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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Energy Balance in Various Management of Paddy Ecosystem
Lim, Kyoung-Soo ; An, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Jung-Wk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 299~303
A set of surveys was performed at Chungchongbuk-Do in 1997 in order to analyze energy related in rice production. Four cases in rice farming were surveyed : traditional farming, no chemical farming, duck farming, mud snail farming. The farmer in traditional fanning has used chemical fertilizers and chemicals such as general farmers. The farmer in no chemical farming has used chemical fertilizers and manure but has not use chemicals. The farmer in duck farming has not used chemical fertilizers and chemicals but brought up duck in paddy. The farmer in mud snail has not used chemical fertilizers and chemicals but brought up mud snail in paddy. The animals n paddy as like duck and mud snail not only eat weeds and insect but also input fertile material by excretion. The results of energy analysis are as follows 1. In view of energy, the duck farming was the most efficient of four cases. The mud snail farming was less efficient than the duck farming, the traditional farming was less efficient than the mud snail farming, the na chemical farming was less efiicierrt than the traditional farming. 2. Relatively to amount of product, non renewable energy was used more in traditional farming than other cases and renewable energy was used more in no chemical farming than other cases. 3. The reason of low energy efficiency in the no chemical farming was to input fertilizers and manure so much. So to input nutrients excessively in order not to use chemicals can make rice farming to be inefficient in a view of energy. 4. The farming to bring up animals in paddy was more sustainable than other cases because input of non renewable energy could be decreased. But in order to make it to be more sustainable, should be developed cultivation method to decrease input of non renewable direct energy such as fossil fuel and electricity .
Effect of N and P Fertilization on Nutrient Use Efficiency of Pinus densiflora, Larix leptolepis, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica Seedlings
Shin, Jung-A ; Son, Yo-Whan ; Hong, Sung-Gak ; Kim, Young-Kul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 304~309
Biomass, tissue (foliage, stem. and root) nutrient concentration, and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) were determined for 1-year-old Pinus densiflora, Larix leptolepis and Betula platyphvlla var. japonica seedlings in a greenhouse under nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization treatments. There were no consistent patterns in the effect of fertilization on seedling growth, however, in most cases the addition of N and P had no stimulating effect on biomass. In general, seedling tissue N and P concentrations increased after fertilization. It appeared that fertilization induced luxury nutrient consumption because uptake was increased without altering biomass. The NUE. calculated as the ratio between total above and belowground production and nutrient content in seedlings, decreased with increasing N and P supply for P. densiflora and B. platyphylla var. japonica while that for L. leptolepisthe did not change. B. platyphylla var. japonica had the highest NUE, L. leptolepis the lowest, with P. densiflora having the intermediate NUE.
Performance for a small on-site wastewater treatment system using the absorbent biofilter in rural areas
Kwun, Soon-Kuk ; Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 310~315
The feasibility of an absorbent biofilter system was examined for rural wastewater treatment. Hydraulic loading rates varied from 50 to 250 cm/day. Effluent of the septic tank was fed into the absorbent biofilter, and small ventilation fan was provided to supply air at the rate of 250 L/min to aerate the biofilter. The biofilter system demonstrated high removal rates for
and TSS at the loading rate of 150 cm/day, generally meeting the Korean effluent water quality standard of 20 mg/L applicable to both. The nutrient removal was less satisfactory than the results of
and TSS, but it was within the expected range of biological treatment processes. Considering the abnormally high influent concentration of nutrients during the experiment, better performance results could have been obtained if ordinary domestic wastewater was used. The system performance was not significantly affected by the hydraulic loading up to 150 cm/day, which is far more than the loading limit of the sand filter systems. Maintenance requirement was minimal, and no problems with noise, odor, flies or sludge arose. Since the biofilter system can be operated at a distance, operation in remote rural area and multi-system connected to one control office might be advantageous to the rural area. Overall, considering the cost-effectiveness, stable performance, and minimum maintenance, the biofilter system was thought to be a competitive alternative to treat wastewater in Korean rural communities.
Dewatering characteristics of sludge generating water treatment plant
Kim, Eun-Ho ; Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Kim, Hyeong-Seok ; Sung, Nak-Chang ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Hwang, Young-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 316~320
The purpose of this research was to estimate dewatering characteristics of generating water treatment plant by dewatering velocity, suitable polymer and mixing condition. Zeta potential of sludge in storage tank was negative and in case of adding cation, anion and nonion polymer for sludge conditioning, specific resistance coefficients of conditioned sludge were similar at zeta potential -5㎷. But above zeta potential -15㎷, canon polymer was more effective than others for reduction of specific resistance coefficients. Using of cation acrylate polymer showed better dewatering coefficients than cation methacrylate polymer.
Process development for food waste composting
Song, Oh-Yong ; Jung, Kwang-Yong ; Jeong, Jun-Young ; Yang, Chang-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 321~326
This study was performed to evaluate the quality of produced compost and to analyse the change of a component during the reduction compost according to the input volume. The volume of pilot scale used in this study was about 300㎥. The pile of 2m width, 20m length and 1.2m height was constructed. Woodchip was used as bulking agent to enhance pore volume of composting bay and to control water content of food waste in starting time. Food waste was turned using a mechanical tumer twice a day. The result are as follows : In these cases of input volume of
, temperature of composting pile was maintained over
and water content was 43.6% and 47.2%, respectively. It was proved that microorganisms activity was maintained high in each input volume. After operation of step 1 and step 2, pH and organic matter in the final compost were 6.2, 6.6 and 84.3%, 79.6%, respectively. Cation concentration such as
CaO and NaCl was accumulated in the compost during the composting period. NaCl concentration in the final compost was 4.62%, 4.92%, respectively. Hence, If was recommended that this compost should be applied to others expect agricultural area or mixed with a low concentration other compost. In the steps 1, input volume of
, heavy metal concentration of Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni. Cd were 37.82㎎/㎏, 56.87㎎/㎏, 9.8㎎/㎏. 22.21㎎/㎏ and 3.69㎎/㎏, and 44.55㎎/㎏, 95.54㎎/㎏, 12.22㎎/㎏, 24.94㎎/㎏, and 3.86㎎/㎏ in the step 2.
Effects of Slow-Released Nitrogen Fertilizer Using Waste Paper Slurry on the Growth and Yield of Chinese Cabbage and Chemical Properties of Soil
Back, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Park, Woo-Churl ; Kang, Sang-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 327~331
The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer (SRF) on the growth and yield of Chinese cabbage. The SRF used in this study was prepared by embedding urea into a waste paper slum. The underwater dissolution rate of SRF was very rapid during the first 12 hours and 60.4% of the embedded nitrogen was released after 72 hours. The SRF and urea was applied as nitrogen source and growth. yield, yield components, nitrogen uptake of Chinese cabbage were investigated a pot experiment. Maximum leaf length of Chinese cabbage was not different between SRF and urea treatments. Length and wish of head, number of leaf per head and fresh weight of Chinese cabbage were higher in SRF treatment than those in urea treatment, but the differences were not statistically significant. Comparing to the urea treatment, nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake efficiency of Chinese cabbage were significantly higher in SRF treatment. After the experiment, total soil nitrogen contents were not different between the SRF and urea treatments.
Treatment of Livestock Wastewater by Electrochemical Method
Heo, Jong-Soo ; Chung, Tae-Uk ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Baek, Song-Bum ; Cho, Ju-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 332~338
To treat livestock wastewater effectively by electrochemical method using a stainless steel electrode or au aluminum electrode, the effects of voltage, distance of electrodes and PACS(Poly Aluminum Chloride Silicate) dosage on removals of pollutants in batch experiment for investigation the optimum treatment conditions of livestock wastewater were investigated. The results were summarized as follows ; On the effect of voltage, temperature and pH in electrochemical reactor were increased with increase in voltage but EC was a reverse in both electrodes. Removals of COD and T-N were increased with increase in voltage in both electrodes. SS removal was greater than 90% regardless of voltage without doing electrochemical reaction over 15min at 20V or 12min at 30V in both electrodes. T-P removal was over 90% regardless of voltage in both electrodes. On the effect of distance between two electrodes, removals of COD, T-N and T-P were increased with closeness in distance between two electrodes, and SS removal was greeter than 90% regardless of distance between two electrodes in both electrodes. On the effect of PACS dosage, removals of COD, T-N and T-P were increased with increased in PACS dosage up to 200㎎/l in both electrodes. SS removal was greater than 90% regardless of PACS dosage in both electrodes.
Effects of Ethephon Treatments on Accelerating of Maturity of Sweet Persimmon 'Nishimurawase' Cultivar
Kim, In-Ha ; Seo, Kwang-Ki ; Ahn, Kwang-Hwan ; Yoon, Young-Whang ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Shon, Gil-Man ; Ro, Chi-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 339~343
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of treatments and adequate concentration of ethephon on coloring promotion of peel of sweet persimmon 'Nishimurawase' cultivar. High concentration(30 and 40㎎/l) of ethephon treatments increased the coloring of peel. but they were unfavorable to marketability due to the decrease of firmness, the increase of softening ratio, and the short of marketing critical period of fruits. Low concentration(20㎎/l) of ethephon treatment maintained higher marketability in terms of coloring of peel, firmness, softening ratio, and marketing critical period of fruit.
Effects of low dose
radiation on the uptake of mineral nutrients in chinese cabbage and radish
Yoon, Young-Man ; Kim, Nam-Bum ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 344~348
To investigate hormetic effect of low dose
-ray on the uptake of mineral nutrients in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var. Hekjinju var. Surim and) and radish (Raphanus sativas var. Chung-un), seeds of these plants were irradiated with the dose of 1 to 10 Gy. Germination rate and dry weight were examined at pot experiment in greenhouse. Samples for analysis of mineral nutrient were harvested at 17 days and at 59 days after seedling and were analyzed by ICP. Brassica campestris varieties showed higher germination rate and dry weight production with increasing
ray dose. Dry weight of Hekjinju Surim and were 143% and 138% at 10Gy dose. respectively. There was no tendency in germination rate and dry weight production for Raphanus sativas var. Chung-un with
-ray irradiation. The pattern of mineral nutrient content of these plants showed
type of dose-reaction curve with no siginificant. This investigation suggests that the more results can be required to understand the hormetic effect of low dose
ray on the uptake of mineral nutrient for these plants.
Computation of residue limit of organophosphorus pesticides in functional foods from citrus fruit peels
Lee, Mi-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 349~354
This study was conducted to propose residue limits of organophosphorus pesticides in functional foods produced from peels of citrus fruits. For these, not only reduction factors of pesticides in cooking and processing were estimated, but factors needed in order to produce residue limits were identified and their application method was devised. The results were as follows: (1) reduction factors appeared as 0.09-1.60 by different processings of various foods, (2) residue limits of pesticides on dietary fiber and bioflavonoid products could be computed from maximum residue limit of pesticides on the raw agricultural produce, reduction factors, and the anticipated amount of consumption of the functional foods. (3) residue limits of 18 organophosphorus pesticides were proposed in the range of 0.01-3.0mg/Kg on the dietary fiber product and 0.1-80mg/Kg on the bioflavonoid product from citrus fruit peels.
The Effect of Irrigation Control and the Application of Soil Ameliorators on Cadmium Uptake in Paddy Rice
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Bok-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 355~360
In order to identify the effect of cadmium uptake by soil ameliorators in rice plants, compost, lime, silicate, and phosphate were treated. Plants were grown with irrigation water containing
cadmium and treated with two irrigation systems, intermittent irrigation and continuous submersion. Soil pH was higher at the panicle formation stage compared to other growing stages. However, Eh value was decreased as growing stage was proceeded. Eh values measured at the continuous submersion plots were lower than those at the intermittent irrigation plots. Cadmium contents in the both leaves and roots of rice plants grown at the continuous submersion plots were lower than intermittent irrigation plots in the middle of growing season. Among the continuous submersion plots, cadmium uptake was highly reduced at the both silicate and lime treated plot compared to other treatments. In the harvest season, cadmium contents in the both leaves and brown rice were higher at the intermittent irrigation plots than the continuous submersion plots. Cadmium uptake was highly reduced at the compost and lime mixture plot compared to other treatments among the continuous submersion plots. Soil pH was negatively correlated with the cadmium contents of the both shoot and brown rice while Eh was positively correlated with those. The cadmium content of shoot was positively correlated with that of brown rice in the harvest season.
Growth Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Soybean Seedling to NaCl stress in Sand Culture
Cho, Jin-Woong ; Kim, Choong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 361~365
This atudy was conducted to determine the growth characteristics and photosynthesis of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Keumjongkongl) 30 day old seedling to 100mM NaCl concentration containing 1/2 Hoagland`s nutrient solution in sand culture. The nodule formation of root is not found perfectly with NaCl stress. The leaf dry matter weight (g/plant) of stressed plant is more reduction in 77% to control than any other characters. The water content (%) is tend to increase but water potential (MPa) is tend to decrease at NaCl stress. The chlorophyll content (SPAD) is tend to increase at growing leaf age of control but decrease at NaCl stress. The photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration are tend to decrease sharply at NaCl stress.
Field Treatment of Cow Manure Originated from the Clay Mineral Feeding and the Change of Nitrogen in Soils
Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Lee, Sang-Hwan ; Lee, Chang-Ho ; Lee, Nam-Joo ; Son, Yong-Suk ; Lim, Soo-Kil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 366~371
This study was conducted to examine the change of nitrogen in soils treated by cow manure originated from the clay mineral feeding. Bentonite, zeolite, and porphyry were feeded. CEC of the porphyry showed the lowest value, 12.02 cmol/㎏, among three kinds of clay mineral. The manure treated soils were incubated at 14, 18, 22,
. CEC of the manure after bentonite, zeolite, porphyry feeding were 147.5, 137.0, and 114.0 cmol(+)/㎏, respectively. These values were higher than that of non-mineral treated manure, 107.5 cmol(+)/㎏. After 8 weeks incubation, there were no significant difference in the content of
, but the content of
in soils were in order of zeolite treated > bentonite treated > porphyry treated > non-nimeral treated. These results suggested that the clay mineral adsorbed
and prevent the loss of nitrogen from soils.
Changes in Characteristics of Bark and Piggery Manure By-Product Fertilizers During the Composting
Yang, Jae-E ; Park, Chang-Jin ; Yong, Seok-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Je ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 372~377
Objective of this research was to draw the basic criteria of the compost maturity evaluation, by assessing the stability of chemical and physical properties of the bark and piggery manure byproduct composts during the composting. Colors of the mature composts were black and dark brown for the bark and piggery manure by-product composts, respectively. Good earthy odor was detected for both by-product composts after approximately 40 days composting, by which odors of the original raw materials were disappeared. pH and EC of the mature bark: compost were stabilized at 6.5 and 1dS/m, respectively. The respective values for the piggery compost were stabilized at 7.2 and 6dS/m. Organic matter contents were decreased with time to be stabilized at about 60% at the end of composting. During composting, total N contents of the bark and piggery composts were maintained at
, respectively. For both fertilizers,
contents were increased at the initial stage bur. decreased after the middle stages of decomposition, resulting in the increase of
contents. Total inorganic N contents were increased with time. C/N ratios of both mature composts were stabilized at
. CEC of the bark compost was increased logarithmically with time and that of mature compost was 87cmol(+)/㎏. CEC of the piggery manure compost was hyperbolic function with rime and reached at 70cmol(+)/㎏ at the mature stage. Crude fiber analysis indicated that relative contents of lignin were increased with composting by compensating for the decreases of cellulose and hemicellulose contents.
Changes in Spectroscopic Characteristics of Bark and Piggery Manure By-Product Composts During the Composting
Yang, Jae-E ; Park, Chang-Jin ; Shin, Myung-Kyo ; Park, Yong-Ha ; Choi, Moon-Heon ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Kim, Jeong-Je ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 378~383
Changes of the spectroscopic characteristics of the organic matter fractions and circular filter paper chromatograph were assessed for the bark and piggery manure composts during the composting. as an approach to base the criteria of the compost maturity evaluation. Contents of humic acid-C (HA-C) and fulvic acid-C (FA-C) in both bark and piggery manure composts were decreased as the composting got closer to maturity, but the ratios of HA-C/FA-C were increased. During the composting.
K values were decreased, but RF values were increased. Humic acid of the mature bark compost after 120 days of composting was A-type, as compared to Rp-type for the raw bark and B-type for the immature compost. However. humic acid of the mature piggery manure composts after 40 days of composting was B-type, indicating the humification of the organic matter fractions continued at this stage. Circular filter paper chromatograph of the mature bark compost exhibited the regular sawteeth pattern at the edge, but that of the mature piggery manure showed an irregular sawteeth pattern. Results demonstrated that spectroscopic characteristics and circular filter paper chromatograph of the organic by-product composts might be employed for the compost stability assessment.
Residue of Imidacloprid in Hulled Rice and Paddy Soil
Moon, Young-Hee ; Rang, Hee-Hyouk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 18, issue 4, 1999, Pages 384~387
The residue of imidacloprid in hulled rice and paddy soil was investigated. In laboratory conditions, the degradation of imidacloprid in the soils followed first-order reaction kinetic. The rate of degradation was influenced by soil temperature and soil type. The half-life of imidacloprid at
was 66.7-96.3 days in the heavy clay soil and 56.8-117.5 days in the clay loam soil. Arrhenius activation energy obtained from the temperature experiment was 25.5 KJ/mol in heavy clay soil and 50.3 KJ/mol in clay loam soil. In paddy field, the degradation of imidacloprid was fast during the initial period but the degradation rate was gradually slow. About 10 % of the initial amount remained in the soil 120 day after the application. The residual amount of imidacloprid in rice was below the detection limit, 0.01 ppm. The residue level in rice was lower than MRL 0.05ppm in Korea.