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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
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Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Red-pepper Caused by Phytophthora capsici.;Ⅲ. Identification of the Antifungal Substances Produced by Pseudomonas sp. A - 183.
Chang, Yoon-Hee ; Jang, Sang-Moon ; Choi, Jyung ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 1~6
This study was carried out to identify the three antifungal substances isolated from the culture medium of Pseudomonas sp. A-183 which is antagonistic against Phytophthora capsici. The substance A and B showed positive reactions at the Molish test and Anthrone test, but negative one at the Fehling test, strongly suggesting that both substance A and B had nonreducing sugar frameworks. The substance C only exhibited the phenomenon of the UV induced fluorescence. From the qualitative analysis with the spectroscopic techniques such as UV, Mass, IR and NMR, the substance A and B were known to be composed to sugar and fatty acid, and showed a base peak of 171(m/e). It was identified that substance A was
decanoic acid) and the substance B was
decanoic acid). The substance C was identified as a phenazine from the results of qualitative analysis with the spectroscopic techniques such as UV, Mass, IR and NMR.
Effects of Depth and Duration of Flooding on Growth and Yield at Transplanting Stages in Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum).
Guh, Ja-Ock ; Roh, Sang-Eun ; Kuk, Yong-In ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Lee, Young-Man ; Oh, Yun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 7~13
Tomatoes are flooded differently 0, 5, 10 and 15 ㎝, according to the developing stages such as transplanting stage under the condition of green house. Along with this, they are treated according to the time condition such as 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hours. The results obtained are summarized as follows. As the depth of flooding got deeper and the hours got longer, plant height, number of leaves, shoot and root decreased significantly. Flowering was possible for 24 hours in the flooding of 0 ㎝, for 6 hours in
㎝, but not possible after 6 hours in 15 ㎝. Without regard to the depth of flooding, adventitious root came into being before or after 48 hours of the treatment. Root activity diminished gradually as hours of treatment went by, but diminished rapidly over the depth of 5 ㎝. Chlorophyll content decreased similarly as in the case of root activity. Diffusion resistance of stomata cell increased as hours of treatment passed and depth increased. Photosynthesis and respiration diminished according as the hours and depth of treatment increased. Respiration diminished a little gradually but photosynthesis weakened greatly as the depth of treatment became greater and after 48 hours of treatment. Diseases occurred remarkably in proportion to the depth of treatment and the increase of hours. The possibility of preventing by means of insecticide treatment showed the same tendency as in the seedling stage. But its effect was not significant. After 120 hours yields could not be expected because tomatoes died without regard to the depth of flooding. Instead of the depth, numbers of fruits per plant decrease of individuals or variation of average weight of a fruit was recognized. Especially average weight increased in accordance with the increase of the depth. There was positive correlation between all the characters, such as plant height, number of leaves, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, root activity and yield traits, but negative correlation between these and epinastic curvature, diffusion resistance and adventitious root.
Effect of Uniconazole and Free Radical Scavenger Treatments on Reduction of
Injury in Platanus occidentalis
Cho, Jeong-Hee ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ; Choi, Jong-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 14~18
The objective of this research was to increase phytoprotective effects by combined treatment of uniconazole and free radical scavengers such as ascorbic acid or sodium benzoate on
injury in P. occidentalis. The plant injury, chlorophyll content and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and peroxidase(POD) affected by combined treatment were also investigated. The phytoprotective role of uniconazole was nullified by spray of Diethyldithiocarbamate(DDTC) resulting in the decrease of SOD and POD activities. Free radical scavengers, sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid, did not affect SOD and POD activity, but significantly inhibited the development of visible injury, degradation of chlorophyll, and SOD and POD activity in leaves exposed to
. The spray of ascorbic acid decreased plant susceptibility to
induced by DDTC application. These results indicate that uniconazole application increase SOD activity that play a role of antioxidant in plant body, but sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid do not affect enzyme activities of SOD or POD.
Effects of Farming on Soil Contamination and Water Quality in Keum River Districts
Han, Kang-Wan ; Cho, Jae-Young ; Kim, Seong-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 19~24
This studies was carried out to investigate the soil contamination and water quality affected by agricultural activities in the Keum river Districts. Soil pH of the Keum river districts were
in Keum river headwater and Namdae-cheon but that of Keumgang-lake were
because of the cattle shed and industrial complex around. Total nitrogen contents of soils were found difference as period of fertilizer application. Total phosphorous content of soils no difference were found between the headwater and Keumgang-lake. Heavy metal contents of soils were natural background level. Water pH of the Keum river districts ranged from 6.59 to 7.80 and COD was maintain below 1.0 mg/L. Total nitrogen content affected by a livestock wastes and sewage water were the higher than that of others and total phosphorous content showed below 0.5 mg/L. Nitrate nitrogen and ortho-phosphate contents were very high according to the influence a livestock waste and sewage water in headwater region of the Keum river partly. Chlorine and sulfate contents were high according to the influence of sea water invasion. Heavy metal contents of waters were natural background level.
In Vivo Metabolic studies on Carbofuran Degradation in carp(Cyprinus carpio L.)
Lee, Yang-Kee ; Kim, In-Seon ; Im, Keon-Jae ; Suh, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 25~30
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of
(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamte) were studied in carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) after the treatment of carbofuran at the dose level of 43 parts per billion. Maximum radioactivities in tissues(liver, kidney, gut, gall bladder) and blood of carp were shown 12hrs after the treatment of
. Carbofuran was metabolized to 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran in liver and kindney of carp, and the major metabolite was 3-hydroxycarbofuran. Most radioactivity absorbed into the carp tissues was eliminated 3hrs after transfer of the carp to fresh water. The excretory metabolites were 3-ketocarbofuran(32.3%), 3-hydroxycarbofuran(52.8%) and an unknown metabolite(2.6%) during the period of 3hrs of the excretory experiment.
Composition of Degradation and Stabilization in Landfilled Waste
Kim, Eun-Ho ; Son, Hee-Jung ; Sung, Nak-Chang ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Hyeong-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 31~36
This study was carried out to analyze the composition of landfill generation gas using vertical pipe wells installed at landfill. The characteristics of composed waste were examined by the open-cut test at H. landfill in Pusan. The waste compositions of landfill layer by Open-cut test indicated that organic matter was average
in each landfill.
compositions of gas in each landfill were
(C-point), respectively. The chemical formula of organic matter left in the underground was
Underground temperatures were changed to
when the ambient temperature was about
. Temperatures with passed times in A, B and C-lysimeter were about
, respectively. After about 65 day, decomposition rates of organic matter in A, B and C-lysimeter were 9.9%, 14.9% and 22.3%, respectively.
Tolerance Mechanism to Simazine in Coix lacryma-jobi
Ma, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Jong-Seok ; Chun, Jae-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 37~43
Tolerance mechanism to simazine (6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) in Coix lacryma-jobi was investigated with respect to herbicide detoxification via glutathione conjugation. Simazine was initially absorbed by seedlings of C. lacryma-jobi and corn, but after 12 hours of treatment, no significant difference in simazine absorption was found in both species. Simazine absorbed was rapidly metabolized to glutathione-simazine conjugate. One to six hours after treatment, metabolism was approximately 2-fold faster in C. lacryma-jobi than in corn. Glutathione content was found 1.5- and 2.3-fold higher in coleoptile and root of C. lacryma-jobi, respectively, compared with corn. In both species, the highest concentration of glutathione was found in coleoptile tissue. Glutathione S-transferase that exhibits activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was not significantly different between two species. However, glutathione S-transferase activity with simazine was approximately 2-fold greater in C. lacryma-jobi than in corn. The glutathione S-transferase activity was 20 to 30% greater in shoot of either species than in root. Fast protein liquid chromatography-anion exchange column was used to separate glutathione S-transferase isozymes in coleoptiles of C. lacryma-jobi and corn. A peak of glutathione S-transferase activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and two peaks of glutathione S-transferase activity with simazine from C. lacryma-jobi were coeluted with those from corn, but showed greater activity than in the case of corn. Another glutathione S-transferase isozyme that exhibits activity with simazine was detected in the elution of C. lacryma-jobi extract, but not in corn. Electron transport in chloroplast thylakoids isolated from leaves of both species was equally sensitive to simazine applied at 1 to 100 nM. These results indicate that the simazine tolerance in C. lacryma-jobi is due to its capacity to detoxify the herbicide via glutathione conjugation, which is positively correlated with the level of glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity.
Composting of Garbage by Home Composter for Household Use : Changes in Microbial Flora
Kim, Yong-Chang ; Joe, Keung-Oak ; Lee, Yon ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 44~47
The change in microbial flora has been studied through dwelling house composting by the composter with double layer walls. The results are summarized as followes. 1. Mesophilic bacteria increased and decreased mildly, thermophilic bacteria showed a tendency to decrease except for spring, and the number of mesophilic bacteria and thermophilic bacteria had a tendency to increase and decrease simultaneously. 2. The number of mesophilic actinomycetes were increased at the early stage of compositing in winter, mildly decreased in spring and slightly decreased in summer, and the number of thermophilic actinomycetes were decreased at the early stage of composting. 3. The decrease in the number of mesophilic fungi was observed at the middle stage in summer, but the mild increase was observed in spring and winter. The number of thermophilic fungi was generally decreased. 4. Ammonia oxidizer and nitrite oxidizer were observed in this field composting much more than in the other composting experiments.
Copper Accumulation in Cells of Copper-Tolerant Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri
Cho, Ju-Sik ; Han, Mun-Gyu ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 48~54
This study was performed to develop the biological treatment technology of wastewater polluted with heavy metals. The copper-tolerant bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri which possessed the ability to accumulate copper, was isolated from mine wastewaters polluted with various heavy metals. The characteristics of copper accumulation in the cells and the recovery of the copper from the cells accumulating zinc, were investigated. Removal rate of copper from the solution containing 100mg/l of copper by copper-tolerant bacteria was more than 78% at 2 days after inoculation with the cells. A large number of the electron-dense granules were found mainly on the cell wall and cell membrane fractions, when determined by transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the electron-dense granules were copper complex with the substances binding copper. The copper accumulated into the cells was not desorbed by deistilled water, but more than 80% of the copper accumulated was desorbed by 0.1M-EDTA solution. The residues of the cells after combustion at
amounted to about 23.2% of the dry weight of the cells. EDS analysis showed that residues were relatively pure copper compound containing more than 78.4% of copper.
Distribution of Heavy Metal in the Cell Components of Heavy Metal-Tolerant Microorganisms
Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Won-Kyu ; Choi, Hyoung-Sub ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 55~60
Heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, P. chlororaphis and P. stutzeri which possessed the ability to accumulate cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, respectively, were isolated from industrial wastewaters and mine wastewaters polluted with various heavy metals. The distribution of heavy metal in the cell components, and amino acid compositions, was investigated. The distribution of heavy metal in the cell fractions of each heavy metal-tolerant microorganism grown for 20 hours in the basal medium containing 100mg/l of each heavy metal was investigated. In the case of cadmium-tolerant P. putida, lead-tolerant P. aeruginosa and copper-tolerant P. stutzeri, approximately
of each heavy metal absorbed were distributed to cell wall, cell membrane and cytoplasm fractions, respectively. In the case of zinc-tolerant P. chlororaphis, approximately 32%, 55% and 13% of zinc were distributed to cell wall, cell membrane and cytoplasm fractions, respectively. These results indicated that the cell wall was a major adsorbing fraction of cadmium, lead and copper, and the cell membrane was that of zinc. Total amino acid content per gram of the cell grown in the culture media with heavy metal was higher than that of the cell grown in the culture media without heavy metal, and the content of acidic amino acids, such as aspartic acid(Asp.+Asn.) and glutamic acid(Glu.+Gln.) was higher than that of basic amino acids, such as histidine, lysine and arginine.
Textural Changes in Rat Tissues by Carbofuran and Its Suppression by Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methylcholanthrene
Rim, Yo-Sup ; Han, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 61~66
This study was carried out to investigate the toxicological effects of carbofuran on the histological and fine structures in the kidney, liver, and brain of rat and also to clarify compensatory effects of phenobarbital sodium (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene(3-MC) on the carbofuran toxicity. SPF albino rats were treated with carbofuran(3.8mg/kg), PB(60mg/kg), 3-MC(60mg/kg), carbofuran+PB, carbofuran+3-MC and subjected to the light microscopic study. In the kidney of rat, hemorrhage and extremely atropic change of renal corpuscles were frequently observed at 48 hrs after carbofuran treatment. Combination treatment groups of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC showed atrophic changes were largely recovered at 6 hrs, and the tissue findings of the kidney became similar to those of control group at 48 hrs after treatment. In the liver of rat treated only carbofuran, the degenerative and necrotic changes of hepatic lobules were frequently observed at 48 hrs after carbofuran treatment. Combination treatment of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC showed the hepatic lobules were similar to those of control groups at 6 hrs after the combination treatment. In the brain of rat treated with carbofuran alone, degenerative changes and dilation of capillary vessel of cerebral cortexes were observed at 48hrs after treatment. Combination treatment of carbofuran and PB or carbofuran and 3-MC showed the cerebral cortexes were similar to those of control groups at 6 hrs after the treatment. These results suggest that PB and 3-MC could regenerate the toxicity of carbofuran to the tissue of kidney, liver and brain of rat.
The Evaluation of Allelopathic Potential Barley and Sorghum Residues on Germination and Early Growth of Some Weeds
Yu, Chang-Yeon ; Chung, Ill-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 67~71
This experiment was conducted to test the allelopatic activity on germination and early seedling growth of weed species by barley and sorghum plants residues. The fresh barley extraction inhibited the germination and early seedling growth of weeds, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sataria viridis, and P. oleracea. As the extract concentration increased, the germination and early seedling growth of weeds was significantly inhibited. The water extraction of dried barley and sorghum residues also ehibited the strong inhibition effect on germination and Barley seedling growth of weeds. Digitaria sanguinalis, Siegesbechia pubescens, Sectaria viridis, P. oleracea, E. crus-galli. In the dried barley and sorghum residues mixture into the vermiculite, as the dried residue concentration ncreased, emergence percentage, length of shoot and root of weeds, D. saguinalis, S. viridis, S. pubescens, Ammaranthus lividus, and Solanum nigrum, was significantly inhibited. More than 10% concentration of dired residue caused 80% emergence percentage and growth inhibition. From this study, we conclude that barley and sorghym weeds. These results suggest that barley and sorghum has some possibility to control some weed species like natural herbicide.
Leaching and Adsorption of Flupyrazofos(KH-502) in the Soil
Yang, Jae-E ; Cho, Boo-Yeon ; You, Kyoung-Youl ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 72~79
Adsorption, leaching, and retention of the Flupyrazofos(KH-502), a new active ingredient for insecticide, in the soils under laborarory and field conditions were investigated to provide the basic data for the safety use and to assess a secondary impact of this insecticide on soil and water environments. A significant power function relation was found between the adsorbed KH-502 and time, representing that 45% of the added KH-502 was adsorbed within 30 min. but a quasiequilibrium was reached after 6 to 12 hr with a slower adsorption. Adsorption phenomena followed th first-order kinetics and time required for 50% adsorption was 5.8 hr. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was explained by the Freundlich equation and was classified as S-type. The amounts of KH-502 leached through the soil column (C) as compared to initial conc. (
) were very low and these relative concentrations (
) were 0.073 and 0.017 in SL and CL soils, respectively. The residual conc. of KH-502 in the surface soil was comparatively low and decreased with time. Half-lives of KH-502 in the surface soil was comparatively low and decreased with time. Half-lives of KH-502 under the field conditions were estimated to be 20 and 18 days in the SL and CL soils, respectively. The KH-502 cone, transported to the subsurface soils was extremely low. These results demonstrate that KH-502 has a low pollution risk potential to the surrounding environment as far as it is used following the recommended guideline.
Evaluation on the effects of pesticide residues to agroecosystem in Korea
Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 1, 1997, Pages 80~93
Pesticide residues in soil could be affected to the growth of micro organisms and the activity of enzymes directly, and successively to the soil properties as pH, Eh and nitrogen metabolism. However, residues are diminished by degradation of soil microorganisms, run-off, leaching, volatilization, photodecomposition and uptake through crops. In this paper research results published in Korea were summarized about translocation of soil residues into crops, fates of residues in soil, effects to the activity of soil microorganisms and metabolic pathways of some pesticides. Generally speaking, pesticide residues in soil were not much affected to the agro-ecosystem except few chemicals. So it should be needed more further researches in this field, continuously.