Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Dec 2001
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Mechanism of Free Phosphate Production by Penicillium sp. GL-101, Phosphate Solubilizing Fungus, in the Submerged Culture
Kang, Sun-Chul ; Yang, Mi-Ok ; Tae, Un-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~7
We investigated the capability of the phosphate-solubilizing fungus, Penicillium sp. GL-101, to solubilize in vitro some insoluble rock phosphate via possible mechanisms: acidification of the medium, production of chelating metabolites, redox activity, and so on. GL-101 was able to solubilize rock phosphate (mostly calcium phosphate) in a liquid potato dextrose broth(PDB) medium, as determined by spectrophotometric analyses. Acidification was the major mechanism of solubilization since the pH of cultures fell below 4.0 and in cultures containing 1.0%(w/v) loess the pH dropped from 7.0 to 3.2. More than 10 mg/mL concentrations of citric acids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) in the culture supernatants. Also this fungus showed the phosphatase activity (over 1.3 unit) to contribute partially releasing phosphate from rock phosphate, when supplemented with 1.0% loess in culture broth. The chelating activity of GL-101 in culture supernatants was not present because 2-ketogluconic acid, a chelating agent for the phosphate, was produced only a basal level. Therefore, the solubilization mechanism of rock phosphate by Penicillium sp. GL-101 involves both acidification due to citric acid production and phosphatase activity.
Effect of Waste Sludge of Fermentation By-Product on the Growth of Young Radish and Chemical Properties of Soil
Hong, Soon-Dal ; Seok, Yeong-Seon ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 8~14
To investigate the effects of waste sludge from antibiotic fermentation on the growth of young radish and chemical properties of soil, five levels of fertilizer, control (recommended fertilizer,
kg/ha), AS(control + sludge 1,000 kg/ha), AC(control + conventional compost 1,000 kg/ha), SNS(control - subtracting 30% N of sludge + sludge 1,000 kg/ha) and SNC(control - subtracting 30% N of conventional compost + conventional compost 1,000 kg/ha) were applied and radish was grown twice with same treatments on May and August in 1998. Germination rate and early growth of young radish grown with AS and SNS were lower than those grown in control and with AC, SNC. This negative effects by adding the sludge in the early growth seemed to be caused by damage of ammonia gas released during degradation of the sludge in soil. However, yield of young radish showed no significant difference among all the treatments including the AS and SNS at the 1st and 2nd experiment, and these suggested that the latter half of growth of young radish was accelerated by adding the sludge. Contents of T-N in young radish and inorganic N in soil showed a tendency to increase by adding the sludge while antibiotic substance, cephalosporin-C, was not detected in plant material and soils after harvest of young radish in both experiments. Consequently, waste sludge from antibiotic fermentation, which contains high levels of organic matter and nitrogen could be used as an useful resource in agriculture.
Effect of Applied Amount and Time of Rice Bran on the Rice Growth Condition
Kim, Jong-Gu ; Lee, Sang-Bok ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ; Lee, Deog-Bag ; Kim, Jae-Duk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 15~19
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of application time and amount of rice bran on rice yield, weed occurrence, and chemical change in water as applied at the level of 1.8 Mg/ha (1.8RB) and 3.5 Mg/ha (3.5RB) through field and pot experiment.
in the surface water and the percolated water through pot were high in application of 3.5RB, and similar in application of 1.8RB as compared to chemical fertilization. Electric conductivity in surface water were higher by application of rice bran until 25 days after rice bran application.
in soil were lower in application of rice bran, and
in soil were higher in 3.5RB at tillering stage and panicle formation stage of rice. Rice bran application(3.5RB) showed 68% of weed occurrence as compared to that of chemical fertilization. Rice yield were increased by heavy application of rice bran; 4.41 Mg/ha in 1.8RB and 4.87 Mg/ha in 3.5RB, and top dressing of nitrogen at panicle formation stage caused to increased rice yield by
. Rice yield was also increased by early application of rice bran.
Geochemistry of Stream Water around the Abandoned Boeun Coal Mine, Hoenam Area
Jeon, Seo-Ryeong ; Shin, Ik-Jong ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 20~27
Stream water chemistry in the abandoned Boeun Jeil coal mine area was studied for a period of 3 months, including rainy and dry season. The stream waters were a nearly neutral and slightly alkali condition, and
type with Mg>Ca>Na>K and
. Chemical composition of the stream water was quite irregular during the experimental period. Concentrations of Na, K,
, U, Sr, and Cr decreased by
during rainy season, caused by dilution effects with rain. The concentration of Ca, Mg,
, Cd, and Co increased during the rainy season, caused by more easily dissolved from bedrocks or mine drainage with slightly acidic condition than dry season. The stream water was enriched in Mg, Ca,
, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Sr and U. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Ca,
, Fe, Zn, Ni, Sr, and U decreased linearly with distance from the mine adit. These elements were strongly controlled by dilution of unpolluted water influx and/or adsorption on the clay minerals and iron oxyhydroxide precipitates. This mine area exhibited two main weathering processes ; 1) oxidation with acidification derived from Fe sulphides, and 2) pH buffering due to Ca and Mg carbonate dissolution. This weathering processes were followed by adsorption of metals on iron oxyhydroxides and precipitation.
Growth and Microsomal ATPase Activity of Lettuce(Lactuca sativa. L.) Cultured in the
Lee, Gyeong-Ja ; Kang, Bo-Goo ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Min, Kyeong-Beom ; Kim, Young-Kee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 28~33
Lettuces were grown hydroponically in three different nutrient solutions, normal and 30 or 50 mM
nutrient solutions, and the electrical conductivities of the nutrient solutions were 1.0, 4.5, and 6.5 dS/m, respectively. Lettuces grown in the
nutrient solutions showed a decrease in the germination ratio and the lower indices of growth, such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width. Microsomes were prepared from the roots of lettuce and characteristics of microsomal ATPases were investigated. The activities of microsomal ATPases grown in the 30 mM and 50 mM
nutrient solutions were higher than that grown in the normal nutrient solution. The highest activities of microsomal ATPases were observed at pH 7.0 in all culture conditions. The activities of microsomal ATPases were increased in a reaction buffer solution containing high concentration of
, whereas they were decreased in a reaction buffer containing
. The stimulating effect of
in the reaction buffer was greater on the microsomal ATPases of lettuces grown in the
nutrient solutions than that grown in the normal nutrient solution. These results imply that the activities of microsomal ATPases in the root tissue are increased as increasing the
concentration in the hydroponical nutrient solution.
Present Status and Remedial Actions with Regard to Legal Limits of Pesticide Residues in Korea
Lee, Su-Rae ; Lee, Mi-Gyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 34~43
For 202 pesticides with maximum residue limit(MRL) in Korea, anticipated problems were identified and remedial actions were suggested. The risk index expressed as the ratio of theoretical maximum daily intake against ADI which exceeds 80% appeared in 35 pesticides. Items showing 10-fold difference between Korea and Codex MRLs appeared in 35 pesticides and 47 food commodities. In any of the 202 pesticides, nominated crops without MRL were 33 items whereas non-nominated crops with MRL were 50 items. Under the Codex system, cases of separate MRLs among raw materials and processed products were exampled. Remedial actions to minimize the above-mentioned discrepancies were suggested respectively.
The Induction of Secondary Toxic Substances and Antioxidative Enzymes by
Fumigation in Foliage Plants
Lee, Young-Yi ; Kang, Youn-Ji ; Lee, Yong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 44~49
To study whether the secondary toxic substances such as ethylene and reactive oxygen species(ROS) are induced by air pollutants in foliage plants,
was fumigated to Pachira aquatica, Spathiphyllum patinii, and Hedera helix.
was controlled to
and then fiumigated to plants for 2 days(8 hrs/day). It resulted in visible injury in P. aquatica and H. helix while no symptom appeared in S. patinii. Photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency were most remarkably reduced in P. aquatica compared to other two species whereas least in S. patinii. Two days after
fumigation, ethylene evolution was quantified to 23.56, 10.43 and 4.79 nL/g/h in P. aquatica, H. helix and S patinii, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidative enzymes were clearly activated by
treatment in all tested plant species implying ROS production. In conclusion, we could suggest that ethylene and ROS have been intimately related to the defense mechanism against
and their induction degree increased with plant susceptibility to
. Furthermore, it was found that S. patinii was tolerant and P. aquatica sensitive to
on the basis of antioxidative enzyme activity and ethylene evolution.
Isolation and Utilization of Antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens from Soils for the Protection of Soybean Sprouts Rot
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Joo, Gil-Jae ; Choi, Yong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 50~56
Thirty-three bacterial and fungal strains were isolated from the rotten soybeans and soybean sprouts to isolate pathogenic microorganisms which cause soybean sprouts rot during soybean sprouts cultivation. In pathogenicity tests of the isolates on soybean sprouts, two isolates(K-17 and K-28) caused soybean sprouts rot and were identified as Erwinia carotovora and Fusarium sp., respectively. To isolate antagonists aganist K-17 and K-28 pathogens, bacteria were isolated from various soybean-cultivated soils and screened by the inhibition zone method. A bacterial isolate(J-232) which inhibited growth of both pathogens was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and further examined. The culture filtrate of P. fluorescens J-232 (dilution rate of 500 times) inhibited the growth of Erwinia carotovora K-17 and Fusarium sp. K-28 both on potato dextrose agar medium and on soybean sprouts cultivated in vessel. The development of soybean sprouts rots was observed during cultivation by inoculation of soybean seeds with culture filtrate of both pathogens. The combined inoculation of soybean seeds with culture filtrate of antagonistic bacterium and that of pathogens prevented soybean sprouts rot, and the growth of soybean sprouts was similar to that of control. The soybean sprouts inoculated with antagonists culture filtrate alone did not develop soybean sprouts rot, and the growth of the seedlings was shown to be slightly promoted as compared with that of control.
Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Antagonistic Bacillus sp. YJ-3 against Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon-Rootstock Gourd
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Yong-Hwa ; Joo, Gil-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 57~62
Twelve antagonistic strains against Fusarium wilt of watermelon-rootstock gourd were selected from 54 bacterial isolates which were isolated from the rhizosphere of crop plants growing in various locations. They showed strong inhibitory effects on growth of Fusarium osysporum f. sp. niveum, the causal agent of watermelon-rootstock gourd Fusarium wilt. Among these antagonists, the isolate YJ-3 was the most pronounced in growth-promoting ability for watermelon-rootstock gourd. The growth of watermelon-rootstock gourd in bed soil inoculated with YJ-3 was better by 46 and 13% than those in commercial bed soil alone and in bed soil inoculated with commercial microbial inoculant, respectively. The antagonistic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, strain No. YJ-3, was identified as Bacillus sp. on MIDI system. Furthermore, Bacillus sp. YJ-3 showed antifungal activity on growth against Alternaria cucumerina, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum orbiculare, Didymella bryoniae, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum.
Growth Effect of Tomato Treated with Bacillus sp. WRD-1 Cultures
Ok, Min ; Seo, Won-Seok ; Bae, Kye-Sun ; Kwon, O-Chang ; Park, Su-Jin ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 1, 2001, Pages 63~66
To investgate growth effect of tomato by Bacillus sp. WRD-1 isolated from soil, the Bacillus sp. WRD-1 cultures were treated into tomato cultivated soil with different dilutions (1:100, 1:300, and 1:500) and autoclaved Bacillus cultures as control. Growth and yeild of tomato enhanced in treatments of the Bacillus cultures compared to control. The populations of native bacteria and actinomyces were increased twice in field treated with Bacillus sp. WRD-1 cultures, but the number of mold was decreased. Since the Bacillus sp. WRD-1 promoted growth of tomato and affected population dynamics of microorganism in field, this strain is prominent candidate as a microbial biocide to improve soil potential.