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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Reduction of Nutrient Infiltration by Supplement of Organic Matter in Paddy Soil
Roh, Kee-An ; Kim, Pil-Joo ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Ahn, Yoon-Soo ; Yun, Seong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 196~203
To establish the best rice cultivating system in the aspects of environment-loving agriculture, the amounts and patterns of nitrogen leached in the paddy soil were investigated with 7 treatments; Recommendation(R), Farmer's usual practice(FUP), Straw compost+chemical fertilizers reduced(SCF), Fresh straw+recommendation(FSC), Fresh cow manure(FCM), Cow manure compost(CMC), and no fertilization as Control(C). And SCF, FCM and CMC were applied with same amounts of total nitrogen to R. The infiltrated water samples were collected in ceramic porous cups which were buried at 60cm depth from the top. Concentrations of nitrate-N in irrigated water were
on rice transplanting season when nutrients began to elute from paddy soil, and
after breaking off irrigation. But it was
in rice growing period. The maximum concentration of nitrate-N in leachate was not more than
during rice cultivation. The amounts of nitrogen leached in R, FUP, SCF, FSR, FCM, CMC and C were 59, 63, 25, 41, 24, 27,
respectively. Nitrogen leaching was decreased to about 30% by supplement of fresh rice straw(FSC) to R. Furthermore, it was possible to reduce to over 50% of nitrogen leaching by reducing chemical fertilizer application(CF), or by substituting of chemical fertilizers with fresh cow manure(FCM) or cow manure compost(CMC). In added organic fertilizer treatments, the amounts of infiltrated nitrogen were less
than that of input by irrigation. This experiment showed that nutrients leaching was minimized by substitution of chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizer or by application of straw with chemical fertilizers in rice paddy soil and rice cultivation with suitable fertilizer management can work as a purifier rather than contaminator of water.
Chemical Composition of Rainwater in Taean Area
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Jung, Yee-Keun ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 204~208
This study was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of rainwater in Taean area. The rainwater way collected for six months from May to Octotber in 1998, and analyzed its chemical composition. The ion balance and electric conductivity balance showed confidence to chemical analyses of rainwater. Distribution rates of pH of rainwater in Taean area were 43% and 38% in the range of pH
, respectively. Among the 1mm fraction for initial 5mm of rainfall, ion concentration of initial rainwater (less than 1mm of rain) was higher than those of the later terms. The major ions in rainwater were
for cations, and
for anions. The pH value of rainwater showed the lowest level of 4.3 in August. The ratio of non-sea salt
Packing Tower Design of Waste Oyster Shells using Bohart-Adams Equation
Kim, Eun-Ho ; Kim, Seok-Taek ; Kim, Il-Bae ; Kim, Hyeong-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 209~214
Objective of the research is to estimate neutralization capacity and to determine practical running parameters required in packing tower design of waste oyster shells using Bohart-Adams equation. It is expected that waste oyster shells are able to be recycled for removal of heavy metals through neutralization of plating wastewater because those contain approximate 93%
. By applying the results of the continuous experiment to Bohart-Adams equation, service time decreases in the order of Cr>Fe>Cu, while removal efficiencies of metals become less in the order of Fe>Cr>Cu.
Behaviour of Fungicide
in Rice Plant Grown-Lysimeter Soil
Kim, In-Seon ; Suh, Yong-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 215~220
Behaviour of a fungicide
was investigated in a rice plant grown-lysimeter soil. The lysimeter was composed of soil cores of silty clay.
propiconazole was applied on the surface of lysimeter soil at a rate of 0.12kg/10a after rice transplanting. The application was done consecutively for two years. The behaviours of propiconazole in the lysimeter soil were investigated by measuring the amounts of
, the residues distributed in each soil segment and taken up by rice plants. The relative amounts of
leached from the lysimeter were the background level of the applied
throughout expeiment. The amounts of
evolved from the lysimeter were 5.7 and 7.8% of the original
in the 1st and 2nd treatment, respectively. The amounts of volatile substances soil were the background level throughout experiment, which indicated that propiconazole was stable chemically in the experimental condition. The
absorbed and translocated into rice plants were 3.7 and 7.6% in 1st and 2nd treatment, respectively. The
in the soil layer of the lysimeter was distributed mainly in the depth of 0 to 20cm, which suggested propiconazole did not have the risk of groundwater contamination.
Natural Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extracted from Bovine Bile ; Biological Effects and Characterization
Shim, Jae-Han ; Park, Myung-Woo ; Lim, Kye-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 221~228
This study was carried out to extract the natural antioxidants from Bovine bile and to investigate their effects on various antioxidant activities. It also characterized the patterns of antioxidants by GC/FID and GC/MS. The antioxidative activities and chemical structure of the antioxidant were elucidated by examining the effects of biological activity and the analysis of GC/MS. The antioxidant materials extracted from bovine bile were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and TLC. It was confirmed that there were effects of antioxidants such as Xanthine Oxidase(XO) and Glutathione-S-Transferase(GSH-T) on antioxidative activities. When they were compared with BHT, bile extracts showed the relative effects of 51.2% on the antioxidant activity, the inhibition effects of 48.3% on XO activity, and the synergism effects of 85.7% on the GSH-T activity. According to the results of investigation at neuron cell of mouse, the rate of cell activity in the treatment of 6mM glutathione was 96%, While it in the treatment of 140mg of bile extract was 78%. Based on the TLC analysis of EtOAc extracts from the Bovine bile, the antioxidant activity appeared at
value, 0.72. These results suggested that the antioxidant may be coprostan 3-ol.
Difference of Growth and Yield among Rice Cultivars and Direct Seeding Methods as Affected by Yearly Variation Weather
Choi, Weon-Young ; Kang, Si-Yong ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 229~235
To identify the differences on plant growth and yield of two rice cultivars among direct water-seeding methods broadcasting on flooded paddy surface(BF), drilling on flooded paddy surface(DF), and puddled-soil drill seeding(PD) under markedly different weather condition between 1995 and 1996. The mean air temperature for duration from May to June, early growth stage of rice in 1995 was lower
than that in normal or 1996. In 1995 the respiratory consumption index during panicle formation stage and early ripening stage was higher than those of in 1996 or normal year. Number of seedling stand among the methods of direct seeding rice appeared slightly higher in order of BF>DF>PD. Properly in Nonganbyeo, the number of seedling stand was much low in 1995 compared with in 1996. The leaf area index and shoot dry weight at early growth stage of rice plant and culm length at mature in 1995 were larger in direct water seeding rice than those of machanical transplanting rice, but in 1996. Faster ripening speed and shorter ripening period of rice crop appeared in 1996 compared to in 1995. It was due to higher growing degree-days, sunshine hours and solar radiation during rice growing season in 1996. Dongjinbyeo rice showed higher yield than Nonganbyeo which had lower ripened grains especially in 1995.
The Effect of Reclaimed Sewage Irrigation on the Rice Cultivation
Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ; Kwun, Soon-Kuk ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Kwon, Tae-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 236~244
A feasibility study was performed to examine the agronomic application of treated sewage on paddy rice culture by field experiment. The domestic sewage was treated by the constructed wetland system which was in subsurface flow type and consisted of sand and macrophyte. The effluent of the wetland system was adjusted to maintain the total nitrogen concentration below
and used for irrigation water. Four treatments include (1) irrigation of treated sewage after concentration adjusted with conventional fertilization (TWCF), (2) irrigation of treated sewage after concentration adjusted with half of the conventional fertilization (TWHF), (3) irrigation of treated sewage after concentration adjusted without fertilization (TWNF), and (4) irrigation of treated sewage as it was without fertilization (SWNF). These cases were compared to the control case of tap water irrigation with conventional fertilization (Control). Generally, addition of the treated sewage to the irrigation water showed no adverse affect on paddy rice culture, and even improvement was noticed in both growth and yields. TWCF showed the best result and the yields exceed the Control in about 10%. Overall performance of the treatments was TWCF, Control, TWHF, TWNF, and SWNF in decreasing order. From this study, it appears that reuse of treated sewage as a supplemental irrigation water could be feasible and practical alternative for ultimate sewage disposal which often causes water quality problem to the receiving water body. For full scale application, further study is recommended on the specific guidelines of major water quality components and public health.
Influence of Artificial Acid Rain on the Growth of Soybean Irradiated with Low Dose Gamma Radiation
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Young-Keun ; Lee, Young-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 245~249
This study was carried out to investigate the influence of artificial acid rain on the growth of soybean irradiated with the low dose gamma radiation. The growth patterns of Hwangkumkong and Bangsakong were not dependent on the acid rain treatment and the period of seed storage but the radiation dose. In Hwangkumkong, the optimal irradiation dose for the growth promotion was lower in the acid rain treatment group than the control group. The symptom of acid rain damage appeared broadly around pH 2.20, were higher in Hwangkumkong than in Bangsakong, and were more effective in the seeds of 1997 than 1995. But the damage symptom of Bangsakong was not dependent on the acid rain treatment and the irradiation of gamma radiaiton.
Distribution of Heavy metals in Soil at Iksan 2nd Industrial Complex Area
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Moon, Kwang-Hyun ; Jang, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 250~258
The purpose of this study was to compare heavy metal concentrations in uncontaminated soil with those in soil influenced by industrial activities, and to investigate the relationship between change of heavy metal content and the kind of industry at the Iksan 2nd Industrial Complex that has started since 1995. Soils sampled in 0-3 cm and 3-6 cm soil depth, respectively were analized for content of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The content of Cd in soil layer of 0 to 3 cm was 0.07-4.37ppm range, average concentration was 0.516ppm and 3-6 cm was 0.07-8.52ppm range, average concentration was 0.380ppm. Area of the chemicals, dyes and metal products manufacturing were higher than the other manufacturing area in Industrial Complex. The content of Cu in soil layer of 0 to 3 cm was 0.61-42.62ppm range, average concentration was 11.087ppm and 3-6 cm was 0.16-35.45ppm range, average concentration was 7.578ppm. Area of the metal products manufacturing were higher than the other manufacturing area in Industrial Complex. The content of Ni in soil layer of 0 to 3 cm was 0.19-15.93ppm range, average concentration was 5.525ppm and 3-6 cm was 0.39-15.59ppm range, average concentration was 5.310ppm. Area of the metal and chemical products manufacturing were higher than the other manufacturing area in Industrial Complex. The content of Pb in soil layer of 0 to 3 cm was 3.10-55.75ppm range, average concentration was 23.543ppm and 3-6 cm was 3.35-46.55ppm range, average concentration was 19.198ppm. Area of the chemicals and metal products manufacturing were higher than the other manufacturing area in Industrial Complex. The content of Zn in soil layer of 0 to 3 cm was 26.50-943.00ppm range, average concentration was 158.329ppm and 3-6 cm was 35.45-882.45ppm range, average concentration was 127.914ppm. Area of the chemicals and metal products manufacturing were higher than the other manufacturing area in Industrial Complex. As the result, this study was to compare Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn average concentration in uncontaminated soil of world with those in soil, that Cu, Ni were uncontaminated concentration level, Cd was somewhat higher compare with the concentration level of world, Pb and Zn were very higher. Soil contaminated degree of Iksan 2nd Industrial Complex was known a difference by type of industrial activities(chemical, dyes and metal of products)
Ozone-induced Alterations in the Activities of Enzymes in Soybean Leaves
Kang, Sang-Jae ; Park, Woo-Churl ; Kim, Bok-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 259~264
This experiment was carried out to investigate the changes of antioxidant enzymes activities in soybean leaves, exposed to 0.2ppm of ozone. We have investigated whether Eunhakong and Samnamkong may scavenge ozone induced activated oxygen species by invoking antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase(APOX), glutathione reductase(GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase(MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase(DHAR). Ozone exposure preferentially increased APOX, GR and MDHAR activities, whereas that of DHAR only decreased slowly. When soybean plans were fumigated with 0.2ppm of ozone, the levels of ascorbate and reduced glutathione decreased within a few hours. In eunhakong, which has, slightly a strong tolerance to ozone, was found to have higher antioxidants levels than samnamkong. However, there was no remarkable difference two cultivars in the activities of enzymes which protect plant against active oxygen species.
Studies on Partial Revegetation of Rock Cut-Slope by Direct Seeding of Woody Species Seeds
Hong, Sung-Gak ; Kim, Jong-Jin ; Lee, Duck-Soo ; Lee, Ki-Cheol ; Yoon, Teok-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 265~271
The direct seeding of seeds or the pellets of three native tree species (Pinus densiflora, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Rhus chinensis) was tried on the rock cut-slope revegetation bed established by construction of mechanical excavation or erosion break with artificially enriched soil medium. The seed
made by coating seeds(treated with proper previous pregermination treatments) with the mixture of peatmoss, clay, chemical absorbant(3.5:1.0:0.2, v/v) showed about twice better percent germination than the control seeds. The percent germination and the survival rate of the germinated seedlings were higher in the spring direct seeding than the summer or the fall. The soil medium containing the compost showed extremely low percent
which presumably attributed to the compost inducing damping-off disease. The survival rates were affected mainly by shading of natural herbaceous vegetation invading from outside to the revegetation bed. The planting of two year old container seedlings of P. densiflora and P. tricuspidata on August 2, 1998 was successful indicating that it could be an alternative revegetation method in case the summer direct seeding is unfavorable.
Studies on the Optimun Activation Condition for Food Waste Composting by Microorganism in Food Waste
Jeong, Jun-Young ; Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Park, Woo-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 272~279
This study was conducted to evaluate possibility for composting by microorganisms in food waste itself. In the result of counting of microorgansm in food waste, the number of bacteria growing at
in the almost food waste, respectively. Amylase and protease producing microorgansim were counted
. In the result of composting for 30 days, FW1 was reveal that
gas production rate and degradation of organic matter were similar to FW2 but higher than that of FW3, FM1 and FM2. Also, In the cases of change of enzyme producing microorgansim during the composting, FW1 were counted
of incubation temperature, while FM1, added to commercial microbial inoculator, were less than that of FM1. Consequently, It was suggested that FW1 was most suitable condition for composting by microorganisms in food waste and there was no need to use microbial inoculator for composting.
Evaluation of Compost Qualities with or without Microbial Inoculation for Food Waste Composting
Jeong, Jun-Young ; Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Nam, Sung-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 280~286
This studies were conducted to evaluate efficiency of microbial inoculator for active composting of food wastes. The Microbial inoculators used in this studies were purchased from different comparise to evaluate their effectiveness for composting of food waste in Korea. The number of bacteria growing at
in commercial inoculator collected were below
which were counted from well cured compost made by animal manure. The number of bacteria in commercial microbial inoculator, such as FL, VP, B9, CM and GE were higher than that of composted at
of incubation temperature. Fungi were counted in GR, VP and B9 as over
of incubation temperature, while fungi of all the commercial inoculator collected could not grown at
. Actinomycetes in most of the these had higher number(
) than that of compost : however, it was not detected at
incubation temperature from all the samples collected. The amount of carbon dioxid production was order to VP>HU>B9>GE>CM>Control>Compost in the lab scale composting test with or without inoculation of commercial inoculators, however, but the difference in carbon dioxide production was similar among each treatments. The effect of inoculation on composting parmeter such as pH changes, temperature increasing and change of chemicals properties were a little among each treatments, with or without inoculation of commercial inoculator in active composting of food waste. Using commercial inoculator did not show any statistical difference in food waste composting process under various condition such as pH changes, temperature changes, etc.
Rock Phosphate with Mycorrhizae as P Source for Tomato Plant in Volcanic Ash Soil
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Moon, Doo-Khil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 287~291
In order to examine the possible use of rock phosphate as P source, tomato seedlings with or without inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in the pots of sterile volcanic ash soil from Cheju island with two levels of phosphorus (100 and 200 mg/kg) supplied either as fused or as rock phosphate. After three months of culture, plant dry weight, P and other nutrient uptake, root colonization and spore density in the soil were determined. Treatments of rock phosphate of both levels resulted in the significantly depressed plant growth in comparison to the treatments of fused phosphate, likely due to lower P availability in soil with rock phosphate. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation increased the dry weight of plant at 200 mg/kg level of both fused and rock phosphate. Root infection and sporoulation were reduced in rock phosphate treatments. Nitrogen, K, Ca and Mg contents in plants were not significantly different at all treatments. As a P source, rock phosphate in combination with mycorrhizae was not satisfactory for optimum plant growth at
levels in Cheju volcanic ash soil.
Use of Plant Materials for Decontamination of Waste Water Polluted with 2,4-Dichlorophenol
Lee, Jung-Eun ; Park, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 3, 1999, Pages 292~297
This study was performed to estimate the possibility of use of plant materials as catalytic agents fur the decontamination of waste waters contaminated with organic pollutants by using 2,4-dichlorophenol(2,4-DCP) as a model pollutant. Plant materials containing high peroxidase activity were selected as catalysts for the removal of 2,4-DCP. Peroxidase activity, which plant materials were containing, was measured, and the greatest peroxidase activity was observed in shepherd's purse, followed by turnip, sweet potato, Chinese cabbage and white radish. The peroxidase activity in shepherd's purse was four times higher than that of horseradish purchased in U.S.A. Using shepherd' s purse and turnip, it was investigated the effect of various factors on the decontamination of 2,4-DCP through oxidative coupling. The removal of 2,4-DCP was extremely fast, and a maximal removal could be achieved within 3 min for shepherd' s purse and 15min for turnip. The pH range was from 3.0 to 8.0 and the amount of
added was 9mM when maximal removal was achieved(over 90%). No increasing removal of 2,4-DCP was observed due to increasing the amount of
added (over 9mM). The initial concentration affected the transformation of 2,4-DCP incubated with plant materials. When turnip was used as catalytic agent, it was observed decreasing transformation of 2,4-DCP due to increasing initial concentration.