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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Dec 2000
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
Irrigation Water Qualities along Dong-Jin River Watershed during 1994-1998
Uhm, Mi-Jeong ; Choi, Jeong-Sik ; Han, Soo-Gon ; Kim, Kab-Cheol ; Moon, Young-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 110~115
This study was conducted to monitor the irrigation water qualities along Dong-Jin river watershed. The water quality was surveyed at 6 sites from April to september during
. And the results were as follows : In July and August, water quality was better than that of any other months due to dilution with rainwater. Whereas, it became worse in April but it involved lower contents than limitted contents affected to the crop damage. Content of inorganic components was higher at Jeong-up and Won-pyeong stream. The reason for it that Jeong-up stream was deteriorated with sewage water from Jeong-up city, and Won-pyeong stream has narrow width. Water quality in upstream of Dong-Jin river, was evaluated best conditions in all sampling sites. For investigated period, water quality got worse from 1994 to 1995 but it was getting better to 1998 after 1995, especially at Jeong-up stream. The total equivalent of cation and anion was the highest at April through all months and at Jeong-up stream in sampling sites. Equivalent ratio of cation to
was higher at May than any other months and lower at Won-pyeong streams than any other sites. The value of most inorganic components was highly correlated with those of other components. But the value of
was not correlated with that of most components, and
was not correlated with COD,
Effect of Photosensitization on the Diminution of Pesticide Residues on Red Pepper
Lee, Jae-Koo ; Kwon, Jeong-Wook ; Ahn, Ki-Chang ; Park, Ju-hyoung ; Lee, Jun-Su ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 116~121
Photosensitizing activities of some selected photosensitizers (PS) on the artificial diminution of pesticide residues on red pepper were investigated. Red peppers were sprayed 4 times with the three fungicides, dithianon, triflumizole, and triforine, according to the conventional method, followed by the application of photosensitizers once. Recoveries for the analyses of the pesticide residues were high
except for dithianon
. In case of dithianon, after 1 day of the application of PS-1 (10 ppm), the residual amount was 76% of that of the control. For triflumizole, the residual amount after 3 days of the application of PS-4 (50 ppm) accounted for 48% of that of the control. In case of triforine, the residual amount after 1 day of the application of PS-3 (100 ppm) was 55% of that of the control. The results indicated that the photosensitizing activities of photosensitizers varied with chemicals and the matrices where pesticide residues are remaining.
Channels Packed with Porous Media to Improve Water Quality for Irrigation Reservoirs
Park, Byung-Heun ; Jang, Jung-Ryul ; Kim, Young-Kyeong ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Kwun, Soon-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 122~127
A stream purification system was applied to the upper reaches of the Masan Reservoir to improve the water quality. This system consisted of two channels which were constructed on both sides of the stream, one side packed with crushed gravels and the other with plastic filter media. The system operated under low pollutant concentrations and high hydraulic loadings during a dry season to avoid clogging of the filter media. Removal rate and efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the channel packed with crushed gravel were
and 11.5%, and for the channel with plastic filter media,
and 13.5%, respectively. Removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (T-P) were 6.6% (gravel) and 10.0% (plastic media). These results indicated plastic filter media having relatively high specific surface areas were more efficient than crushed gravels in removing pollutants. However, due to low influent water quality during dry season, the removal efficiencies were low. The proportion of nitrate nitrogen to total nitrogen (T-N) of the inflow was high but, as the system operated under aerobic condition, nitrate nitrogen could not denitrified. Accordingly, total nitrogen was not attenuated with this system. To improve the reservoir water quality effectively, this system should be able to treat the storm runoff containing higher pollutant loadings. When the filter materials are clogged by the storm runoff instead of backwashing, it would be more efficient to replace them, Therefore, the use of natural materials which are light, easily obtaining and replaceable, and have high specific surface areas is recommended.
Effects of Soil Texture, Irrigation System, and Soil Ameliorators on the Cadmium Adsorption in Soil and Uptake in Rice Plant
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Kyu-Sik ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 128~133
This study was conducted to investigate the adsorptive characteristics with cadmium in different levels of organic matter and lime in soil. And in order to identify the effect of soil ameliorators on cadmium uptake in rice plants, compost and lime were treated. Plants were grown at two soil textures(sandy loam and clay loam) with irrigation water containing
of cadmium and treatments of two irrigation systems(intermittent irrigation and continuous submersion). The adsorption capacity of cadmium by soil was increased in proportion to initial concentration of solution, and it was higher at clay soil compared to loamy soil. The adsorption rate of cadmium by soil was increased with increasing the concentration of organic matter and lime in soil, highly increased at the both organic matter and lime treatment. Soil pH was negatively correlated with the cadmium contents of the both shoot and brown rice while Eh was positively correlated with those. In the harvest season, cadmium contents in the both leaves and brown rice were lower in the clay sail plots than sandy soil plots, and the continuous submersion plots were lower than intermittent irrigation plots. Cadmium uptake was highly reduced at the compost and lime mixture plot compared to other treatments among the continuous submersion plots. The cadmium content of shoot was positively correlated with that of brown rice in the harvest season.
Treatment of Industrial Wastewater by Electrochemical Method
Cho, Ju-Sik ; An, Myoung-Sub ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Heo, Jae-Seon ; Sohn, Bo-Kyoon ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 134~141
For electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater, the effects of voltage, distance between electrodes, initial pH and NaCl concentrations on removal of pollutants were investigated in a batch electrolysis system. Temperature and pH in electrochemical reactor increased with increase in supplied voltage, but no significant change in EC was found. Removal of COD, turbidity, T-N and T-P were also enhanced with increase in the voltage. On the conditions of short distances between electrodes and long electrochemical reaction times, it was found that COD and T-N were very effectively removed in the system. Regardless of the distances, more than 80% of turbidity and T-P were removed at the beginning of reaction. When initial pH of the wastewater was about 7, the highest efficiency of COD removal was found in the system. On the other hand, removal efficiency of turbidity was unlikely affected by initial pH of the wastewater. T-N removal was increased with increase in initial pH. T-P was successfully removed in the pH range of 5 to 9 with varying removal efficiency of 79 to 96% after 2 minutes of electrochemical reaction time. Addition of NaCl into the electrochemical reactor increased removal efficiency of electrochemical treatment. The highest removal efficiency of COD and T-P, turbidity and T-N was obtained at NaCl concentrations of 500mg/L, 1,000 mg/L and 500mg/L, respectively.
Effects of low dose gamma radiation on the early growth and physiological activity of gourd(Lagenaria leucantha L.)
Kim, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Young-Keun ; Park, Hong-Sook ; Back, Myung-Hwa ; Chung, Kyu-Hoi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 142~146
To observe the stimulating effects of low dose
on the seed germination, early growth and physiological activity in the gourd, seeds of three cultivars (Partner, Support, FR Yongja) were irradiated at the dose of
. The hormetic effects of the low dose
on the growth were different from each cultivar. Low dose
had promoting effects on the germination at the optimum dose of 2 Gy and 8 Gy and on the early growth at the optimum dose of 4 Gy, 16 Gy and 20 Gy in Partner and Support cultivar and 1 Gy in FR Yongja cultivar. Irradiation didn't have significant effects on the chlorophyll contents of gourd plantlet. The antioxidant enzyme activity of gourd plantlet and early growth increased in low dose irradiation group.
Enhanced conversion to cotinine from nicotine by green tea extract
Kyung, Yoon-Joo ; Lee, Dong-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 147~153
Cigarette smoking deals a harmful effect directly to smokers and even to non-smokers through environmental tobacco smoke. The major damaging component in cigarette smoke is nicotine which converts to various carcinogens. Among the carcinogenic metabolites, nitrosamine-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1- (3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK) is responsible for many types of lung cancers. Recent studies report that activation of NNK is markedly inhibited in the presence of cotinine, a safer metabolite from nicotine. It is well known that tea extract have potentials to prevent cancers. This study aims to correlate green tea's potential for cancer prevention with an accelerated formation of cotinine. In the presence of tea extract, a nicotine to cotinine conversion was studied in established cell lines and xenopus oocytes. Among three lines of cell used, PLC/PRF5 and 293 cells showed a fast turnover from nicotine to cotinine while HepG2 cell line showed a marginal difference between groups treated and non-treated with tea extract. A microinjection procedure using Xenopus oocyte was utilized to probe for the effect of tea extract in accelerating nicotine conversion to cotinine. According to this procedure, tea extract's unusual potential for converting nicotine to cotinine is also substantiated. Overall, this present study indicated that tea extract have an unusual effect on conversion of nicotine to cotinine in cells.
Symptom of Leaf Injury and Varietal Difference to Ozone in Rice and Soybean Plant
Lee, Jong-Ta ; Sohn, Jae-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 154~159
This study was carried out to elucidate the symptom of leaf injury to ozone and to determine varietal difference to ozone injury in rice and soybean plant. Ozone was produced by electrostatic discharge in oxygen and was monitored by UV absorption ozone analyzer. The rice leaves were spotted red and rolling leaf edge, discolored to reddish brown or yellowish white in response to ozone, and the leaves that were severely stressed were withered from the tip of leaf. The soybean ones were also discolored to lemon yellow, yellow or dark brown. The leaf injury in both rice and soybean was clearly appeared at the reverse side of leaf and in lower leaves. Milyang 23 and Nonganbyeo among rice cultivars tested were resistant to ozone, but Chucheongbyeo was resistant to it. The ratio of leaf injury was increased and chlorophyll content was decreased as the extension of ozone exposure from 2 to 8 hours in rice. Keunolkong and Danyeopkong among soybean cultivars tested showed resistant reaction to ozone, but Kwangankong and Muhankong were susceptible to it. It was observed that the soybean plants grown for 45 days after seeding were severely damaged by ozone than those of other growth stages.
Change of SOD, POD Activity and Stomata Resistance for Ozone on Rice(Oryza sativa L.)
Chung, Ill-Min ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kang, Byeung-Hoa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 160~165
This study was carried to select the tolerance in rice varieites for ozone treatment through comparing SOD, POD and stomata resistance. In SOD Acivity, Sangnambatbyeo showed the highest activity on 1 hr after ozone treatment and after 24 hr, SOD activity was decreased. SOD activity of Hangangchalbyeo was not different in observed all times after ozone treatment. In POD activity, Hangangchalbyeo, Sangnambatbyeo and Ilpumbyeo were similar to POD activity but Baeknabyeo was the lowest activity on 1 hr after ozone treatment. Also, all varieties represnted the highest activity (above 90 %) an 24 hr after ozone treatment. In stomata resistance, Sangnambatbyeo was decreased stomata resistance on 1 hr after ozone treatment. Hangangchalbyeo, Sangnambatbyeo and Baekna were decreased stomata resistiance on 24 hr after ozone treatment except Ilpumbyeo.
Response of Growth and photosynthesis to NaCl stress in Soybean(Glysine max L.) Seedlings
Cho, Jin-Woong ; Kim, Choong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 166~170
This study was conducted in to elucidate the changes of growth characteristics and photosynthesis in three soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Danwonkong, Hwangkeumkong and Kwangankong) 30 day old seedlings to 100mM NaCl concentration containing 1/2 Hoagland's nutrient solution in sand culture. The main stem height and number of main stem node were decreased. thus, leaf area and dry matter were decreased with 100mM NaCl. Growth reduction was less little in Hwangkeumkong than other cultivars. The stem growth rate was affected less than other parts as root or leaf, by NaCl treatment. The specific leaf area (SLA), shoot : root ratio and leaf : root ratio decreased with NaCl solution except for those of Hwangkeumkong. There is no general tendency in leaf thickness by leaf position of three cultivars. The chlorophyll content (SPAD) of the primary and 2nd leaf slightly decreased under NaCl solution but rapidly increased in non-NaCl solution at 15 days after treatments. The photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration of 2nd leaf positions reduced by NaCl and there were a sigificant correlation between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance or transpiration.
Methane Fermentation of Facultative Pond in Pond System for Ecological Treatment and Recycling of Livestock Wastewater
Yang, Hong-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 171~176
A wastewater treatment pond system was developed for treatment and recycling of dairy cattle excreta of
per day. The wastes were diluted by the water used for clearing stalls. The system was composed of three ponds in series. A submerged gas collector for the recovery of methane was installed at the bottom of secondary pond with water depth of 2.4m. This paper deals mainly with performance of methane fermentation of secondary pond which is faclutative one. The average
, SS, TN, and TP concentrations of influent into secondary pond were 49.1, 53.4, 48.6, and 5.3 mg/l, and those of effluent from it were 27.9, 45.7, 30.8, 3.2 mg/l respectively. Methane fermentation of 2.4-meter-deep secondary pond bottom was well established at
and gas garnered from the collector at that temperature was 80% methane. Literature on methane fermentation of wastewater treatment ponds shows that methane bacteria grow well around
, the rate of daily accumulation and decomposition of sludge is approximately equal at
, and activities of methanogenic bacteria are ceased below
. The good methane fermentation of the pond bottom around
, results from temperature stability, anaerobic condition, and neutral pH of the bottom sludge layer. It is recommended that the depth of pond water could be 2.4m. Gas from the collector during active methane fermentation was almost 83% methane, less than 17% nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was less than 1% of the gas, which indicates that carbon dioxide produced in bottom sludges was dissolved in the overlaying water column. Thus a purified methane can be collected and used as energy source. Sludge accumulation on the pond bottom for a nine month period was 1.3cm and annual sludge depth can be estimated to be 1.7cm. Design of additional pond depth of 0.3m can lead to 15 - 20 year sludge removal.
Swine wastewater treatment with soil microbes and its efficiency and dynamic parameters
Park, Wan-Cheol ; Shin, Nam-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 177~182
Removal rate of swine wastewater containing organic matter was 99 percent in case of high loading rate. The studies of swine wastewater treatment aim to development of process using soil microorganism. Microorganism was devoted to improve the treatment efficiency of the process. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration of treated swine wastewater was under 150 mg/L in anaerobic reactor. Also, value of km and Y were
and 0.433 g/VSS/g BODrm/d at microorganism of post aeration tank in anaerobic reactor.
Optimum loading capacity and nitrification characteristics of the swine wastewater treatment process using soil microbe
Ha, Jun-Soo ; Shin, Nam-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 183~187
Removal rate of nitrogen compound containing swine wastewater was 97 percent in case of high loading rate treatment of swine wastewater at studies for process development using soil microorganism. Minimum hydraulic retention time(HRT) for nitrification process was 11 days and solid retention time was 25 days. Nitrification was between 5 and 11 days but this time
was remained. Reactor condition was injured to nitrosomonas according to pH,
concentration but this condition was recover to pH controlling.
Soil nitrogen availability in a thinned Larix leptolepis plantation using ion exchange resin bags
Son, Yo-Whan ; Kim, Hyun-Seop ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 2, 2000, Pages 188~190
We explored changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in a thinned (control, light, moderate, and heavy thinning) Larix leptolepis plantation determined by using ion exchange resin bags. Nitrogen availability varied among measurement periods, however, total available N (ammonium plus nitrate) concentrations did not change significantly in the 1 year since thinning. We found higher N availability in summer and fall than in winter.