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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Diminution of Pesticide Residues on Crops and Soil by Accelerated Photolysis
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Jung, In-Sang ; Kwon, Jeong-Wook ; Ahn, Ki-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 107~116
In an effort to reduce artifically the residual pesticides on crop and soil by accelerated photolysis,some 40 among the naturally occurring and synthetic coumpound were screened for photosensitization and/or photocatalysis and six promising chemicals were selected.The fungicides and the four selected photosensitizers and/or photocatalyst (PS) were applied to each crop.The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The wavelengths of maximum absortion (
max) and the molar absorptivites (
max) of procymidone,vinclozolin,and carbendazim in acentone were all 209 nm and 853,854,and 8740 respectively. 2. Of the 40 naturally-occuring and synthetic compounds screened,six promising ones were selected and designated as PS-1 (aromatic ketone),PS-2(aromatic amine)PS-3(quinone) ,PS-4 (inorganic compound),PS-5(organic acid salt) and PS-6(semiconductor photocatalyst). 3. In the accelerated photolysis of pesticide in soil by applying PS ,procymidone was decoposed rapidly by virtue of PS-2,being 59% of the control 3 days after application. 4. The vinclozolin residue in soil was reduced to 71% and 21% of the control 1 and 15 days,respectively,after PS-2 application. 5. The photolysis of carbendazim in soil was not accelerated by any of the PS tested. 6. The pesticide residues on the crop were prominently reduced by PS application.The procymidone residue on tomato was reduced to 47% of the control 15 days after PS-1 application and that on red pepper reduced to 57% 15 days after PS-2 application. 7. Vincrozolin residus remaining on tomato 1 and 15 days after PS-2 application were 38% and 56% of the control whereas those on the red pepper were 82% and 64%,respectively. 8. PS-2 was the most effective for the accelerated photolysis of carbendazim residues remaining on tomato, whereas on red pepper, the four of PS tested were all effective, but did not make much difference between them. This might be due to the shielding of sunlight by the leaves of red pepper not to exert the photosensitizing effect of PS-2 to the full.
A Study on The Sampling Error of PCBs Deposited on Pine Needles
Chun, Man-Young ; Kim, Tae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 117~121
In the study to reduce the error on the method of sampling pine needles to monitor the atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls(PBCs),it was found that: 1. Concentration of PCBs almost linearly increased from new to three-years-old pine needles, so that the biomonitoring method using pine needles canbe applied to measuring long-term contamination from air in a local area. Needles of differernt age should not be mixed in sampling but be seperately analysed .It no good idea comparing PCB concentrations of differently aged needles. 2. Concentratio n of PCBs on pine needles had nothing to do whit the indivisual and age of the pine tree. 3. Concentration of PCBs on pine needles growing avobe was lower than that on needke below. 4. Concentration of PCBs on pine needles locatied in poorly ventilative places such as needle of a forest was lower than that on needles in well-ventilated areas.
Screening of saline tolerant plants and development of biological monitoring technique for saline stress. II. Responses of emergence and early growth of several crop species to saline stress.
Shim, Sang-In ; Lee, Sang-Gak ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 122~126
This experiment was conducted to verify the responses of major crop species to saline stress.To determine the saline tolerance of crop species, sevral crop species were cultivated under sand-culture system using Hoagland's nutrient solution whit 200mM NaCl. The crop species showing saline tolerance were cotton(Gossypium indicum), maize(Zea mays), barely(Hordeum vulgare), and wheat(Triticum aestivum) but perilla (Perilla frutescens) and leguminous crops, mung bean(Phaseolus radiatus), azuki bean(Phaseolus angularis) and soy bean(Glycin max) showed very por tolerance. One the typical symptom was the darkening of leaf color due to increase of chlorophyll concentration.Among of the plant families, Fabaceae was the most susceptible but crop species belonging to Poaceae were more proper for cultivating on reclaimed tidal land in the course of desalinazation. It was suggrsted that the crop species belonging to Fabaceae, a sensitive family to soil salinity, must be cultivated when the soil salinity decreased below 10ds/m. To know the critical salinity level for crop growth,salinity of saline soil collected from reclaimed tidal land was adjusted from 10.0ds/m tp41.7ds/m with tap water. It was suggested that the ECs of the soil in which the plant height of each crop spicies was reduced to 50% of control plant were 22.6 and 21.7 ds/m in rice, barley, corn, mung bean, and soy bean,respectively.
Ethane Evolution in Cucumber Plants by Air Pollutants in Relation to Plants Injury
Bae, Gong-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 127~131
Ethane was measured to know whether active oxyzens may induce phytoxicity in stressedcucumber plant.The time course of the increase in ethane evolution was the same as that of the increase of visible injury in all treatments except
treatment.This result showed that air pollutants-induced plant damages were closely related to ethane evolution.And evolution of ethane was more increased in combined stress than singly one,suggesting that phytotoxicity was more severe in complex sterss.Also, evolution of ethane was enhanced in the light condition and scavengers of active oxygen were inhibited,showing that plant damage that plant damage were cause by active oxygens.
Survey on the Green house Flower Soil Chemicophysical Properties and Amount of Fertilizers and Soil Amendment Applications
Hwang, Ki-Sung ; Noh, Dae-Chul ; Ho, Qyo-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 132~135
This study was conducted to obtain basic information for soil improvement in flower crop cultivating greenhouse soil through survey on the chemical and physical properties of greenhouse soils. Total of 85 Flowcultivating farms were surveyed and analysis was done on the soil characteristics, amounts of chemical fertilizer and soil amendmentuse. The result are as follows: In soil properties of flower cultivating greenhousees, silt clay loam was 51%and 68% of the surveyed soils had good drainage condition. Ground water table was over 90-120cm which was optimum range for flower cultivation. Flower cultivating farms had problem with accumulation of fertility. Nitrate nitrogen was accumulated in Gypsophila paniculate farms and available phosphorus, and exchangeable postassium were significantly higher in greenhouse soils about 2 times than in open field soil. Application amount of chemical feltilizers in greenhouses were nitrate 211,phosphorus 135, and potassium 132kg/ha, respectively. Amount of organic matter used in greenhouse were high in order of cattle manure> compost> organic fertilizer> poultry manure> swine manure and their application amounts were69, 103, 32, 20, and 43 MT/ha, respectively.
Irrigation Water Quality of the Kyoungan Stream.
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 136~139
The water quality in Kyoungan stream was surveyed at 6 sites for 7 months from March to September in 1994, 1995 and 1997. The overall results are summarized as follows: Yearly COD concentration of Kyuongan stream was decreased from 26.3 mg/l in 1994 to 17.8 mg/l in 1997, but those of
were not changed. The water quality of Kyoungan stream in July and August was better than any other months due to dilution with rainwater. The water quality along Kyoungan stream was deteriorated with inflow of tributaries contaminated with livestock wastewater and sewage water in the mid-stream, but thereafter it was recovered with inflow of Gonjiam steam and Beon stream.
Water Quality of Streams in Some Agricultural Areas of Different Agricultural Practices along Nakdong River Basin
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Kim, Jeong-Kook ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 140~144
A survey on four tributary streams in agricultural areas along Nakdong River was carried out to evaluate the effect of agricultural practices on the quality of streamwater. Typicalpaddy and upland farmings were major agriculturalpractice in two survey areas. Apple orchards were located along Imgo -Cheon. Intensive farming in plastic film house was conducted along the Habin cheon. Electriclal condutivity and nutrient contents were measured. Comparing to the reference water sample collected from very upper part of Yangsang -Cheon in Moonkyong, water in the streams studied were quite polluted and such pollution could be due to the farmings conducted along the streams. Phosphorus content were higher than the minimum level for eutrophication (0.01-0.05 mg/L). Nitrogeon content were also significantly high in many sites to cause harmful effects on crops when normalfertilizer level was applicated. Among the four stream, water quality in paddy area were relatively less polluted. High nitrogen level in Imgo-Cheon and high level of EC in Habin-Cheon were problematic. As farming is the major sources of pollution in the streams studied, this are traceable to the agricultural nonpoint sources. To maintain water quality of the stream, the agricultural nonpoint source along thributary streams should be properly controlled.
Survey on Nutrient Removal Potential and Growth State of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) at Seo-Ho.
Kim, Bok-Young ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 145~149
To find out the effect of water hyacinth(Eichhornia crassipes Solms-Laub) on the control of eutrofication and plant damage with irrigation water contamination, its ability to remove the nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphrus was studied. The overall results are summarized as follow. 1. It was possible to cultivate water hyacinth for 4 month from June to the middle of October in Suwon. 2. The number of plant was increased from 1,320 to 50,600 for 4 months, and total amounts of N, P, K removed from Seo-Ho by water hyacinth were 78.3, 64.2 and 152.4 kg/10a, respectively. 3. EC and
contents were lower at water hyacinth treatment than non-treatment and monthly variation of those contents were decreased until August. 4. With the cultivation of water hyacinth in animal waste water in vinyl plastic house, pH, EC, COD and concentrations of
in the water were drastically decreased. 5. Nitrogen contents absorbed from waste water existed in the order of leaf > stem > root but those of phosphorus root > stem > leaf.
Effect of Organic Matter Application on Heavy Metal Uptake of Infant Rice Seedling
Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Lee, Chang-Ho ; Lee, Won-Seok ; Lim, Soo-Kil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 150~155
To investigate effects of organic matter application on heavy metal uptake of infant rice seeding, the various amount of organic matter(peat and
)was applied on Cd or Cu treated nursery bed soil. No growth difference was observed up to 20mg/kg of Cu treatment. Above 20mg/kg of Cu treatment, the seeding height and top dry weight were decreased but the Cu uptake by seeding was increased with increasing Cu treatment level. The mat formation was poor above 20mg/kg of Cu treatment, however, the seeding peat application level. All peat treatment resulted better mat formation than control. The seeding height and top dry increasing Cd treatment level. The mat formation was not effected by either Cd treatment level or organic matter sources. The effect of peat and
application on Cd uptake by infant rice seeding was not observed at all Cd treatments level.
Stimulation Effect of Early Growth in Crops by Low Dose Radiation
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Song, Hi-Sup ; Kim, Jin-Kyu ; Lee, Young-Keun ; Lee, Young-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 156~159
Germination rate and early growth in crop such as rice,soybean,and perilla were observed after irradiation of
-ray (Co-60) in order to determine the effects of low does radiation. The low dose radiation was able to improve the early growth in crops and their agricultural charaters. Germination rate of 2Gy-irradiatied rice seeds was high and also were seeding height and fresh weight of the 0.5 Gy-irradiated. Germination rate and early growth of soybean were high in 4Gy-irradiated group. Perilla gew ot so promisingly after after low dose irradiation,however there slightly increasing effects on germination rate, seeding height and fresh weightat 2Gt-, 1Gy-, and 1Gy irradiated group, respectively.
Composting of Compostable Household Wastes in a Home Composter without Additives
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ; Lee, Geun-Sun ; Choi, Hyoung-Sub ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 160~163
In this study, the compostable household wastes from a house were composted in a home composter without adding any bulking agent and microorganisms. Every day wastes of 1kg were added to the composter during the experimental period. The following results were obtained : 1. Each component of the compostable household wastes generated every day showed very difference. 2. While composting proceeded at room temperature by suppling 1,1322 l air per hour, the composting material maintained the water content of 74.36
85.14%, whereas while composting proceeded at
by suppling 427 l air per hour, the compost had optimal water content. The electric power of 132kwh a month was required by operating the composting unit at
. 3. During 20 day, decomposition of 28% at room temperature and 44% at
were obtained respectively. 4. The accumulation of inorganic compound contents were not shown during the composting period, However, the content of salt and Cd was very high. Therefore, using the compost for agriculture has to be careful. 5. The biofilter removed the odorous substants efficiently at the room temperature due to increasing surface loading.
Effects of Fly Ash, Gypsum, and Shell on the Chemical Properties of Soil and Growth of Chinese Cabbage in Acidic Soils
Ha, Ho-Sung ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Lee, Hyub ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 164~169
In order to evaluate the utility of the bituminous coal fly ash, gypsum, oyster shell as soil amendments, acid sandy loam soil with low boron content were amended in the upper 15cm with amendments, and then chinese cabbage was cultivated in fall. Amendments treated were, in metric tons per hectare, i ) none(Check) ; ii) 80 fly ash(FA) ; iii) 4shell(SH) ; iv) 56 fly ash+24gypsum (FG) ; v) 40 fiy ash + 24 gypsum +0.8 shell(FGS). On the whole, amendments imoroved soil chemical properties and contents of N, P, K, Ca, and B in leaves. Among treatmens, FA prominently neutralized soil pH and increased available
,B but decreased Fe contents in soils. FGS also affected the increment of exchangeable Ca, Mg, and available B. Yield response in fresh weight of chinese cabbage was in order of 85% for FGS>77% for FG>66% FA>5% for SH plants. Reducing sugar and vitamin-C contents of leaves depending on treatments showed the same tendencies as that in yields, whereas crude fiber opposite to theme. In particular, FA, FG, and FGS plants showed normal growth without boron deficiency symotoms which appeared in Check and SH plants.Taken together, FGS was an effective combination enable to maximize the utility of fly ash, gypsum, and shell as soil amemdments, especially in cabbage yield and quality.
Effect of municipal sewage sludge application on the change of physico-chemical properties and contents of heavy metals in soils
Choi, Jyung ; Chang, Sang-Moon ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Choong-Ryeol ; Park, Seon-Do ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 170~173
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of municipal sludge application on the change of physico-chemical properties and contents of heavy metals in soils. The application of the sludge resulted in increasing the content of total nitrogen, available phosphate,exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and the soil porosity and permeability but soil hardness was reduce. It is clear that application of municipal sewage sludge would not due to increase in the heavy metals content in soil because of the lower concentration of heavy metal in the sludge. Totally it is evident that municipal sewage sludge application should play an important role in improving soil physico-chemical properties.
Seasonal Changes in Colonization and Spore Density of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae in Citrus Groves
Kim, Sang-Youb ; Oh, Hyun-Woo ; Moon, Doo-Khil ; Han, Hae-Ryong ; Chung, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 174~181
In four citrus grow of Satsuma mandarin (rootstock of trifoliate orange) including two grove of organical management and two groves of conventional management, spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi were identified and seasonal changes in spore density in soils and AM colonization of citrus roots were investigated. AM colonization in weeds found in the groves were also examined. Three species of Glomus (G.deserticola, G. vesiculiferum, G. rubiforme ) and one unknown species of Acaulospora were observed in all of the groves. Annual mean density of AM fungal spores were in the range of 10,000
40,000 per 100g soil with more spores in the organically-managed groves. The least spores were observed in December in all groves, and the most spores in April in the organically-managed groves while in February or April in the conventionally- managed. Annual mean AM colonization more 27% of citrus root were observed in the organically-managed with the high peaks in April and October and the minimum in August, while mean colonization less than 15% in the conventionally-managed with the peak in February and the minimum in different times depending on groves and years. AM colonization corresponded to a sigmoidal curve consisting of a laf phase during winter and a subsequent increase in spring, then succeeded by a maximum, and then a decrease at the end of vegetation. Fungal spore density and AM colonization showed a parallel pattern during the sample period. The seasonality appeared to be related more to the phenology of the plant than to the soil factors. Generally more spore density and AM colonization were found in organically managed groves. AM colonization was not correlated with available P and organic matter content in soil in this field investigation. Among sixteen weed species found in the groves, Astrogalus sinicus of Leguminosae, Portulaca oleracea of Portulacaceae showed high colonization in all groves and they can be considered as a source of inoculumn and host plants for propagation of AM fungi.
Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Growth and Mineral Nutrient Contents in Trifoliate Orange Seedling
Oh, Hyun-Woo ; Kim, Sang-Youb ; Han, Hae-Ryong ; Moon, Doo-Khil ; Chung, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 2, 1998, Pages 182~188
The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae(AM) on the growth of trifoliate orange seeding were investigated in volcanic ash soil. Trifoliate orange is used as a root stock of citrus in Cheju island. Seedings innoculated with AM fungi were grown for 16 weeks in pots of various levels of fertilizer. Growth characteristics and mineral nutrient contents were measured and spores of AM fungi colonized were identified. Seventy % of the replicsted pots of seedings were colonized by AM in the treatment of high level fertilizer and additional phosphate (40g of 21-17-17 complex fertilizer and 50g of fused phosphate added to 50L of soil). In treatments of low levels fertilizer or without fused phosphate addition, the pots colonized were less than 20 %. Colonization of trifoliate seedings with AM fungi greatly increased the growth of seedings. Shoot length and weight of shoot and root positively regressed on AM colonization ratio. AM colonization caused higher concentrations of P, Cu and Mg in plant, and the relations were significant at 5 % level. Contents of N and Zn in plants also tended to increase, while that of Ca to decrease, with increasing colonization ratio. Four species of AM fungi - Glomus deserticola, G. rubiforme, G. vesiculiferum and Acaulospora sp, - were found in the soil where roots of trifoliate orange as an innoculation materials were collected. All of the 4 species were found in the inoculated pot soils after the seedling growth, indicating that these species can be colonized in trifoliate orange roots.