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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Residual Effects of Fly Ash, Gypsum, and Shell on Growth and Qualities of Chinese Cabbage in Acidic Soils
Ha, Ho-Sung ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Lee, Hyub ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 189~194
In order to evaluate the residual effects of bituminous coal fly ash, gypsum, oyster shell as soil amendments, Chinese cabbage was cultivated on acidic sandy loam soils with low boron content. The soils were amended in the upper 15cm with amendments in previous year and the growth and qualities of plants were analyzed. Amendments treated one year before were, in metric tons per hectare, i) none(Check) ; ii) 80 fly ash(FA) ; iii) 4 shell(SH) ; iv) 56 fly ash + 24 gypsum (FG) ; v) 40 fly ash + 24 gypsum + 0.8 shell(FGS). Yield response in fresh weight of Chinese cabbage was in order of 834% for FGS > 780% for FG > 755% FA > 193% for SH plants. Reducing sugar, vitamin-C, and total nitrogen contents of leaves depending on treatments showed the same tendencies as that in yields, whereas crude fibre opposite to them. In particular, FA, FG, and FGS plants showed normal growth without both boron deficiency symptoms which appeared in Check and SH plants and possibilities of accumulation of heavy metals. In any soils treated with the above amendments, however, magnesium was insufficient.
RAPD Pattern of Radiation Induced Variants of Oyster Mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus)
Lee, Young-Keun ; Chang, Hwa-Hyoung ; Kim, Won-Rok ; Kim, Jin-Kyu ; Kim, Jae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 195~199
To induce the cellulolytic variants of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), basidiospores were irradiated at the dose of
of gamma-ray. After irradiation, activities of extracellular enzymes were determined by the method of MUF residue and genetic similarity was observed by RAPD analysis of variants. Three variants of 2KG-1, 2KG-2 and 20KG-1 were clarified as highly cellulolytic isolates. It seemed that the difference of genetic similarity among variants have derived from gamma-ray radiation. It is suggested that 3 cellulolytic variants induced by gamma-ray in this experiment could play a useful role to reuse cellulosic bioresources.
Characteristics of Artificial Soils Produced from Sludge
Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ; Kim, Sun-Joo ; Kwun, Tae-Young ; Lee, Nam-Chool ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 200~204
Physical and chemical properties of artificial soil produced by firing process were analyzed and compared with normal dry field soil and soil quality standards. Material used for production was water and wastewater treatment sludge, chabizite, and lime. The mixed material was thermally treated in the firing kiln at about
, respectively, as per designed process. General properties of the artificial soil were classified as sand by unified soil classification method and similar to the dry-field soil, and even soil conditioning effect were expected when it is mixed properly with normal soil. The artificial soil is high in pH and permeability compared to the dry-field soil. Heavy metal concentrations of the artificial soil met the soil quality standards for the farmland. Overall, the artificial soil was thought to be an appropriate soil which can be returned safely to the nature without significant adverse effect. The cost for the artificial soil production process needs to be lowered for practical application as a sludge treatment, therefore, commercializing of the artificial soil is under review.
Survey on the Level of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products
Lee, Dong-Woo ; Yoon, Jae-Hong ; Chang, Ki-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 205~210
This study was carried out for the dietary safety based on the level of pesticide residues in 19 kinds of agricultural products consumed in Kangwon-do, Korea. From April 1995 to December 1997, eight organochlorine pesticides in 673 samples were analyzed by using GLC-ECD. According to the results, one kind of pesticides were detected in 159(23.6%) samples and two kinds were in 24(15.1%). While Chlorobenzilate, Dicofol and Tetradifon were not found. Detection ranges of pesticides were
for Chlorothalonil and 0.033ppm for Captafol. Average residues were 0.006ppm for DDT, 0.009ppm for
, 0.008ppm for
, 0.024ppm for Chlorothalonil and 0.033ppm for Captafol, respectively. Consequently, all of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the analyzed samples were within the maximum residue limits.
Changes of Physico-chemical Soil Properties, Major Soil Nutrient Contents, and Weed Vegetation in Paddy Fields during Fallow Period
Han, Sung-Uk ; Chung, Gap-Chae ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Lee, Hee-Jae ; Guh, Ja-Ock ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 211~214
Changes in physico-chemical properties and major nutrient contents were investigated in the soil of paddy fields during fallow period. Weed vegetation change in the fallow paddy fields was also examined. As the fallow period became longer, organic matter content in the paddy soil has gradually increased. Soil pH of the paddy fields has not changed until three years of fallow period and thereafter slightly increased. Cation exchange capacity of the paddy soil, and exchangeable N, K, Ca and Mg contents in the soil tended to decrease until three years of fallow period and then increase with the prolonged fallow period. As the fallow period became longer, available
content in the paddy soil has continuously decreased. Available
content in the paddy soil has not changed until three years of fallow period and thereafter increased. The vegetation in the fallow paddy fields have mostly been occupied by the weeds of the Gramineae, Cyperaceae, and Compositae. As the fallow period became longer, the weeds of the Polygonaceae and Juncaceae have increased, whereas the weeds of the Leguminosae, Commelinaceae, Pontederiaceae, and Onagraceae have gradually disappeared. However, the weeds of the Gramineae and Cyperaceae have always been dominant in the paddy fields during the fallow paddy period.
Effects of Salt Stress on Photosynthesis, Free Proline Content and Ion Content in Tobacco.
Lee, Sang-Gak ; Shin, Ju-Sik ; Seok, Yeong-Seon ; Bae, Gill-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 215~219
This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of NaCl concentration on photosynthetic rate, free proline content and ion content in tobacco. As NaCl concentration was increased growth was retarded. The decrease growth characteristics(shoot/root ratio was 2.0) at 90mM NaCl indicated that this concentration could be a limiting level. As NaCl concentration was increased photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency were decreased. Photosynthetic rate was highly decreased at 60mM NaCl. There was no significant difference between transpiration rate and water use efficiency. Leaf water potential was decreased as NaCl concentration was increased, in that twice lower at 30mM than that of control and drop largely at 120mM NaCl. Free proline content was increased as NaCl increased until 120mM NaCl and drop at 150mM NaCl. The
contents were increased until NaCl concentration was 120mM. The
content was slowly increased as NaCl concentration increased until 120mM NaCl, and largely increased at 150mM NaCl. There was no significant difference between
and NaCl treatments except 30 mM NaCl in which
content was higher than that of control. As NaCl concentration was increased
ratio was decreased. The negative correlation between
, and positive correlation between
and protein content were found.
A Fluctuation of Soil Microflora in Upland Soil Treated with Metalaxyl, Carbofuran and Simazine
Lee, Wang-Hyu ; Kim, Ju-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 220~226
The effects of metalaxyl(granule), carbofuran(granule) and simazine(water soluble powder) on the soil microflora were conducted at field soil between Iksan and Chonju province. Pesticides were divided into 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 times of normal of field, respectively. The number of fluorescent Pseudomonas was ranged from
in both field soil treated with cabofuran. Pseudomonas concentration of Chonju field soil slowly increased and approached the maximum level at 56 day after treatment(DAT). It showed the higher at 14DAT than other DAT in Iksan field soil treated with metalaxyl or simazine, whereas it increased again at 112 DAT in metalaxyl treatment. Cabofuran treatment of both field soil showed maximum Pseudomonas number at 28 DAT compared to that of other treatments. In Chonju field soil, those Pseudomonads of metalaxyl and simazine treatment increased the highest level at 7 DAT. Simazine treatment decreased it's number from the beginning of experiment. In both soil, metalaxyl treatment decrease the general fungi number at 7 DAT, but increase at 14 and 56 DAT in Iksan field soil. However it increased at 56 DAT in Chonju field soil. Cabofuran treatment of Iksan field soil tended to decrease general fungi number at 28 DAT, but was ranged from 1.0 to
for the rest of experimental period. It started to increase at 56 DAT simazine treatment of Iksan. General bacterial concentration both soil treated with cabofuran was belong to
. It was the highest at 56 DAT, but was not significantly different. General actinomyces number was highly increased at 7 and 112 DAT compared to that of other DAT. Pseudomonas putida or P. fluorescens from both field soil was separated and identified 10 to 30 of all 104 Pseudomonas, respectively. All isolated microorganisms showed chemical resistance of 100ppm metalaxyl, cabofuran and simazine treatment
The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers and Cultural Patterns on Methane Emission From Rice Paddy Fields
Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Kang, Hang-Won ; Kang, Ui-Gum ; Park, Hang-Mee ; Lim, Dong-Kuy ; Park, Kyeng-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 227~233
To mitigate the methane emission from rice paddy fields, effects of nitrogen fertilizers source and cultural patterns were evaluated on silty loam soils. And a pot experiment was carried out to find out the effects of nitrogen fertilizers on soil pH, Eh, sulfate concentration of soil water in flooded soil. In transplanting cultivation, the total methane emission depending on fertilizers was
for urea ;
for ammonium sulfate ;
for coated urea. Methane emitted in direct seeding on dry soil was
for urea ;
for ammonium sulfate : and
for coated urea. Thus, the methane emission rate of direct seeding on dry soil was 29.7% lower than transplanting. According to the nitrogen fertilizers, the methane emission rate by ammonium sulfate and coated urea were reduced 18.4 and 15.9% in comparison with urea, respectively. In pot experiments, pH in flooded soils depending on nitrogen fertilizers dereased in order of urea > coated
fertilizer > ammonium sulfate and the order was coincided with that of total
emission from flooded soil. Soil Eh was highest in ammonium sulfate application followed by coated urea, no fertilizer, urea. And sulfate concentrations of soil water were in order of ammonium sulfate > coated urea > urea > no fertilizer.
Characteristics of Anaerobic Degradation on Dewatered Liquid of Household Food Waste.
Kim, Woo-Sung ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ; Lee, Young-Hyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 234~238
Anaerobic degradation characteristics of dewatered liquid of household food waste including methane conversion efficiency and degradation kinetics were studied in an anaerobic batch reactor of 5 L volume. The ultimate methane production for dewatered liquid of household food waste tested was over 0.31L
liquid of household food waste. The kinetic constant of dewatered liquid of household food waste tested was
. The kinetic behavior of anaerobic degradation was described as a first order series reaction. The determinant of rate-limiting step(DR) that is balanced out from the rates of reaction steps was defined by the logarithmic difference of the maximum acidification rate and the maximum methanation rate. Anaerobic degradation characteristics of organic materials were evaluated by the value of DR. The DR of dewatered liquid of household food waste tested was 1.17.
Transformation of Nitroaromatics and Their Reduced Metabolites by Oxidative Coupling Reaction
Ahn, Mi-Youn ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 239~245
To investigate the formation of bound residue with soil organic materials by oxidative coupling, nitroaromatics and their reduced metabolites, the insecticide parathion and the herbicide asulam were incubated with oxidoreductase, laccase or horseradish peroxidase, in the presence or absence of humic monomers. Most of aminotoluenes and amino-nitrophenols were completely transformed while most of nitrotoluenes and nitrophenols remained unchanged by a lactase or horseradish peroxidase in the presence or absence of humic monomers. Amino-nitrotoluenes were not transformed without humic monomers, but the addition of various humic monomers caused a considerable difference in the transformation of amino-nitrotoluenes by a lactase or horseradish peroxidase. Amino-nitrotoluenes were most transformed in the presence of catechol, syringaldehyde and protocatechuic acid. The insecticide parathion with nitro group and its metabolite were not mostly transformed in the presence or absence of humic monomers. The herbicide asulam with amino group remained unchanged without humic monomers as well, but the stimulating effect on the transformation of asulam was caused by the addition of catechol, syringaldehyde, protocatechuic acid or caffeic acid with a lactase.
Binding Site of Heavy Metals in the Cell of Heavy Metal-Tolerant Microorganisms
Cho, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Lee, Young-Han ; Sohn, Bo-Kyoon ; Jung, Yeun-Kyu ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 246~253
Heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, P. chlororaphis and P. stutzeri which possessed the ability to accumulate cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, respectively, were isolated from industrial wastewaters and mine wastewaters polluted with various heavy metals. The binding sites of heavy metal in the cells were investigated by chemical modification of functional groups the cell walls. To determine the binding sites of heavy metal in the cells, electrochemical charge of amine and carboxyl groups in the cell walls of heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms were chemically modified. Chemical modifications of amine groups did not affect the heavy metal uptake as compared to native cell walls. In contrast, modifications of carboxyl groups drastically decreased heavy metal uptake as compared to native cell walls, and electron microscopy confirmed that the form and structure of the heavy metal uptake were different from those of native cell walls. The results suggested that the carboxyl groups were the major sites of heavy metal uptake in the heavy metal-tolerant microorganism cell.
Effect of Composted Animal Manure Application on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes and Changes of Soil Nutrients
Jun, Dae-Woo ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ; Lee, Young-Bok ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; Moon, Chang-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 254~259
This study was focused on finding out the potential problems associated with organic farming system. The effect of composted animal manures subsequent inoculation of microbes on growth and yield of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'Minicarol') were examined to develop a proper organic farming practice. Plant heights were greater in composted manure treatment than in conventional practice, whereas widths of leaves were higher in conventional field. Chlorophyll contents between various amount of composted manure application were gradually decreased and showed no significant differences after 45 days of planting. The yield in the treatment applied 12 ton of composted animal manure per 10a as pre-planting fertilizer and following microbial inoculation were only 50-60% compared to that of conventional farming. However, yield increased up to 80% when additional composts were applied to the treatment received 6 ton of composted animal manure per 10a in the middle of cultivation. Microbial inoculation followed by composted manure application induced rapid decrease of nitrogen content in soil. However, the density of microorganisms was significantly increased. Tomatoes produced through organic farming were clear in color, Further, soluble solid and acid content were increased. The highest level of acid and solids were observed in the treatment applied 12 ton of digested swine manure per 10a. Although nitrogen content including ammonium and nitrate rapidly increased after application of composts, these were significantly reduced approximately 4-5 weeks after planting. The level of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium showed gradual decrease compared to nitrogen.
Effects of Aeration on Biological Activities During Composting of Dairy Manure in Enclosed BenchScale Reactor
Kang, Hang-Won ; Zhang, R.H. ; Park, Hyang-Mee ; Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Rhee, In-Koo ; Park, Kyeong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 260~267
This experiment used the enclosed bench-scale reactors of 242 liters was conducted to obtain basic data on temporal and spatial variations in temperature, oxygen and moisture content, which were important factors of biological activities, during composting of mixture of dairy manure and rice straw. The reactors with thermocouples, oxygen sensor and datalogger were aerated at four different rates of 0.09, 0.18, 0.90 and 1.79 l
. The higher aeration rates were, the faster the rates of increase and decrease in composting temperature were in both of initial and turnover stage, and the smaller the temperature difference between exhaust air and composting materials. Composting temperature of initial stage increased suddenly in all aeration rates, then stationary phase of temperature in materials and exhaust air showed at
for 5 hours and at
between 5 and 15 hours, respectively. In initial stage the maximum temperature was decreased with increasing aeration rates but in the stage after turnover it was the opposite except for 1.79 l
. Time arrived at the maximum temperature of composting materials was later in low-aeration rates than high-aeration rates at both stages. Time maintained high-temperature more than
was rapidly decreased with increasing aeration rates. In initial stage of composting maintaining time of
or more was the longest in the treatments of 0.09 and 0.18 l
, while those of
was in 0.90 and 1.79 l
, respectively. The minimum oxygen content and the maximum oxygen consumption rate in exhaust air through composting materials showed the increased trends with increasing aeration rates. In initial stage the minimum oxygen content was ranged from 0.9% to 7.4% for 32 to 59.5 hours and the maximum oxygen consumption rate was
. In the stage after turnover their levels were
g/h-㎏ VS, respectively, for 16 to 49.5 hours.
Losses of Chemical Components by Infiltration Water during the Rice Cultivation at Silt Loam Paddy soil
Han, Kang-Wan ; Cho, Jae-Young ; Son, Jae-Gwon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 268~273
Changes of chemical component and losses of chemical fertilizer by infiltration water from 0.5ha of paddy field in Chinan area of Chonbuk province during the rice cultivation were investigated. The infiltration water samples were collected in a ceramic porous cup which was a buried at the 30, 50, 70, 90㎝ of soil depth. pH of infiltration water ranged
and EC showed
S/cm. The content of total-N,
respectively. The content of total-P and ortho-P were
The content of
. These all at the first transplanting are higher than that of other periods. The content of
and decreased with a soil depth. However
of infiltration water ranged
and no difference with a soil depth. When infiltrated
of an infiltration water from 0.5ha of paddy field during the rice cultivation, losses of chemical components were 20.34㎏/㏊ of total-N, 3.54㎏/㏊ of
, 10.44㎏/㏊ of
, 0.16㎏/㏊ of total-P and 0.028㎏/㏊ of ortho-P. Also
were lost 10.24, 2.84, 2.84, 7.22, 50.04 and 62.20㎏/㏊ respectively. There were lost by infiltration water 9.35% of nitrogen, 0.59% of phosphorous and 22.79% of potassium in applied chemical fertilizer.
Effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and yield components of chinese cabbage
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Kim, Jin-Kyu ; Lee, Young-Keun ; Back, Myung-Wha ; Gim, Jeong-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 274~278
To observe the stimulating effects of low-dose
on the Chinese cabbage,
years old seeds were cultivated in the green house and the experimental field after irradiation of
and the growth characters of them were investigated. The germination rates and the seedling heights of old seeds increased positively in the green house, but different from each other depending on their period of storage. Those of 3-, 4-, and 5-year old seeds increased remarkably at the 4.0Gy-, 1.0Gy-, and 0.5Gy-irradiation group respectively. However, in the case of 1-year and 2-year old seeds, there were not significant effects of irradiation except the increase of seedling height. There were significant increasing effects of radiation on the plant height, fresh weight, and diameter of all seeds grown in the experimental field of 4.0Gy- and 8.0Gy-irradiation group, including the corresponding effects of 1-year and 2-year old seeds in 20.0Gy- and 30.0Gy-irradiation group.
Screening of Organo Phosphorus Insecticide Fenitrothion-Degrading Microorganisms
Choi, Hyuek ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Bae, Do-Yong ; Lee, Young-Deuk ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 3, 1998, Pages 279~285
Fenitrothion-degrading microorganisms were isolated from 124 sampling sites of paddy, upland, forest and polluted soil, and wastewater. A total of 1,071 strains were isolated from each selective medium supplemented with 50mg/l of fenitrothion - nutrient agar (NA) 601, potato dextrose agar (PDA) 201, Actinomycetes isolation agar (AIA) 168 and basal salt medium (BSM) 101, respectively. Twenty-eight effective strains of them, which showed more than 80% degradation of fenitrothion by the gasliquid chromatography(GLC) analysis. were successfully selected from each liquid culture supplemented with 50mg/l of fenitrothion - NB 12(upland soil 3, paddy soil 3, forest soil 2, polluted soil 4), PDB 8(upland soil 1, paddy soil 2, forest soil 2, polluted soil 3) and PSB 8(upland soil 1, forest soil 1, polluted soil 6), respectively. Four strains - NPal, NFol, PFol and BPol, which have the most powerful degradation activity were finally selected among 28 fenitrothion-degrading microorganisms based on the degradation rate at the concentration of 100mg/l fenitrothion in enrichment media.