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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Dec 2001
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Effect of Ground Compostable Household Wastes on a Small Bin Composting
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ; Han, Jong-Phil ; Hwang, Myun-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 135~142
Compostable household wastes(mainly food wastes), after waste papers and cardboard being removed, were daily fed into small bins and mixed thoroughly while the air was supplied into the bin. Three small bins were employed: in case I, only recycled compost was composted, after being once fed at the beginning of composting, in case II, compostable household wastes(less than 50 mm) torn roughly by the hands with recycled compost, and in case III, compostable household wastes(less than 2 mm) ground by a kitchen mixer for vegetables with recycled compost. The straight-line was maintained between the wet or the dry residual mass of composting mixture versus composting time date(the coefficient of determination
for the wet and
for the dry). The decomposition rate of each composted material was estimated during composting. The total weight reduction rate after 30 days was 67.86% and 66.14% for case II and III, respectively. For case II, the daily weight reduction 6.82% and the daily decomposition rate 8.81% with the composting mixture, but the daily weight reduction rate was 56.43% and the daily decomposition rate 19.26% with only compostable household wastes. For case III, the daily reduction rate was 6.93% and the daily decomposition rate 7.70% with the composting mixture, but the daily weight reduction rate was 53.30% and the daily decomposition rate 22.95% with only compostable household wastes. The physicochemical characteristics of composting mixture did not show much difference between case II and III as was expected.
Water Quality Improvement Using a Contact Oxidation Canal with Sedimentation Basin
Kim, Won-Jang ; Park, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Hyung-Joong ; Kim, Tae-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 143~149
A contact oxidation canal system with sedimentation basin was installed to study the efficiency of water quality purification. The primary sedimentation basin with 60 min of HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) included in the system was aimed to sediment pollutants in the water and the deposit being released by the drainage culvert located at the bottom of the system. The oxidation canal aerated by nozzle was to contact the pollutants and oxygen in the surface of plastic filter to purify the water. Discharge, HRT, length of the oxidation canal were
, 90 min, 20 m, respectively. The treatment efficiency of total nitrogen was lower compared with other water quality items such as SS, BOD, TP because the anoxic condition for denitrification was not ensured after the oxidation canal. However,
of TP were removed in this system. Overall, the results indicates that this system appears to have a potential capability for water quality improvement of the reservoirs or the canals in the agricultural watershed.
Effect of Shape and Temperature on Condensation of Water in a Small Domestic Composter
Park, Ju-Won ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 150~154
This study was performed to investigate the amount of water condensation and energy consumption in a small composter. The heights of composter (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm), horizontal angles of lid (
) and operating temperatures (
) as the parameters were changed to optimize the shape and operating temperature. The compostable food wastes were added into the composter at the rate of 1 kg/day without additives. The results are as follows; Condensation of food waste increased with temperature, but no trends were observed in related with the height and the horizontal angle of the container. The amount of condensated water decreased with increasing of the horizontal angle up to the height 10 cm of the composter. In the composter with the height of 15 cm, the amount of condensated water decreased in order of
. The higher the temperature increased, the more energy consumption increased.
Cytotoxicity of Paraquat or Bentazone and Compensatory Effects of 3-Methylcholanthrene on the Rat Liver
Rim, Yo-Sup ; Han, Du-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 155~161
This study was carried out to investigate cytotoxicity of paraquat or bentazone on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, toxicity of paraquat or bentazone, and compensatory effects of 3-Methylcholanthrene(3-MC) on the rat liver. In order to MTT assay, the
cell/mL of NIH 3T3 fibroblast in each well of 24 multidish were cultured. After 24 hours, the cells were treated with solution of paraquat or bentazone(1, 25, 50, 100
respectively). After the NIH 3T3 fibroblast of all groups were cultured in same condition for 48 hours. MTT assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of cell organelles. Paraquat or bentazone
, respectively. These
of paraquat or bentazone were decided low cytotoxicity by Borenfreund. In order to observe the toxicity and compensatory effects of paraquat or bentazone on the rat liver, Sprague-Dawley male rats were used as experimental animals and divided into paraquat or bentazone only treated group and simultaneous application group of paraquat or bentazone and 3-MC. At 30 min and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hrs interval after each treatment, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation and liver were immediately removed, immersed in fixatives, and processed with routine method for light microscopic study. Paraffin sections were stained with H-E, PAM and Best Carmine. Under the light microscope, degenerative changes of hepatic lobules were frequently observed in portal area from 3 hrs after paraquat or bentazone treatment. All hepatic cells were induced degenerative change at 12 hrs and more severe degenerative change at 48 hrs after paraquat or bentazone treatment. Especially, hepatic cells of bentazone only treated group were distinctly showed pyknotic. Glycogen granules were increased in portal area at 3 hrs, all hepatic cells at 12 hrs and remarkably increased at 48 hrs after paraquat or bentazone treated group. But hepatic cells of bentazone only treated group were regeneration at 48 hrs from portal area and glycogen granules of hepatic cells of paraquat or bentazone and 3-MC combination treated group showed in central area only at 48 hrs. The results indicate that 3-MC may be decrease paraquat or bentazone cytotoxicity on the rat liver.
Behaviors of Chloronicotinyl Insecticide Acetamiprid in Soil
Hong, Min-Kee ; Park, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 162~168
This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation, adsorption and desorption and leaching of acetamiprid in soils. The half-life of acetamiprid in field condition was
days in Bokhyun soil and, in case of laboratory condition, 15.5 days. Adsorption of acetamiprid was equilibrated in 12 hours incubation. In adsorption experiment using modified soils, such as oxidized soil, oxidized soil added humic acid, fulvic acid, kaolinite or montmorillinite, adsorption rate of acetamiprid was the highest in the oxidized soil added fulvic acid. The desorption rate was the lowest in the oxidized soil added fulvic acid. The adsorption and desorption results should be suggested that acetamiprid could be strongly adsorbed with soil humic materials, especially fulvic acid. When the mobility of acetamiprid in soil was calculated according to GUS (Groundwater Ubiquity Score) equation, it was prove to non-leacher, and it was confirmed in the leaching experiment with soil column. Most of acetamiprid was remained in the upper 30 cm of the soil column after eluting with water and it was not even detected in leachate.
Safety Assessment of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Products of Korea
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Kim, Won-Il ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 169~174
This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the heavy metal contents of agricultural products in Korea and to compare with relevant international criteria such as the Average Daily Intake(ADI) and the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake(PTWI) proposed by the joint FAO/WHO Codex Committee on additives and contaminant. Contents of heavy metal in cereals, pulses, potatoes, vegetables and fruits were in the range of
for Cr and
mg/kg(F.W.) for As. Heavy metal contents of cereals, pulses, potatoes, vegetables and fruits were with natural content levels proposed by FAO/WHO and were similar to value monitored in other countries. Also, average intake of heavy metal from agricultural products was lower than the ADI and PTWI by the joint FAO/WHO Codex Committee on Additives and Contaminants. Therefore, none of the cereals, pulses, potatoes, vegetables and fruits evaluated showed accumulation of such heavy metal high enough to cause health problems to human.
Effects of Cadmium Concentration in Soils on Growth and Cadmium Uptake of Vegetable
Kim, Won-Il ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Park, Kwang-Lai ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 175~179
To find out the effect of cadmium(Cd) on growth of major vegetables in Korea, phytotoxicity and absorption of Cd were investigated with chinese cabbage, radish, and lettuce grown in upland soils of different Cd concentrations. Cadmium phytotoxicity was shown by growth retardation and leaf chlorosis in chinese cabbage and lettuce at the early growing stage. The threshold concentrations of growth damage resulting from the significant reduction (5%) of growth and yield of chinese cabbage and lettuce were
mg/kg soil, respectively. However, there was no significant reduction of radish yield under Cd treatment of 100 mg/kg soil. As Cd concentrations in soils increased, the contents of Cd in products were significantly increased, basically. The contents of Cd in edible part of chinese cabbage, radish, and lettuce grown at the 5 mg/kg Cd treated soils were 0.13, 0.18, and 3.37 mg/kg FW, respectively. Total absorbed Cd in the vegetables tended to occur in the following order, chinese cabbage > radish > lettuce above 25 mg/kg Cd treated soils whereas lettuce absorbed more Cd than chinese cabbage and radish below 10 mg/kg Cd concentration.
Effect of Phosphorous Acid on Control of Phytophthora Blight of Red Pepper
Lee, Yong-Se ; Ryu, Yeon-Ju ; Cho, Jeong-Sang ; Lim, Tae-Heon ; Chang, Tae-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 180~185
Control effects of phosphorous acid were investigated on Phytophthora blight of red pepper plants in greenhouse and field. In vitro test, the mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici was inhibited by the phosphorous acid more than 97% at 1,000
a.i./mL in the liquid and solid culture, respectively. At concentration of 10
a.i./mL of phosphorous acid, in the liquid culture the mycelial growth of P. capsici was inhibited 46.2%, however inhibited only 4.9% on the soild culture. Zoosporangial formation was also inhibited 89.1% by phosphorous acid at 100
a.i./mL. Phosphorous acid affected more zoosporangial formation of P. capsici than its mycelial growth. At the concentrations of 10,000, 1,000 and 100
a.i./mL of phosphorous acid, germination of zoosporangia was inhibited 100, 84.3 and 44.2%, respectively. Mycelial growth and zoosporangial formation of P. capsici were little affected at the concentration of 10
a.i./mL of phosphorous acid. Cermination of zoosporangia was also little affected at this concentration, however growth of the germ tubes was inhibited and the abnormal mycelial growth was observed. Phosphorous acid suppressed the incidence of Phytophthora blight of red pepper plants up to
, in greenhouse. Phosphorous acid suppressed the incidence of Phytophthora blight of red pepper plants up to 54.0% at the conventional culture in field. Treatments of phosphorous acid increased up to 113% in height, 135% in number of fruit, and 129% in weight of fruit.
Effects of Petroleum Spray Oil on Photosynthesis Characteristics in Citrus Leaves
Kang, Si-Yong ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Park, Jin-Hee ; Riu, Key-Zung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 186~191
Recently, petroleum spray oil(PSO) has been used to control key pests in integrated pest management (IPM) of citrus and other orchards in Australia and USA. In order to clarify the influences of a newly developed PSO (D-C Tron
) on citrus leaves, 0.33% or 1.0% of PSO were sprayed to potted 4-year-old citrus trees under some kinds of condition, and then the changes of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence(Fv/Fm) were determined. When sprayed with 1.0% PSO, the photosynthetic rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance of citrus leaves were decreased by 20%, and then recovered in 20 days after treatment (DAT), while there were little influences by the spray of 0.33% PSO. The value of Fv/Fm decreased more under the
temperature condition than that of under the
condition. The high temperature (
for 10 hours)-treated trees sprayed with PSO 1.0% or PSO 1.0% plus dithianon 1/2000 dilution showed not only the increase of rate in dropped leaf but also the reduced photosynthesis and Fv/Fm compared with
temperature-treated ones. From the results of this study, the spray of 1.0% PSO can inhibit the physiological activities in citrus leaf, particularly under high temperature condition after spray or the mixing-spray with a fungicide (dithianon WP, 75%).
Application of AGNPS Model for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Load in a Stream Draining Small Agricultural Watersheds
Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Choi, Yun-Yeong ; Kim, Bok-Jin ; Lim, Jun-Young ; Chung, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 3, 2001, Pages 192~200
The event-based agricultural non-point source(AGNPS) pollution model was applied to estimate the loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in a stream draining small agricultural watersheds. Calibration and verification of the model were performed using observed data collected from rainfall events in the Imgo watersheds during 1997-1998. Parameter calibrations were made for the runoff curve number. The peak flow volumes in the watersheds were well reproduced by the modified model. Average deviation between observed and simulated values was 10%, and this match was confirmed by the coefficient of efficiency value of 0.97. The deviations tended to increase as the peak flows increased. The simulated total N concentrations in the stream water were fairly close to the measured values, and the coefficient of efficiency in the estimation was 0.93. However, there were relatively large variations between calculated and observed values of total P concentration, and the coefficient of efficiency in the estimation was 0.74. Any inaccuracies that arise in estimating runoff flow and nutrient loading can not be explained exactly and further adjustment and refinements may be needed for application of AGNPS in agricultural watersheds. With this restrictions in mind, it can be concluded that AGNPS can provide realistic estimates of nonpoint source nutrient yields.