Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Effect of Light Metal Ions and Competition among Heavy Metal Ions during the Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions by Bark
Paik, Ki-Hyon ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Choi, Don-Ha ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 115~118
When the light metals such as
were added to heavy metal solution, the adsorption of heavy metals was increased by 20 to 30% more, but there were no differences between species.
was the most adsorbed metal(99.5%), and the adsorption ratio of
was significantly improved. In addition, when the light metal concentration was increased to 100ppm, the adsoption ratios of all four heavy metals were reached to 92 to 99%, while coniferous barks showed only 85 to 92%. On the mixture of four heavy metals, the adsorbed amount of each metal was significantly reduced, compared with that of one heavy metal, while
showed the adsorption improvement to 95%. On the column experiment,
was almost completely adsorbed in the upper part of column, and the adsorbed amount of
was gradually decreased depending on column depth. However,
were not influenced by column height, and constantly adsorbed on various column height. Based on the above results, each heavy metal had different adsorption mechanism.
from Mixed Composting Cattle Manure with Rice Hull by Static Whindrow and Aerated Static Pile Methods, and Grow of Tomato on It under Greenhouse Condition
Sohn, Bo-Kyoon ; Hong, Ji-Hyung ; Park, Keum-Joo ; Yang, Won-Mo ; Kim, Kil-Yong ; Rim, Yo-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 119~123
This study was performed to evaluate the influence of composting process with an intermittent aeration on the variation of rhizosphere soil temperature,
release, and the growth reponse of tomato plantlet in traditional and composting greenhouse. As the temperature of composting materials increased, rhizosphere soil temperature in 30cm depth rose up to
at one week after introduction. This was
higher than that of traditional greenhouse. After 20 days of active composting, temperature of rhizosphere soil started to decrease and remained constant at
after 35 days. For the traditional greenhouse, the averaged temperature ranged at
. This results showed that composting greenhouse had the greater effect on increasing the underground temperature. Average value of evoluted
from the composting greenhouse for 70 days was
. This was
times higher than that of the traditional greenhouse with an average of
release was highest during
days in intermittent aerated composting and reached to 134 ppm maximum on the 5th day, then decreased rapidly, and maintained at
after 17 days. Increased photosynthesis due to the
gas and a favorable rhizosphere environment due to the increased underground temperature resulted in improved growth, yield, and Brix degree of tomato fruit.
Effect of External Factors on Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Cell of Heavy Metal-Tolerant Microorganisms
Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Lee, Won-Kyu ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 124~129
This study was performed to develop the biological treatment technology of wastewater polluted with heavy metals. Heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, P. chlororaphis and P. stutzeri possessing the ability to accumulate cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, respectively, were isolated from industrial wastewater and mine wastewater polluted with various heavy metals. The effect of several external factors, such as temperature, pH and heavy metal compounds on heavy metal accumulation in the cells was investigated. The amount of heavy metal accumulation into cells according to the kind of heavy metal compound was slightly increased in the case of the heavy metal compound with -nitrate group, but generally, there is little change according to the kind of compound in the amount of heavy metal accumulation. The amount of heavy metal accumulation according to the precultured time was increased in the case of the cell precultured for 24 hours, but generally the precultured time did not affect to the amount of heavy metal accumulation. Heavy metal accumulation into cells was affected by several external factors, such as temperature and pH. The optimum temperature and optimum pH of the accumulation of heavy metal into cells were
, respectively. By increasing the concentration of each heavy metal-tolerant microorganism in the solution, the total amount of heavy metal accumulated was increased, whereas the amount of heavy metal accumulated per cell(mg, heavy metal/g, dry cells) was decreased. These results indicated that the amount of heavy metal accumulated was not proportional to the concentration of microorganisms.
Effects of Depth and Duration of Flooding on Growth and Yield at Flowering Stage in Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum).
Guh, Ja-Ock ; Han, Sung-Uk ; Kuk, Yong-In ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Lee, Young-Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 130~135
Tomatoes are flooded differently 0, 5, 10 and 15cm, according to the developing stages such as flowering stage under the condition of greenhouse. Along with this, they are treated according to the time condition such as 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hours. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Plant height decreased in the depth of
for over 48 hours, in the depth of 15cm for over 24 hours. Number of leaves was the same as in control, and it decreased over. Number of flowers and fruit setting of individuals decreased conspicuously according as the depth and the hours got greater and longer. Adventitious root occurred remarkably in the depth of
, for over 24 hours and in the depth of 15cm, 12 hours. Epinastic curvature increased greatly as the depth and the hours got greater and longer. Diffusion resistance of stomata cell increased as the depth and the hours got greater and longer. Diseases occurred conspicuously as the hours of flooding got longer rather than as the depth greater. The preventing of diseases caused by insecticide was observed, but it was not greater than in the seedling and transplanting stage. Fertilization was effective in the case of increasing the weight of shoot. Number of fruits per plant did not decrease in the depth of 0cm up to 24 hours, but decreased on the deeper level of flooding and increased as the hours got longer. Moreover with the exception of 120 hours per respective depth of the treatment, average weight of a fruit got greater as the depth and the hours got greater and longer. In the case of epinastic curvature and diffusion resistance, there was negative correlation between all the other investigated characters and positive correlation between weight of a fruits and average weight of a fruit.
Characteristics of Leachate with Passed Time in Expired Landfill
Kim, Eun-Ho ; Kim, Hyeong-Seok ; Sung, Nak-Chang ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 136~141
In this study, we can be obtained the following conclusions about the characteristics of leachate with passed time in the expired landfill. Compared with the expired landfilling H. and S., pH shows a tendency to increase in E., because
is created by anaerobic degradation and dissolved in leachate. The initial BOD and COD of E. and S. are high in similar concentration but H. is low, Since the organics of waste in H. are lower than in E. and S. during landfilling. SS of E. in concentration is increased and very altered, because food of combustible in E. is higher than it in H. and S.. According to passed time, T-N is high in concentration but T-P shows a similar tendency. Heavy metals of leachate is lower than threshold concentrations. If leachate is treated biologically, microbes are not inibitory.
Influence of Competing Ions and Metabolic Inhibitors on Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Cell of Heavy Metal-Tolerant Microorganisms
Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 142~148
This study was performed to develop the biological treatment technology of wastewater polluted with heavy metals. Heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, P. chlororaphis and P. stutzeri possessing the ability to accumulate cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, respectively, were isolated from industrial wastewaters and mine wastewaters polluted with various heavy metals. The effect of competing ions and metabolic inhibitors on heavy metal accumulation in the cells was investigated. Heavy metal accumulation into cells was drastically decreased in the presence of competing cation,
, and also decreased, at a lesser extent, in the presence of competing anions,
. But heavy metal accumulation was not influenced generally in the presence of the other rations and anions. The accumulation of Cd, Zn or Cu by Cd-, Zn- or Cu-tolerant microorganism was remarkably decreased in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, but the accumulation of Pb by Pb-tolerant microorganism was little affected in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. These results suggested that the accumulation of Cd, Zn or Cu by Cd-, Zn- or Cu-tolerant microorganism was concerned with the biological activity depending on energy, and the accumulation of Pb by Pb-tolerant microorganism depended on not the biological activity but the physical adsorption on the cell surface. Each heavy metal-tolerant microorganism also exhibited some ability to accumulate the other heavy metals in solution containing equal concentrations of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, when measured at 48 hours after inoculation of the microorganisms, but the accumulation rates were somewhat low as compared to the accumulation rates of heavy metal fitting to each tolerance. These results suggested that the accumulation of each heavy metal by each heavy metal-tolerant microorganism was a selective accumulation process.
Carbofuran Cytotoxicity on Rat Fibroblast Cells and Compensation Effects of Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methycholanthrene on Its Toxicity
Han, Seong-Soo ; Rim, Yo-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 149~155
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of phenobarbital sodium(PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene(3-MC) on carbofuran cytotoxicity and to develop antitoxic agents based on the effectivness. Experimental groups for carbofuran cytotoxicity were divided into five groups ; medium alone and four treatments of carbofuran (1, 25, 50 and
, and those for compensation effects were divided into six groups ; medium alone,
carbofuran and four combinations of carbofuran and PB or 3-MC(
carbofuran plus 1, 25, 50,
of PB and 3-MC, respectively). After incubation for 48 hrs under the same conditions, MTT(Tetrazolium MTT), NR(Neutral red) and SRB(Sulforhodamine B protein) assay were performed. Fifty percentage inhibition of MTT, NR, and SRB against carbofuran in rat fibroblast cell were 60.7, 82.5 and
, respectively. At the combination treatments of
of carbofuran and
of PB, the significant compensation effects were observed from the results of MTT and NR but not from that of SRB absorbance. And at the combination treatments of
of carbofuran and 3-MC, the relatively significant compensation effects were found at
3-MC from the results of MTT and at
3-MC from that of NR and SRB absorbances, respectively. From the results of light microscopy, combination treatments of
and PB or 3-MC showed good regeneration in carbofuran toxicity of rat fibroblast cells. These results suggest that PB or 3-MC can compensate the cytotoxity of carbofuran insecticide in rat NIH3T3 fibroblast cells.
Biological Wastewater Treatment Using Submerged Nonwoven Fabric Separation
Choi, Hyoung-Sub ; Moon, Byung-Hyun ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Hong-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 156~160
The combination of biological wastewater treatment process and membrane separation has many advantages such as better effluent quality and system stability over the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, direct membrane separation using nonwoven fabric was applied to biological wastewater treatment. A nonwoven fabric module was submerged in the aerated bioreactor. And accumulated biomass in the bioreactor was separated by suction. The system was operated with various condition to investigate pollutant removal efficiencies and flux. After formation of biomass layer on nonwoven fabric surface, a day, the stable effluent water quality was obtained. The flux decreased at a high suction pressure faster than a low pressure. The stable flux was obtained at the pressure of
. In spite of variation of hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate, the removal efficiencies of BOD,
were very high as follows :
Growth Responses of Crops to Wastes Derived from Some Factories
Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Shim, Sang-In ; Lee, Sang-Gak ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 161~165
This experiment were carried out to clarify the effects of several factory wastes on the emergence and seedling growth of five crop species, rice, Chinese cabbage, melon, and tomato. Wastes of three factories treated by several concentrations on the soil in which crop were seeded. In rice seedling experiments, the rice seedlings were treated with factory wastes hydroponically. Factory wastes used in the experiment were obtained from leather, phenol resin, and dye factory. The growth of rice seedlings was inhibited by each factory wastes, but the dry weight of rice seedling was increased by the low concentration below 1/16 dilution of leather factory waste. During 15 days, dry matter accumulation of rice seedlings treated with undiluted factory wastes decreased to 46.0, 51.4, -5.4% of control by treating wastes of phenol resin, leather, and dye factory respectively. The injury of crops by leather factory waste was severe in tomato but slight in barley. Waste of phenol resin factory affects highly both on Chinese cabbage and on melon. When dye factory waste was treated on each crop, all plants died in the treatments of waste solution which diluted to 1/8 of original waste. Tomato and melon were most sensitive crop species to the waste of dye factory. Although the responses of crops to each factory waste were various, the degree of injuries were more higher in vegetables than cereal crops.
Physico-Chemical Changes of Curing Compost from Food Wastes
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 166~169
The fresh food waste compost, which was composted in a small bin for average one month, was cured in a pile in the field for seven months. The pile was turned once a month. The various components of the compost were investigated for the curing period. The maximun temperature rised to
after curing of four months. The moisture content of the compost droped to 61.7% after twelve months. After that, the rainfall affected very much the moisture content of the compost. pH of the compost increased gradually to 8.92 for curing. Ash content rised continually to 60.5% for curing. However, it did not exceed 25% ash content, which is the by-product limit value. The accumulation of the inorganic components occured and most of the heavy matals except for Cd generally were accumulated as curing proceeded.
Natural Treatment of Wastewater from Industrial Complex in Rural Area by Subsurface Flow Wetland System
Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ; Lim, Yoong-Ho ; Kim, Hyung-Joong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 170~174
Constructed wetland system was studied to treat wastewater from industrial complex in rural area. Pilot plant at the Baeksuk Nongkong Danzi in Chunahn-City was used for field study. For the DO, the effluent concentration was higher than the influent concentration and it implies that natural reaeration supplies enough oxygen to the system. For the SS, the effluent concentration was consistently lower than the water quality standard even though the influent concentration varied significantly, which showed that SS was removed by the system effectively which is consist of soil and plants. For the BOD and COD, the average removal rate of them were 56% and 43%, respectively, therefore, the effluent concentration could not meet water quality standards when influent concentration was high. The removal rate of BOD and COD can be improved by supplemental treatment in addition to this system if necessary. For the T-N and T-P, the influent concentration of them were lower than the water quality standards than no further treatment was needed. Overall, the result showed that constructed wetland system is a feasible alternative for the treatment of wastewater from industrial complex in rural area. For actual application of this system, further study on design factors including loading rate, removal mechanism, and temperature effects is required to meet water quality standard consistently. Compared to existing systems, this system is quite competitive because it requires low capital cost, almost no energy and maintenance, and therefore, very cost effective.
Effect of Lime Materials Application on Reducing Injury of Simulated Acid Rain in Soybean
Kim, Bok-Jin ; Back, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 175~180
This experiment was conducted to find out the effects of lime materials application on reducing injury of simulated acid rain(SAR) in soybean grown in pot contained with sandy loam. Six treatments including control, slaked lime(SL), 1% and 2% lime water(LW) and composite treatments with SL+LW were applied. Slaked lime was applied to soil in pot before planting, and lime water was applied to leaves a day prior to the spray of SAR(pH 2.7) and normal rain(pH 6.0), and these were sprayed at 2-day intervals. Growth, yield and yield components, foliar injury rate, chrolophyll content and photosynthetic activity in leaves, content of mineral nutrients in plant and soil chemical properties were analyzed and investigated. These results obtained are summarized as follows : Seed yield of all lime treatment was reduced by SAR compared with control. But seed yield of all lime treatment was increased with treatment of lime material in soil and on leaves. After 15 and 45 times spray of SAR, all lime treatments were effective in injury reducing visible injury of leaves compared with none treatment. Chlorophyll content in leaves was highest in plants treated with slaked lime+ 1% lime water and photosynthetic activity was highest with treatment of slaked lime. Concentration of total nitrogen, phosphate, and sulfur in soybean plant were increased by the spray of SAR. Concentration of total nitrogen, potassium and calcium in soybean plant were increased with treatment of slaked lime into soil. By treatments of SAR, soil pH was decreased, and total nitrogen and sulfur concentration in soil were increased. However, available phosphate and exchangeable cations in soil such as calcium, magnesium and potassium were reduced. Soil pH, calcium and silicate concentration were increased with treatment of slaked lime into soil.
Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae Formation and Nutrient Status of Citrus Plants in Cheju
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Moon, Doo-Khil ; Han, Hae-Ryong ; Lim, Han-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 181~186
Since volcanic ash soils in Cheju island have high capacities of adsorption and immobilization of phosphate, a relatively high rate of P application has been recommended in citrus orchards for many years and such a large amount of P application could be problematic both in agricultural and environmental point of view. The objective of this study was to test whether arbuscular-mycorrhizae can be used to improve P availability in Cheju citrus orchard soils. Soil, root and leaf samples were taken from 14 citrus orchards of different location and soil texture. Mycorrhizal spore distribution in the soils, mycorrhizal infection ratio on the citrus roots, and mineral nutrients in leaf samples were determined. Numbers of mycorrhizal spore were in the range of
soil. The population level was not correlated with any of the soil characteristics examined. Mycorrhizae were found in all of the examined orchards and root infection ratio varied between
. The mycorrhizae infection ratio differed substantially in different soils. Although root infection was high at soils with low extractable P level, it was not significantly correlated with other soil factors measured. Since a positive correlation was observed between leaf P concentration and root infection, enhancement of P uptake seemed to be associated with mycorrhizal infection. These results indicate that mycorrhizae could be a useful method to reduce P applications in Cheju citrus orchards.
Water Pollution in Some Agricultural Areas along Nakdong River
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Kim, Jeong-Kook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 187~192
We carried out a survey on tributary streams in some agricultural areas along Nakdong River to evaluate the effects of agricultural practices on pollution of stream water and groundwater. General properties, nutrient materials and heavy metals in water samples were measured. General physicochemical properties of tributary stream waters were at levels favorable for agricultural water. Heavy metals, except Zn, were mostly not detected. Total-N contents were much higher than the criteria of agricultural water, and nitrate-N accounts for more than a half of total-N. Phosphorus contents were higher than the lower level of P for algae growth and the contents were high especially in summer. In ground waters which are used for irrigation, P were mostly at same levels as those in streams, and nitrate contents were higher than 10mg/L in some samples. In these results only those N and P contents in stream and ground waters higher than pollution criteria are problematic and they are traceable to agricultural nonpoint sources-fertilizers, livestock farms and sewage. Further researches are needed to evaluate contributions of each nonpoint source on stream water pollutions.
Nitrate Removal in Rural Groundwater Using Ion Exchange Resin
Kwun, Soon-Kuk ; Yu, Myong-Jin ; Jung, Tae-Myung ; Kim, Min-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 193~198
The purpose of this study was to find out a suitable resin to remove
from groundwater. Four different commercial resins differentiated by type, porosity and nitrate selectivity were used to compare the performance of nitrate removal. Gel type, Type 2 anion exchange resin was preferable when anion concentration of raw water was low. But efficiency of this resin decreased as flow rate increased. However, macroporous type resins were not affected by increasing flow rate. Macroporous resins were preferable when anion concentrations in raw water were high and high flow rate was proposed. And the general type resin showed better efficiency when sulfate concentrations were low. However the nitrate selective resin had better efficiency in treating raw water of high sulfate concentration. From the results, it may be drawn that nitrate selective resins are preferable to general type when a sulfate concentration in groundwater is over 50mg/l.
Water Quality of Streams and Agricultural Wells Related to Different Agricultural Practices in Small Catchments of the Han River Basin
Jung, Yeong-Sang ; Yang, Jae-E ; Joo, Young-Kyu ; Lee, Joo-Young ; Park, Yong-Seong ; Choi, Mun-Heon ; Choi, Seung-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 16, issue 2, 1997, Pages 199~205
Water quality of streams and ground water from areas of different agricultural practices in the small catchments of the Han River basin was investigated. Water samples were collected from upper, middle and lower reaches of the Han River Basin where three types of agricultural management have been practiced : (1) highland agriculture and livestocks in Daegwanryung area, (2) typical upland and paddy farmings in Dunnae (Jucheon River) and Chuncheon (Soyang River) areas, and (3) intensive farming in the plastic film house in Guri area (Wangsuk stream). Water quality was monitored for EC, pH, COD, TSS, N, rations and anions. Concentrations of N, especially nitrate, and phosphorus in both stream and ground water exceeded the standard water quality criteria in many cases, but those of heavy metals were non-detectable or trace in most cases, except for Wangsuk stream where a high level was detected in a specific sampling time. Chemical criteria such as pH, EC and COD of the stream were suitable for irrigation purpose, but nitrate concentrations in ground water used in the intensive plastic film house were high enough to require a special management consideration. A model on the irrigation water quality incorporating EC and nitrate concentrations was suggested in view of fertilizer management and environmental quality.