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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
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Ecology of Rhizome Rot Incidence of Ginger and Relation of Soil Texture, Chemistry and Biology
Lee, Wang-Hyu ; Lee, Doo-ku ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~4
The ecology of rhizome rot incidence rates between Seosan, Chungnam and Bongdong, Chonbuk province were surveyed in this experiment. The rhizome rot incidence rate of Seosan was lower than that of Bongdong. The average ginger product of former province was 1,140kg, whereas it's 818kg per 10a. in latter province. Treatment after disease incidence frequently used fungicide at Seosan. There were different soil physiological property between fields. Although Eunhari and Yulsori were belong to Bongdong province, incidence rate was low at Eunhari, contained 23% clay and high incidence rate at Yulsori, approximately contained 60% silt. Many soil chemical properties of cultivated area were belong to optimum concentration range, but phosphate(P) was higher than optimum concentration, 450-550ppm. The number of soil fungi in the middle of cultivated season tended to show the highest. Both bacteria and actinomyces` number was similar to the result of fungi. The bacteria/fungi ratio was greatly different between surveyed fields.
Microbial degradation and other methods for accelerated degradation the Herbicide Imazapyr
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Kwon, Jeong-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 5~10
The microbial degradation, photosensitizer-mediated photolysis, and bioceramic- accelerated degradation of the herbicide imazapyr were investigated using four types of soil. 1. Seven strains of microorganisms isolated from the soil A and the active sludge collected from the waste water disposal plant in CheongJu did not give any distinct degradation products in pure culture. When imazapyr (10ppm) was incubated for 14days with each of the 6strains of the known bacteria, they did not produce any noticeable products, either, suggesting that imazapyr was degraded very little by microorganisms in aqueous media. Meanwhile, when 50ppm of imazapyr was incubated in soil A and B for 6months, a degradation product of m/z 279 was detected. It turned out to be 2-[(1-carbamoyl-1,2-dimethylpropyl)carbamoyl]nicotinic acid, which was formed by the hydrolytic cleavage of the imidazolinone ring and by tautomerism. When imazapyr was exposed to sunlight, degradation rates were 14.6% under the control and 66.0, 76.5, 26.7, and 90.0% in the presence of PS-1 (100ppm), PS-1 (200ppm), PS-2(100ppm), and PS-3(100ppm), respectively, and a degradation product of m/z 149 was tentatively identified in the treatment of PS-1. 2. When soil C and D treated with bioceramic were incubated for 7weeks, the
evolved were 2.03 and 1.12% of the originally applied ones, respectively, whereas those in control soils without bioceramic were 1.88 and 0.82% showing no significant defferences.After 5 weeks, however,the differences in the amounts of
between the two treatments increased gradually, suggesting the bioceramic effect.
A Study on Degradation Rate of Carbofuran in Sterilized Soil and Sulfate-added Paddy Soil
Tu, Ock-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 11~15
Carbofuran was incubated for four weeks in five types of paddy soil samples at
. The soil samples prepared in the study were as follows : control soil, sterilized soil, 10% cellulose added soil, 10% cellulose and 1% ferrous sulfate added soil, and 10% cellulose and 1% magnesium sulfate added soil. The degradation rate of carbofuran was significantly decreased(p<0.05) in sterilized soil.The degradation rate of carbofuran was significantly decreased by addition of cellulose(p<0.05) in femous sulfate added soil and magnesium sulfate added soil(p<0.01).
Changes of the Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Properties during Composting for Composting of Sewage Sludge
Lee, Hong-Jae ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Shin, Won-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 16~21
To study the possibility of agricultural utilization of sewage sludge, the changes of the substances physico-chemical and microbiological properties composting periods such as inorganic matter, the form of organic matter and nitrogen and the kinds and the population number of microorganisms were investigated. The results were summarized as follows ; Temperature and
generation, they were the highest in the second day of composting periods and then were gradually fallen. pH value was not changed in first day during composting periods, but in second day was rapidly increased and then it was constant of the range of 8.4∼8.6. The contents of
, CaO and Fe were a little increased during composting periods, while that of
and Mn were big increased with 253
331% and 191
208% in late composting periods in comparing with early composting periods, respectively. The contents of ether extracted materials, water soluble polysaccharides, hemicellulose and cellulose were decreased but that of resins and lignin were not changed during composting periods. The contents of total and organic nitrogen during composting periods were decreased with 15
20% and 22
35%, respectively, while that of inorganic nitrogen was decreased with 75
116%. The population numbers of microorganism during composting periods was much too changed according to the kinds of microorganism and composting periods.
Study on analysis method of herbicide quizalofop-ethyl
Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Kim, Byeong-Ho ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Shu, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 22~25
These studies were conducted to develope analysis method of herbicide quizalofop-ethyl by Gas Liquid Chromatography(GLC) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosoment Assay(ELISA) in soil and plant. Quizalofop produced by hydrolysis of quizalofop-ethyl was conjugated with bovine serum albumin(BSA). Quizalofop antibody was developed in rabbits by using BSA conjugation. Antibody titer, incubation temperature, and incubation time was 32,000,
and 4hours respectively. Minimum detection limit of quizalofop-ethyl by ELISA was 5ppb. Quizalofop-ethyl recovery from soil by ELISA was more than 95percent. Minimum detection limit of quizalofop-ethyl by GLC was 5ppb. Quizalofop-ethyl recovery from soil by GLC was from 89 percent to 100 percent. Minimun detection limit of quizalofop-ethyl by HPLC was 100ppb. Quizalofop-ethyl recovery from soil by HPLC was 89.6 percent.
Screening of saline tolerant plants and development of biological monitoring technique for saline stress . 1. Survey of vegetation in saline region and determination of saline tolerance of the plant species of the region.
Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Shim, Sang-In ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 26~33
This experiment was conducted to classify the plant species occurring in the saline reclaimed land by saline tolerance. The vegetation of reclaimed land was composed of various plant species from halophyte to glycophyte showing different saline tolerances. In the investigated saline region, reclaimed land of Youngjong island, Inchun city, 175 species belonging to 32 families were found. Our survey was carried out in two region, having different salinity due to different desalinization. The electricalconductivity (EC) of more saline region showed 48.0mS/cm nd the other region showed 13.0mS/cm. It is assumed that intensity of precipitation and runoff of rainfall may cause salinity gradient in the investigated region. The plant species occurred in the experimental region were classified as 72 species of annual, 42 species of biennial, and 61 species of perennial according to life cycle. For knowing relationship between vegetation of saline region and saline tolerance of occurring species, we tested the saline susceptibility of plant species collected at the saline regions. Testing plants were cultured by nutrient solution containing 200 mM NaCl, the critical concentration of survival in glycophytes. The saline tolerance was graded by the growing capacity in the sand-culture system. The more saline-tolerant species screened by sand culture were Atriplex gmelini, Suaeda asparagoides, Aster tripolium, Suaeda maritima, Salicornia herbacea, and Suaeda japonica. The most saline tolerant family was Chenopodiaceae. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Brassicaceae showed relatively high tolerance to saline stress. In the course of growth under the high saline condition, the most noticeable change was the darkening of leaves by increasing of chlorophyll content. The chlorophyll contents were increased with saline stress in most species.
Salt tolerance in phosphorus efficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Lee, Dong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 34~38
To test a potential salt tolerance in phosphorus (P) efficient plants (T9 and T8), tomato seedlings were hydroponically grown in saline media. The tolerance was evaluated by comparing growth and metabolism against T5, non-P-efficient variety, at different salt concentrations: 0, 1, 5, 10 g/L. Fresh weights (FW) were measured weekly. Dry weight (DW), mineral contents, and stomatal resistance (Rs) were measured at the termination of experiment. At the lower two salt concentrations (0, 1 g/L), no significant difference was observed in terms of FW, DW, and Rs. At 5, 10 g/L of salt concentration, however, significant variation is evident: T9 and T8 outperformed T5. On the other hand, no difference was also in N, P, K, and Na contents at the corresponding salt concentration. These observations together indicate that P-efficient strain can better tolerate to salinity.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PRODUCTS FROM SUGAR CANE BAGASSE FERMENTATION BY Pleurotus sajor-caju
Lee, Young-Keun ; Chang, Hwa-Hyoung ; Kim, Won-Rok ; Kim, Jin-Kyu ; Kim, Jae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 39~42
In order to evaluate the biological activities of some fractions from the fungal(Pleurotus sajorcaju) fermentation products of sugar cane bagasses, the antimutagenicity, the glyceollin elicitor activity on soybean and the effect on the stem elongation in pea were observed. The alcohol extract fraction and DMSO soluble fraction had excellent antimutagenicity even though it is weaker than that of the extracts from the fruiting bodies. All of the extracts had the ability to elicit glyceollins in soybean cotyledons and these extracts could be helpful for plants to protect themselves from pathogenic contaminations. IAA and the extracts had shown synergistic effects on pea stem elongation in all experimental groups positively determined.
Removal of benzene from aqueous solution by TMA-Zeolite complex
Lee, Chan-Il ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 43~47
This study was performed to remove the dissolved benzene in water by using TMA-Zeolite complex which was formed by the adsorption of TMA(Tetramethyl ammonium), a kind of ration surfactant on a natural zeolite produced in Korea. The dorminant clay minerals of the natural zeolite was identified by X-ray diffractometry and Infrared spectrophotometry to be mordenite and clinoptilolite. The CEC of the zeolite used was 95.9 cmol/kg. TMA was adsorbed on natural zeolite very quickly, and the amount of TMA adsorption on zeolite was known to be equivalent to about 8% of the CEC of natrual zeolite. The amount of benzene adsorption on TMA-zeolite complex was much more than natural zeolite, indicating that the dissolved benzene in water could be removed effectively by TMA-zeolite comple.
Distribution of Heavy metals in Soil at Iksan 1st Industrial Complex Area
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Moon, Kwang-Hyun ; Jang, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Su-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 48~53
The purpose of this study was to compare heavy metal concentrations in uncontaminated soil with those in soil influenced by industrial activities, and to investigate the relationship between change of heavy metal content and the kind of industry at the Iksan 1st Industrial Complex that has started since 1975. Soils sampled in 0-3㎝ and 3-6㎝ soil depth, respectively were analized for content of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Change of heavy metal content in soil of the industrial complex were more accumulated 16 to 25% of Cd and Cu, 93% of Pb and Zn, respectively in samples compared with natural soil uncontaminated. But there was no different in Ni content between two soil. Distribution of Cd in soil layer of 0 to 3cm was the highest concentration of 5 ppm more at the textile industries, and then higher at the chemicals and the food processing industries. In 3 to 6㎝ soil layer Cd content was the highest concentration of 5 ppm more at the metal processing industries, and then higher at the textile industries. Cd accumulation in soil was different according to a kind of industry and soil depth. Cu content was the highest value of 400 ppm more in soil layer of 0 to 3cm at the manufacturing electric wires industry area and showed the accumulation phenomenon in soil layer 3 to 6cm at the ohmmeter, machines and electric wires industry area. Ni content was 35 ppm more in soil of the metal plating and processing industries regardless of soil sampling layer. Then it was 25 ppm more in soil of the building stones and semiconductor industries. Pb content was from 400 to 1000 ppm in soil of the chemicals and textiles industries regardless of soil sampling layer. Zn content was 1200 ppm more in soil of the chemicals and silk fabrics industries regardless of soil depth, and then lower in order to soil of leather processing
metal plating industries. In conclusion, changes of heavy metal kinds and content in soil of this industrial complex area were caused by the type or kinds of industrial activities. Changes of Pb and Zn content in soil were dominated at this area.
Effects of Fermented Cattle Manure Compost Incoporated Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete (ALC) Waste and Raising Duck in Rice Paddy Field on Rice Yield and Quality.
Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Lee, Joo-Yeol ; Park, Ki-sun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 54~58
This experiment was conducted to find out the effects of fermented compost using cattle manure and Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete(ALC) waste and duck raising in rice growing paddy fields on growth and quality of rice. By application of fermented compost of cattle manure incoporated ALC waste with amount of 2,000kg/10a, rice yield was reduced 2.9%, and 4.1% in 1,000kg/10a of compost with raising ducks plots as compared with application of standard level of chemical fertilizer. The ratio of head rice was slightly high in plots of compost application and white-belly kemeled rice was reduced by application of
compost. The ratio of Mg/K was the highest in application of 1,000kg compost with raising duck. Efficiency of weed control by raising duck with free hexbiades was sufficient and their effects showed no difference between raising duck plots and herbidde plot.
A Study on the Effect of Soil Wineral and Component of the Pore Fluid to the Electrical Resistivity
Yoon, Chun-Kyeong ; Yu, Chan ; Yoon, Kil-Lim ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 59~64
The environmental problem of the rural area has been accelerated in soil as well as water. Soil contamination is usually caused by improper operation of landfills, abandoned mine fields, accidental spills, and illegal dumpings. Once soil contamination is initiated, pollutants migrate and may cause groundwater contamination which takes much effort for remediation. Early detection, therefore, is important to prevent further contamination. Electrical resistivity method was used to detect soil contamination, but it was not effective to the heterogeneous condition. Static cone penetrometer test (CPT) has been used widely to investigate geotechnical properties of the underground. In this study, electrical resistivity method and CPT are combined to improve the applicability of it. The pilot test was performed to examine the variation of electrical resistivity with different soil minerals and pore fluid characteristics. Soil samples used were poorly graded sand, silty sandy soil, and weathered granite soil. For all the cases, electrical resistivity decreased with increasing of moisture content. Soil mineral also affected the electrical resistivity significantly. Above all, leachate addition in the pore fluid was very sensitive and caused decreasing of electrical resistivity markedly. It implies that electrical resistivity method can be applied to investigate pollutant plume effectively. This is specially sure when the sensors contact the contaminated soils directly. The CPT method involves cone penetration to the ground, therefore, underground contamination around the cone could be investigated effectively even for heterogeneous condition as it penetrates if electrical resistivity sensors are attached on the cone.
Effects of Fly Ash,Gypsum,and Shell on the Chemical Properties of Soil and Growth of Chinese Cabbage in Plastic Film Housed Paddy
Ha, Ho-Sung ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Lee, Hyub ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 65~69
In order to evaluate the utility of bituminous coal fly ash, gypsum, oyster shell as soil amendments, aadic clayloam paddy soils with low calaum content were amended in the upper 15㎝ with amendments, and then Chinese cabbage was cultivated under plastic film house. Amendments treated were, in metric tons per hectare, i) none(Check) ; ii) 80 fly ash(FA) ; iii) 4 shell(SH) ; iv) 56 fly ash+24 gypsum (FG) ; v) 40 fly ash+24 gypsum+0.8 shell(FGS). On the whole, soil chemical properties were improved by amendments treatments. Amongst treatments, FA prominently neutralized soil pH and increased contents of Av.
, Ex. K, and Av. B in soils. Besides, it showed the highest ratio in bacteria/fungi and (bacteria+actinomycetes)/fungi. FGS also affected the neutralization of soil pH and the increment of Ex. Mg. Amendments plants appeared alkaline damages only at early growing stage, but showed positive responses in fresh weight yields : 23% for FGS : 21% for FG : 19 18% for SH. At harvesting, leaves both of FA and FGS plants had higher values in contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, reduang-sugar, and vitamin-C than of others. In especial, Check plants appeared the heart rot symptoms owing to calaum defiaency differently from amendments plants. Taken together, FGS was an effective combination enable to maximize the utility of fly ash, gypsum, shell as soil amendments, espeaally in cabbage yield and quality.
Treatment Level of a Pond System for Ecological Treatment and Recycling of Animal Excreta
Yang, Hong-Mo ; Rhee, Chong-Ouk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 70~75
A model of pond system is developed for treatment and recycling of excreta from twenty-five adult dairy cattle. It is composed of wastewater treatment ponds and small fish ponds. Those are three facultative ponds in series; primary-secondary-tertiary pond and these are designed to rear carps without feeding. A pit is constructed at the bottom of primary pond for efficient sludge sedimentation and effective methane fermentation. It is contrived to block into it the penetration of oxygen dissolved in the upper layer of pond water. The excreta from the cattle housed in stalls are diluted by water used for clearing them. The washed excreta flow into the pit. The average yearly
concentration of influent is 398.7mg/l. That of the effluent from primary, secondary and tertiary pond of the system is 49.18, 27.9, and 19.8.mg/l respectively. Approximate 88, 93, and 95 % of BOD5 are removed in each pond. The mean yearly SS concentration of influent is 360.5 mg/l That of the effluent from each pond is 53.4, 45.7, and32.7mg/l respectively. Approximate 86, 88, and 91% of SS are removed in each pond. The
concentration of secondary and tertiary pond can satisfy 30mg/l secondary treatment standard. The SS concentration of effluent from tertiary pond, however, is slightly greater than the standard, which results from activities of carps growing in the pond. The average yearly total nitrogen concentration of influent is 206.8mg/l and that of the effluent from each pond is 48.6, 30.8, and 21.0mg/l respectively. Approximate 74, 88, and 90% of total nitrogen are removed in each pond. The mean yearly total phosphorous concentration of influent is 20.7mg/l and that of the effluent from each pond is 5.3, 3.2, and 2.1mg/l respectively. Approximate 97, 98, and 99% of total phosphorous are removed in each pond. The high removal of nitrogen and phosphorous results from active growth of algae in the upper layer of pond water. Important pond design parameters for southern part of Korea -- areal loading of BOD5, liquid depth, hydraulic detention time, free board, and pond arrangement -- are taken up.
lonizing Radiation Hormesis in Crops
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Young-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 1, 1998, Pages 76~83
The most remarkable aspect in the hormesis law is that dose of harmful agents can produce effect that are diametrically opposite to the effect found with high doses of the same agent. Minute quantities of a harmful agent bring about very small change in the organism and control mechanisms appear to subjugate normal processes to place the organism in a state of albert and repair. The stimulated organism in more responsive to changes in environmental factors than it did before being alerted. Routine functions, including repair and defense, have priority for available energy and matetial. The alerted organism utilizes nutrients more efficiently, grows faster, shows improved defense, and lives longer. Accelerated germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and ripening, and increased crop yield and resistance to disease are found in plants. Another concept supported by the data in that low doses of ionizing radiation provide increased resistance to subsequent high doses of radiation. The hormesis varies with subject plant, variety, state of seed, environmental and cultural conditions, physiologic function measured, dose rate and total exposure. The results of hormesis are less consistently found, probably due to the great number of uncontrolled variables in the experiments. The general dosage for radiation homlesis in about 100 (10 to 1,000) times ambient or 100 (10 to 1,000) times less than a definitely harmful dose, but these must be modified to the occasion. Although little is known about most mechanisms of homzesis reaction, overcompensation of repair mechanism is offered as one mechanism.