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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Dec 2000
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
Changes of Stream Water Quality and Loads of N and P from the Agricultural Watershed of the Chooryung-chon Tributary of the Sumjin River Basin
Cho, Jae-Young ; Han, Kang-Wan ; Choi, Jin-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 370~374
At this study, the monitoring network of water quality was established in the agricultural watershed an area 14,960 ha of the central southwest of Korea. Loads of nitrogen and phosphorus by agricultural land use were quantified bases on total amounts of stream flow. The land were used as a lowland paddy, an upland and a forest about 12.14 % (1,815 ha), 5.17 % (773 ha) and 80.31 % (12,015 ha) of the area, respectively. For six months, from May 1 to October 31, 1999, the total precipitation was 970 mm and the total amount of stream flow was
. In the load of agricultural non-point sources relevant to land use, total-N was 138,413 kg, then ammonia-N 13,362 kg, nitrate-N 124,629 kg, and total-P 157 kg. The loss of nutrient which from application of chemical fertilizer were 38.0% in nitrogen and 0.1% in phosphorus to input chemical fertilizer in the watershed.
Effect of Integrated Use of Organic and Fertilizer N on Soil Microbial Biomass Dynamics, Turnover and Activity of Enzymes under Legume-cereal System in a Swell-shrink (Typic Haplustert) Soil.
Manna, M.C. ; Swarup, A. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 375~381
Quantifying the changes of soil microbial biomass and activity of enzymes are important to understand the dynamics of active soil C and N pools. The dynamics of soil microbial biomass C and N and the activity of enzymes over entire growth period of soybean-(Glycine max (L) Merr.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sequence on a Typic Haplustert as influenced by organic manure and inorganic fertilizer N were investigated in a field experiment. The application of farmyard manure at 4 to 16
along with fertilizer nitrogen at 50 or 180
increased the mean soil microbial biomass from 1.12 to 2.05 fold over unmanured soils under soybean-wheat system. Irrespective of organic and chemical fertilizer N application, the soil microbial biomass was maximum during the first two months at active growing stage of the crops and subsequently declined with crop maturity. The mean annual microbial activity was significantly increased when manure and chemical fertilizer at 8
and 50/180 N
, respectively were applied. The C turnover rate decreased by 47 to 72 % when the level of farmyard manure was increased from 4 to 8 and 16
. There were significant correlations between biomass C, available N, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and yield of the crops.
Factor Analyses for Water Quality Indicators of Streams, Ground Water, and Reservoir in Agricultural Small Catchments of the Han River Basin
Park, C-S ; Joo, J-H ; Jung, Y-S ; Yang, J-E ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 382~393
The principal indicators contributing to water qualities was screened by factor analyses, based on the monitored chemical parameters of water quality for various water resources from 1995 to 1999 in the small agricultural catchments of the Han River Basin. Water samples of streams, groundwaters, and reservoirs were taken four times a year from upper (Daegwanryong), middle (Dunnae and Chunchon) and lower (Guri) reaches of Han River Basin. In these areas, the respective type of farming practiced was alpine agriculture and livestocks raising, typical upland and paddy cultivation, and intensive cropping in the plastic film house. Water quality was monitored for twenty-one water quality parameters, including pH, EC, SS, T-N, T-P, COD, cations, anions, and heavy metals. pH, EC and COD of the stream waters were suitable for the Korea irrigation water quality guidelines. However, T-N and T-P concentrations of water samples in four catchments far exceeded the irrigation water guideline. Concentrations of canons and heavy metals in Wangsuk stream in Guri area were higher than those in streams in other areas. Factor analysis revealed that significant correlation was observed for 81 pairs out of 231 water quality indicators of stream water among the
cross correlation matrix of stream water quality indicators. The first factor accounted for 27.01% of the total variation in stream water quality indicators, and high positive factor loadings were shown on EC, K, Na,
, and COD. Fifty-three water quality indicator pairs were significant out of 190 ground water quality parameters. The first factor accounted for 28.54% of the total variation in ground water quality indicators, and high loadings were revealed on EC, Ca, Mg, K, Na,
. Twenty-nine pairs of reservoir water quality indicators were significant out of 66 pairs. The first factor accounted for 37.06% of the total variation in reservoir water quality indicators, and high loadings were shown on EC, Mg, K, Na, SS, T-P, Cl, and COD. These results demonstrate that EC was the first factor contributing to water quality.
Effects of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on the Root Growth of Soybean Cultivars
Yoon, Young-Man ; Cho, Hyung-In ; Chang, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Nam-Bum ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 394~400
at very low doses frequently has a stimulating or hormetic effect on the growth of organism. Effects of low dose
irradiation on the root growth of soybean cultivars were investigated and hormetic effects by environmental conditions were compared with the occurrence of increased economic yield, seeds of cultivars were irradiated with the dose of
and cultivated in growth chamber controling temperature, humidity, light, greenhouse and field respectively. To understand hormetic effect on root growth of cultivars and the difference of hormetic effect by cultivation environment, harvested root of soybean cultivars were scanned with image file, and root surface area, root length, root average diameter etc. were examined by WinRhizo program. Also, dry weight of cultivars was examined. Root growth and dry weight of soybean cultivars showed apparently hormetic effect at cultivation of growth chamber condition. In field experiment executed for whole life cycle, yields of pea were not different significantly in each
irradiated cultivars but weight of one hundred peas increased in whole
irradiated cultivars. Increment of yield was assumed to be induced through shortening of maturing stage caused by
hormesis in early growth stage.
Studies on the Production of Artificial Zeolite from Coal Fly Ash and Its Utilization in Agro-Environment
Lee, Deog-Bae ; Henmi, Teruo ; Lee, Kyung-Bo ; Kim, Jae-Duk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 401~418
1. Production of the artificial zeolite from coal ash Coal fly ash is mainly composed of several oxides including
derived from inorganic compounds remained after burning. As minor components,
and oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti (trace) are also contained in the ash. These components are presented as glass form resulting from fusion in the process of the combustion of coal. In other word, coal ash may refer to a kind of aluminosilicate glass that is known to easily change to zeolite-like materials by hydrothermal reaction. Lots of hot seawater is disposing near thermal power plants after cooling turbine generator periodically. Using seawater in the hydrothermal reaction caused to produce low price artificial zeolite by reduction of sodium hydroxide consumption, heating energy and water cost. As coal ash were reacted hydrothermally, peaks of quartz and mullite in the ash were weakened and disappeared, and new Na-Pl peaks were appeared strengthily. Si-O-Si bonding of the bituminous coal ash was changed to Si-O-Al (and
) bonding by the reaction. Therefore the produced Na-Pl type zeolite had high CEC of 276.7
and well developed molecular sieve structure with low concentration of heavy metals. 2. Utilization of the artificial zeolite in agro-environment The artificial zeolite(1g) could remove 123.5 mg of zinc, 164.7 mg copper, 184.4 mg cadmium and 350.6 mg lead in the synthetic wastewater. The removability is higher 2.8 times in zinc, 3.3 times in copper, 4.7 times in cadmium and 4.8 times in lead than natural zeolite and charcoal powder. When the heavy metals were treated at the ratio of 150
to the rice plant, various growth inhibition were observed; brownish discoloration and death of leaf sheath, growth inhibition in culm length, number of panicles and grains, grain ripening and rice yield. But these growth inhibition was greatly alleviated by the application of artificial zeolite, therefore, rice yield increased
times according to the metal kind. In addition, the concentration of heavy metals in the brown rice also lowered by
. Artificial Granular Zeolites (AGZ) was developed for the purification of wastewater. Canon exchange capacity was 126.8
. AGZ had Na-Pl peaks mainly with some minor
peaks in X-ray diffractogram. In addition, AGZs had various pore structure that may be adhere the suspended solid and offer microbiological niche to decompose organic pollutants. AGZ could remove ammonium, orthophosphate and heavy metals simultaneously. Mixing ratio of artificial zeolite in AGZs was related positively with removal efficiency of
and negatively with that of
. Root growth of rice seedling was inhibited severely in the mine wastewater because of strong acidity and high concentration of heavy metals. As AGZ(1 kg) stayed in the wastewater(100L) for 4days, water quality turned into safely for agricultural usage and rice seedlings grew normally.
Pollutant Loading Estimates from Watershed by Rating Curve Method and SWMM
Jeon, Ji-Hong ; Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 419~425
Rating curve method and SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) were applied to estimate pollutant loading from Hwa-Ong watershed in Kyunggi-Do. Rating curves were derived from sampling sites and applied to the whole watershed. SWMM version 4.4 was calibrated by field data of sampling sites and applied to the whole watershed. The pollutant loading estimated by rating curve was slightly higher than the one by SWMM, but the difference was not significant considering diffuse pollution characteristics of wide variation. Land use effect of the subcatchments could not be incorporated logically in rating curve method and difficulty in extrapolation was experienced, therefore, the estimate by rating curve method was thought to be less confident. SWMM was satisfactory in estimation of pollution loading, and its great flexibility worked well to describe complex nonurban land uses. Neither of them could exactly describe complex natural phenomena, but SWMM was preferred in this study due to its flexibility and logical hydrologic processes including land use effects. Use of reasonable watershed model rather than rating curve method for watershed pollutant loading estimate can be more practical and is recommended.
Feasibility Study of Constructed Wetland System for Sewage Treatment in Rural Area
Ham, Jong-Hwa ; Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 426~432
Field experiment was performed from August 1996 to December 1999 to examine the feasibility of constructed wetland system for sewage treatment in rural areas. A pilot system was installed in Konkuk University and the effluent of septic tank for school building was used as an influent to the wetland treatment basin. The system was composed of sand and reed, and operated continuously including winter time. Average removal rate of about 70% was observed for BOD, COD, and SS, about 50% for T-P, and about 25% for T-N. The reason for poor T-N removal might be due to high loading rate and short retention time. The system demonstrated satisfactory effluent concentration and stable performance in growing season. And it also worked adequately in wintertime even below
without freezing, and removal was still significant. The amount removed in BOD, COD, and SS was almost the same as in the growing season, and the amount removed in nutrients was about half of the one in growing season. Overall performance of the experimental system was compared with existing data base (NADB, 1994), and it was within the range of general system performance. As study period increased, removal rates for BOD, COD, SS, and T-P were consistently maintained and even enhanced, but removal rate for T-N decreased slightly. Wetland system was thought to be a feasible alternative for sewage treatment in rural area considering its low cost and low maintenance requirement. However, the effluent of the experimental wetland system often exceeded current effluent water quality standards, therefore, further treatment could be required if the effluent should be discharged to public waters. Wetland system of interest locates in rural area and is a part of rural ecosystem, therefore, ultimate disposal of reclaimed sewage for agricultural purpose or subsequent land treatment might be available and further research in this matter is recommended.
Feasibility Study of Agronomic Application of Treated Sewage for Paddy Rice Culture
Woo, Sun-Ho ; Yoon, Chun-Gyeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 433~441
A feasibility study was performed to examine the agronomic application of treated sewage on paddy rice culture by field experiment for two consecutive years. The domestic sewage was treated by the constructed wetland system which was in subsurface flow type and consisted of sand and macrophyte. The effluent of the wetland system was used for irrigation water. The effluent was diluted to maintain the total nitrogen concentration below
in the first year and used without dilution in the second year experiment. Growth components and yields were compared against the CONTROL plot where conventional method was applied. And also, soil characteristics of the plots before and after reclaimed sewage irrigation were analyzed. Generally, addition of the treated sewage to the irrigation water showed no adverse effects on paddy rice culture, and even enhancement was noticed in both growth and yield. Irrigation of treated sewage after concentration adjusted with conventional fertilization showed the better result, and the yield exceeded that of CONTROL case where clean water was irrigated. Soil characteristics changed after irrigation, and significant EC increasing was observed for the reclaimed sewage irrigation plots. From this study, it appears that reuse of treated sewage, as supplemental irrigation water could be a feasible and practical alternative. For full-scale application, further study is recommended on the specific guideline of major water quality components in treated sewage for irrigation and public health.
Sequestration and Bioavailability of Organopollutants in Soil;Their Implication to the Risk Assessment
Chung, Nam-Hyun ; Lee, Il-Seok ; Song, Hee-Sang ; Bang, Won-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 19, issue 5, 2000, Pages 442~449
The bioremediation is an economic technology to remove the organopollutants from soil. It is often found that the remediation could not remove the compounds below the levels determined by vigorous extractions as required by regulatory agencies. The reason for the reduced bioavailability with increasing time of aging has been accredited to the sequestration of the compounds in remote sites within or between soil particles. Then, the aging could be defined as the time-dependent sequestration. Partitioning and entrapment have been suggested as mechanism for aging. The rate and extent of the sequestration varies among dissimilar soils. The bioavailability of aged pollutants in soil could be measured by bioassays, mild solvent extraction, and soild-phase extractions. The sequestration could be affected by many factors including various soil properties, wetting and drying cycle, and the presence of cosolutes and NAPLs etc. The bioavailability and sequestration should be considered to determine the environmentally acceptable endpoint.