion of concreate vicinity to the roadside, and the Pb, Zn concentration were higher at outer area than that of central area. Hazardous heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in soil were observed as high level at all sampling sites. The relationship between the heavy metal concentrations in the atmosphere and those in the soil were analyzed, by using the correlation coefficient value(r) and the result was appeared similarly. And this study indicated that the atmospheric pollution affect the level of the soil pollution adjacent to the road side.
Herbicidal Property and Soil Behavior of a New Herbicide, Azimsulfuron
Chun, J.C. ; Ma, S.Y. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 501~505
Azimsulfuron [1H-pyrazole-5-sulfonamide,N-(((4,6-dimethoxy-pyridine-2-yl-aminocarbonyl-4-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazole-5-yl)] is a new sulfonamide herbicide that selectively controls a wide range of weeds in lowland rice (Oryza sativa). It effectively controlled Cyperus serotinus, Eleocharis kuroguwai, Sagittaria pygmaea, S. trifolia, and Scirpus juncoides at 7.5 - 30 g ai/ha. In the tolerance test on grasses carried out in a nutrient solution containing 0.3 - 30 ppm of azimsulfuron, greater inhibition occurred in roots of both rice and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus galli) than in shoots. However, rice root was approximately 5-fold more tolerant than that of barnyardgrass. The downward movements as determined by 50% growth inhibition of S. juncoides were 4-cm in clay loam and 6.5-cm in sandy loam soil with 3-cm/day leaching for 3 days. When incubated at 20 and
, the residual effect in clay loam soil lasted for 30 and 21 days, respectively. In a soil column applied at 15 g ai/ha of azimsulfuron followed by 3-cm/day leaching for 3 days, dry weights of S. trifolia emerging at 5, 10, and 15-cm depth were reduced to 87, 85, and 79% of the corresponding untreated control, respectively. Susceptibility of S. trifolia to azimsulfuron did not greatly vary with the emergence depth.
A Status of Agricultural Water Quality and Improvable Countermeasure in Korea
Baeg, Cheong-Oh ; Kang, Sang-Gu ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 15, issue 4, 1996, Pages 506~519
The water quality in the rural areas is degrading due to a variety of causes such as the increase of the urban sewage and industrial wastes, the disposal of solid wastes, the growth of livestock waste, the growth of leisure facilities, the establishment of agricultural industry estates and etc. The water pollutants are scarce while the effluent is increasing from wide scattered sources. The technology specifically designed for the rural wastes water treatment plant needs to be implemented with improvement of agricultural water quality. 1. An integrated management measures against water pollution sources. The prevention of water pollution is the best measures in the environmental pollution. Hence, the most effective measures needs to be against the sources. Small-scale water treatment plants needs to be constructed in each village in the rural areas. As for the industrial effluent, the effluent discharge needs to be strictly monitored. Government subsidy for the establishment of treatment plant for livestock wastes is necessary. 2. The establishment of national-wide network for agricultural water quality. The network for agricultural water quality have been operated to conserve the agricultural water quality, and to develop management policies by the assessment of water pollution in the rural areas. The results of agricultural water quality network indicates that the water quality is degrading not only around urban areas but also in the distant rural areas, and the water quality at the pumping stations and weirs is worse than that of reservoirs. 3. The legal, systematic, and technical approaches for the agricultural water quality management. The actions currently implemented for the improvement of agricultural water quality involve temporary measures such as the improvement of irrigation facilities. These contingency measures are not effective in the long-term, and sometimes bring secondary pollution. Therefore, integrated measures covering the whole water environment such as the flow, quality, river morphology, aquatic ecosystem, and the surrounding environment, need be invented and implemented. Besides, the legal, systematic, and technical frameworks for the management are not fully established so far. The technology for the treatment of rural water pollution should be refined afterwards, and the research for the development of rural waste water treatment plant should be carried out.