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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Effect of Municipal Sewage Sludge Application on the Contents of Heavy Metals Content in Paeonia abliflora Pall Root
Choi, Jyung ; Chang, Sang-Moon ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Choong-Lyeal ; Park, Seon-Do ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 287~290
This study was conducted to find out the effect of municipal sewage sludge application on the yield and the heavy metal content in Paeonia abliflora Pall root. When the municipal sewage sludge was applied to the soil, the yields and growth of Paeonia abliflora Pall increased, and the contents of T-N, P in soils increased, while there is no difference in contents of heavy metals and inorganic materials in roots. Therefore, it is apparent that the contents of heavy metals in roots of paeonia abliflora Pall would not due to increase with the municipal sewage sludge application.
Composition of Chemical Components and Amount of Natural Supplies by Precipitation in Chinan Area of Chonbuk Province
Han, Kang-Wan ; Cho, Jae-Young ; Son, Jae-Gwon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 291~295
Changes of chemical components and natural supplies by precipitation at agricultural zone in Chinan area of Chonbuk province from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998 were investigated. pH of precipitation ranged
and EC showed
, NH4-N and NO3-N were
respectively. The content of total-P showed
but ortho-P was not detected. The content of suspended solid,
. The content of SO42- and Cl- showed
respectively. Only Cu and Zn of heavy metals were detected
but Cd, Cu, Ni and Cr were not detected. Natural supplies of chemical components were 39.48㎏/ha/yr of total-N, 21.82㎏/ha/yr of
, 6.90㎏/ha/yr of
and 0.68㎏/ha/yr of total-P. Also
were supplied 14.46, 5.00, 7.26, 5.46, 98.76 and 31.16㎏/ha/yr respectively. Only of heavy metals were supplied 0.024㎏/ha/yr of Cu and 0.044㎏/㏊/yr of Zn.
Effects of Salt Stress on Protein Content, ATPase and Peroxidase Activities in Tobacco.
Lee, Sang-Gak ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Lee, Hak-Su ; Bae, Gill-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 296~300
The analysis of biochemical changes in tobacco plant as increase of NaCl concentraion was conducted. Total protein content and soluble protein content were decreased as NaCl concentration was increased, in that steady decreased until 120mM NaCl and largely decreased at 150mM NaCl. The expression of 74Kd subunit was increased until 60mM NaCl. However, the amount of 74Kd protein was decreased from 90mM NaCl. There was no difference for expression of other protein subunits. Chlorophyll a content was significantly decrease as NaCl concentration was increased, but chlorophyll b content was not much decreased. The slow increase up to 120mM NaCl and large increase at 150mM NaCl for ATPase and peroxidase activities indicated that 120mM NaCl could be a limiting concentration for salt injury.
Comparison of Liquid Composting Efficiency using Liquid Pig Manure in Different Condition
Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Cho, Nam-Jun ; Jeong, Yee-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 301~305
This study was conducted to evaluate the liquid composting efficiency using pig manure in different condition such as simple storage type reactor, continuous aeration reactor, anaerobic reactor and anaerobic agitation reactor. Continuous aeration reactor was the most efficiency method to BOD and malodors removal than other methods. While nitrogen loss in continuous aeration reactor was 47% of initial concentration, which was the higher amount than any other digestion methods. The digestion efficiency between anaerobic reactor and anaerobic agitation reactor were similar, but E. coli and malodor removal efficiency were a little higher in the anaerobic agitation reactor. Simple storage type reactor which was conventional digestion method in rural area gave lower efficiency than aerobic and anaerobic digestion methods in view of BOD, E. coli and malodor removal. The liquid composting efficiency which were evaluated by various indicators like pH, BOD, E, coli, malodor and nitrogen loss was high in the order of anaerobic agitation reactor>continuous aeration reactor>anaerobic reactor>simple storage type reactor.
Effects of Soluble Silicon and Several surfactants on the Development of Powdery Mildew of Cucumber
Cho, Il-Chan ; Lee, Sung-Hee ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 306~311
Effects of soluble silicon and surfactants on the development of powdery mildew of cucumber were tested for environmentally safe powdery mildew control. Tested soluble silicon was potassium silicate
and tested commercial surfactants were Jeonchakje, Silhouette, Kaba, and Tween 20. Tested concentrations were 2, 4, 8, 16mM for the soluble silicon, 0.5 and 1.0% for Tween 20, 0.05 and 0.1% for both Jeonchakje and Kaba, and 0.03 and 0.07% for Silhouette. Water dilutions of tested materials were sprayed on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves once a week for 4 weeks. From 3 days after the second spray, the diseased area and the numbers of fungal colony were measured from the treated leaves for 6 times at 3-4 days interval. Powdery mildew was less severe on treated cucumber compared to distilled water-treated cucumber (check). In all treatments, diseased area index was proportional to the number of the fungal colony. At the end of investigation, there was severe powdery mildew on check cucumbers. Average 30% of a leaf was colonized by powdery mildew fungus and the average number of the fungal colony per leaf reached to more than 70. On the other hand, none of the treated cucumber suffered severe powdery mildew. The treatments including 8 and 16mM of soluble silicon, doubled concentration of Kaba, and 0.5 and 1.0% of Tween 20 showed more than 80% of control effect compared to water-treated cucumber. In addition, no phytotoxicity was found. Potassium silicate and Tween 20 showed the possibility to replace chemical pesticides for the control of powdery mildew.
Study on the Potential of Phytoremediation using Wild Plants for Heavy Metal Pollution
Kang, Byeung-Hoa ; Shim, Sang-In ; Lee, Sang-Gak ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Chung, Il-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 312~318
The potentials of some Korean wild plants as a phytoremediator for cleaning heavy metal pollution were measured. Several plant species, Ambrosia trifida, Brassica juncea, Rumex crispus, and Abutilon theophrasti screened previously for phytoremediator were treated with cadmium and copper solution. In order to know the growth response to heavy metal stress, the plants were cultivated in hydroponic system containing heavy metals with different concentration. To know the effects of heavy metals on emergence and seedling growth, seeds of 4 species were sown in the pot and watered with heavy metal solution adjusted pH to 6.5, 5.5, and 4.5. A proposed species as potential phytoremediator, A. trifida, showed tolerance to
Cu in nutrient solution without apparent growth reduction, and up to
Cu without critical visual injury. Up to 311mg/kg of Cd and 369mg/kg were accumulated in dried aerial part in A. trifida. In contrast, A. theophrasti showed injury at
Cu. Significant differences were shown in Cu accumulation among the four species. A. trifida had much higher concentrations of Cd in the shoot, whereas R, crispus accumulated higher concentrations of Cd in the shoot. Testing plant species showed reduced emergence rate with heavy metal treatment. When pH was lowered, the emergence and seedling growth were affected severely with heavy metal. We can suggested that A. trifida was the most proper species for phytoremediation in heavy metal-polluted regions.
Properities and Effects of Utilizable Materials for Organic Farming in Rice
Moon, Young-Hun ; Oh, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Joung-Sik ; Na, Jong-Seong ; Han, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 319~323
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects and properties of organic materials, the fermented fowl droppings composts and the top viviparous malleatuses, utilizable for rice farming. At the 35th day after transplanting, the growth of rice plants was good in the order of organic farming, combined farming, conventional farming, and control plot. But stem number and dry weight of rice plant in organic farming decreased a little compared to those in conventional farming at the 65th day after transplanting. Rice yield decreased by 7% in organic farming and by 4% in combined farming compared to those of conventional farming. Weeding effect by inoculation of 5kg or 10kg of the top viviparous malleatuses per 10a was similarly 96% at the immediately inoculation after transplanting, 98.6% at the 7th days inoculation after transplanting and 70% at the 15th days inoculation after transplanting. By inoculation of 5kg per 10a at the 7th day and the 15th day after transplanting, rice yields decreased by 2% and 5%, respectively, compared to those of the conventional farming method. From the above results, it seems that the organic farming and the combined farming are useful and the inoculation of the top viviparous malleatuses is effective for control of weeds as the environmental preservation farming.
The Effects of Steam Explosion Treatment on Composting Process with Rice and Barley Straw
Choi, Jyung ; Heo, Sung-Woon ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Choong-Lyeal ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 324~328
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of steam explosion treatment on composting with rice straw and barley straw. The composting was performed under the condition of
, water content 70%, C/N ratio 30, and aeration of 100ml/min. The content of cellulose, lignin, and total carbon of compost were increased by steam explosion. During composting process total nitrogen of the compost from rice straw and steam exploded rice straw increased by
percent, whereas that from steam exploded barley straw increased by 1.7 percent. However total nitrogen of compost from barley straw decreased by 0.41 percent. Therefore, barley straw is a kind of difficulty material for composting, but the composting was proceeded easily by steam explosion treatment, compared to raw barley straw.
Attached Treatment using Combined Septic Tank and Soil Filter of Treated Livestock and Farm House Wastewater
Kim, Eun-Ho ; Park, Hyun-Geoun ; Sung, Nak-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 329~334
This study was conducted in order to investigate removal rate of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus to reduce environmental polluation with treatment to attach combined septic tank to 3 stage soil filter after mixing anaerobic treated water of livestock wastewater and low concentrated wastewater generated in farm house. Because anaerobic filter bed was packed in combined septic tank and a microorganism was accumulated in combined septic tank with increasing hydraulic retention time(HRT), if HRT
, CODcr was removed
, respectively. In being re-treated by 3 stage soil filter, although hydraulic loading rate was gradually increased, CODcr,
were removed above 90% due to filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, and action of soil microorganism. Generally, the attached treatment of combined septic tank and 3 stage soil filter did suitably treat livestock wastewater to water standard of discharge applied from '96 year, in view of decreasing pollution loading amount and recycling of agricultural water.
Growth and Histological Characteristics of Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) Seedling to NaCl Stress
Cho, Jin-Woong ; Kim, Choong-Soo ; Lee, Sok-Young ; Park, Ki-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 335~340
This study was conducted to determine the morphological responses of barley seedlings to NaCl stress and to investigate histological changes of cells with transmission electron microscope(TEM) after NaCl stress. Plant height and root length of 10-day old barley seedlings with NaCl stress were reduced and inhibition level was found to be more severe in the plant height than in the root length. The leaf length, leaf width and leaf area were shorter as well with NaCl stress than without NaCl stress. However, there was no difference in the number of roots between NaCl treatments. The weight of dry matter decreased at higher NaCl concentrations, especially at 100mM NaCl. The water content of shoots tend to decrease at higher NaCl concentrations, but there was no difference in the water content of roots, The reduced sugar content was greatly increase than starch. Cellulose content was higher in NaCl stressed-plant than control, and tended to decreased at higher NaCl concentrations. Lignin content also decreased NaCl stressed-plant but there was no tendency at NaCl stress concentrations. Electric conductivity of cell sap with seedlings was high with NaCl stressed-plant. Amount of cell sap gradually increased with time in the roots than in the shoots, The grana of chloroplasts was changed by 150mM NaCl concentration. The christe of mitochondria in root meristematic sells ruined in structure and cell wall of leaf and root was also ruined by NaCl stress.
Chemical Properties of Soil Solution under Larix leptolepis, Pinus koraiensis, and Quercus mongolica Stands
Ryu, Soung-Ryoul ; Son, Yo-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 341~345
Soil solutions were collected by zero-tension lysimeters at Kwangju, Kyunggi Province to estimate differences in ion concentration among species and horizons. Zero-tension lysimeters were installed in O, A, and B horizons in Larix leptolepis, Pinus koraiensis, and Quercus mongolica stands. Soil solution samples were collected from September 1996 through August 1998 and analyzed for
. The experimental site had high nitrogen loading from the atmosphere, and
was positively correlated with
showed a positive correlation only in the O horizon of Q. mongolica stand. Mg^(2+) deficit in the soil was predicted owing to the positive relationship of
. Concentrations of
in soil solution were estimated higher in L. leptolepis than in other stands because of high leaching from the plant. Concentration of
in soil solution was negatively correlated with soil solution pH. Mean soil solution pH of A and B horizons in P. koraiensis was lower than 4.7, however the
concentration was lower than the toxic level to plants.
The Acceleration of Germination in Welsh Onion Seed Irradiated with the Low Dose
Lee, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Young-Keun ; Lee, Young-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 346~351
To investigate the hormetic effects of the low dose
radiation on the germination rate, Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L. cv. Eunchun and cv. Sukchangwoidae) seeds were irradiated at the dose of
Gy with the
radiation (Co-60). The germination rate of 'Eunchun' cultivar increased about 10% in the low dose
irradiation group compared with that of the control. In the 'Sukchangwoidae' cultivar, the germination rate of the 4 Gy irradiation group increased 40% more than that of the control. Broadly, it seemed that the hormetic effects of the low-dose
radiation were taken more promisingly in the uncultivated soil than in the fertile soil. The germination rate from the paper towel and filter paper based cultivation increased 10% and 16% more, respectively, in the 1 Gy irradiation group than that in the control group. And the electric conductivities of the above groups supposed to be taken hormetic effects of the
radiation were lower than those of the control group. From the above results, it is suggested that the low dose
radiation ranged from 1 Gy to 10 Gy could have the hormetic effects on the germination rate related characters in Welsh onion seeds.
Influence of N-P-K Nutrient Levels on Ozone Susceptibility of Tomato Plants
Ahn, Joo-Won ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 352~357
This experiment was conducted to find out the effects of major nutrient levels(N, P, K) on ozone susceptibility of tomato plants(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. Pink Glory). Plants were grown in water culture system. A half-strength of Hoagland's nutrient solution was considered as a standard formulation(
). The levels of major nutrients were adjusted through addition or removal of several fertilizer salts from the standard solution. Top growth was significantly decreased at the low nitrogen level or phosphorus removal condition. P- and K-contents of leaves were greatly decreased by removal of salts containing P and K from the nutrient solution. The rate of ozone injury was significantly increased when potassium was removed. However, the influence of nitrogen and phosphorus levels or high potassium level on injury occurrence did not show statistical significance compared to the standard solution. Ozone exposure resulted in reduction of chlorophyll, and increase of ethylene production, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde(MDA) contents. These changes were much more enhanced in plants grown at the potassium removal solution. Whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) was low at the potassium removal treatment and this tendency remained after ozone exposure. These results indicated that potassium nutrient level in tomato plants is closely associated with the susceptibility to ozone injury.
Studies on Short Term Hardening Method of Tree Seedlings for Afforestation of Cut-Rock Slope
Hong, Sung-Gak ; Kim, Jong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 358~361
This study was carried out to develop a short term hardening method of tree seedlings of Rhus chinensis Mill., Evodia daniellii Hemsley and Parthenocissus tricuspidata(Sieb. et Zucc.) Planck for afforestation on a concave and a crack of cut-rock slope. The seedlings were grown in a cylinder shaped pot made of polyvinyl net with the soil media of peatmoss, vermiculite, clay, compost, fertilizer, and absorbant(40:25:19:15:1:0.1, v:v). They were cultivated in a greenhouse for four months and in field condition for two months. During the last three months of the growing period the seedlings were hardened by periodic desiccation and irrigation in 4 to 10 days interval. The hardened seedlings showed lower leaf water potential, higher leaf osmotic pressure, and lower T/R ratio than those before the hardening. The hardened seedlings survived well on the soil medium in the concave of cut-rock slope.
Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Mineral Nutrient Movement in Soil
Ryu, Kwan-Shig ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 362~367
To investigate the effects of simulated acid rain(SAR) on the downward movement of mineral nutrients, SARs of different pH were applied to the soil. SAR of pH 2.0 decreased the soil pH greatly, while SAR of pH 4.0 and 6.0 did not change the soil pH to compare to that of SAR of pH 2.0. Decrease in soil pH was in the order of sandy loam > loam > clay loam. The amoumt of leached exchangeable and soluble bases from the soil due to the penetration of SAR was in the order of Ca >Mg > K. After application of 1200mm SAR of pH 2.0 in to the soil downward mean movements of the exchangeable and soluble bases was in the order of Mg > Ca > K in sandy loam and loam soil and Ca > Mg > K in clay loam soil. Downward movements of the those bases under pH 4.0 into the soil was in the order of Mg > K > Ca in sandy loam and clay loam, and K > Mg > Ca in loam soil. Available phosphorus moved slightly downward with increasing acidity of the SAR.
Radiation Sterilization Dose of Biowastes
Lee, Young-Keun ; Chang, Hwa-Hyoung ; Han, Gab-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Kyu ; Kim, Jae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 368~370
In order to determine the optimal radiation dose for the sterilization of biowastes, the bioburden, frequencies and radiosensitivities of bacteria, mold and fungi in rice straw, chaff, corn stover and sawdust was observed before and after
irradiation. Radiation sterilization dose of rice straw, chaff, com stover and sawdust was calculated as 17.7, 17.6, 15.6 and 20.0kGy, respectively, from the mutual compensation of screening dose and derived dose on the basis of
SAL. This method could be acceptable for the sterilization of various biowastes including food, pharmaceuticals, etc.
Environmental Impacts and Rapid Analysis by Biosensors of Agrochemicals in Korea and Australia
Lim, Soo-Kil ; Kennedy, I.R. ; Lee, Sung-Eun ; Jeong, Chang-Yoon ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 17, issue 4, 1998, Pages 371~378
Pesticide has played important role in Korean and Austrailian agriculture. In addition, pesticides are the most reliable tools pests in agriculture. Recently, it is highly recommended that the use of pesticide should be concerned with both atricultural and environmental aspect, also legislation on environmental contamination has been fortified to the world. Particularly, the attention on agrochemicals has been focused on the soil abuse and the water contamination at present time. In spite of this kind of concern, a few research about pesticides using in Australia and Korean have been conducted to their behaviors under australian and korean environment to avoid environmental contamination by pesticides. Thus, the research organizations need facilities to analyze the characteristics of each pesticide and the environmental fate of pesticides. The conventional analytical method to detect pesticides and their metabolites can not be overcome to reduce time, expenditure, and complexity of analysis even though the methods are accurate and precise. For example, High performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC) used until now are less choice detectors and often lower sensitive. In contrast to the conventional analytical methods, biosensors are so fast in analysis and has high productivity and analyze multi=sample simultaneously. Therefore, it is biosensing analytical method that we could consider as an alternative method intead of the conventional methods.