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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Dec 2001
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Residues of Endosulfan and its Metabolites in a Rice Field of Madurai, India
Jebakumar, S.R.D. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 305~309
Thirty-day-old rice seedlings, IR-20 variety were transplanted into the experimental plots and were sprayed with endosulfan (35% EC) after 52 days at the rate of 0.64 kg a.i/ha. Residues of endosulfan in the plant, soil, and water were found to decrease steadily upto 15 days. A second application of the pesticide was made on the 31st day and the plant was harvested on 56th day after the first application. The residue level on hay and grains was 0.7
. This level is seven times higher than FAO/WHO-prescribed tolerance level of 0.1
. Metabolites of endosulfan were traced out in plants, soil, and water during the pre- and post-harvest period.
Changes in Protein Synthesis Induced by Chilling in Tomato Chloroplasts
Kim, Won-Il ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Park, Kwang-Lai ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 310~316
To find out the effect of low temperature on the regulation of tomato chloroplast genes, the optimization of the system in chloroplast protein synthesis and the identification of the changes in chloroplast protein synthesis induced by chilling were studied. Incorporation reaction occurred rapidly at the first 30 minutes and was constantly maintained after 60 minutes. A broad optimal temperature on protein synthesis was found around 20 to
. No difference was shown in the chloroplast protein synthesis under high light intensity (1600
) as well as under low light intensity (400
) even darkness.
and ATP at an optimal concentration act as an activator, while DTT, chloramphenicol, cycloheximide,
and inorganic phosphate act as an inhibitor in the chloroplast protein synthesis. Synthesis of 15, 55 and 60 kd chloroplast encoded stromal proteins and 18, 24, 33 and 55 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane proteins were reduced by chilling, while 17 kd chloroplast encoded stromal protein and 16 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane protein was induced by chilling. It was expected that the 55 kd stromal protein would be the large subunit of rubisco and the 33 kd thylakoid membrane protein would be the D1 protein which was drastically reduced by chilling.
Short-term Effect of Phosphogypsum on Soil Chemical Properties
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Kang, Sun-Chul ; Park, Shin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 317~324
Short-term effect of phosphogypsum on soil properties including acidification, salinity and metal availability were investigated under laboratory and field conditions. Phosphogypsum and mixtures of phosphogypsum and compost were added to soil and incubated in a laboratory condition with 15% moisture content. Phosphogypsum treatments were 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg soil and in the treatments of phosphogypsum and compost mixture 10 g of compost was added additionally. After the 30 days of incubation, an additional phosphogypsum and/or compost were added to the remaining soils at the same rates of the first treatments. pH, electrical conductivity, and available hazardous elements were measured periodically during the incubation. Field experiment was conducted in a plastic film house of mellon with four treatments of phosphogypsum and compost mixtures - 25+125, 50+125, 50+250 and 100+250 kg/165
. pH, electrical conductivity, and hazardous elements in soil and total hazardous elements in leaf were measured. In the laboratory experiment, after 30 days of the first phosphogypsum application, soil pHs were lowered by 0.7-0.8 units. After the second treatment of phosphogypsum 0.2 units of additional acidification occurred. However, acidification was not observed in the soils treated with mixtures of phosphogypsum and compost. In the laboratory experiment, phosphogypsum treatments increased electrical conductivity very significantly. In field experiment, pH and electrical conductivity of soils treated with phosphogypsum were nearly the same as those of soil not treated with phosphogypsum. Since soil condition in the field study was an open system, the free acids and salts derived from phosphogypsum could be diffused down with water leaching through the soil profile and then any significant acidification or salt accumulation in the topsoil could not be observed. In both laboratory and field experiments, levels of available hazardous elements in soils treated with phosphogypsum were quite low and not different from the levels found in the control soil. Results obtained from this study suggest that application of phosphogypsum at appropriate rates on agricultural land appears of no concern in terms of acidity, salinity and hazardous element content of soil.
Enzyme and Microbial Activities in Paddy Soil Amended Continuously with Different Fertilizer Systems
Gadagi, Ravi ; Park, Chang-Young ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Lee, Dong-Chang ; Chung, Jong-Bae ; Singvilay, Olayvanh ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 325~329
Soil enzyme and microbial activities are affected by fertilizer and compost applications and can be used as sensitive indicators of ecological stability. Microbial population and soil enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and aryl-sulphatase were determined in the long-term fertilizer and compost applied paddy soil. Soil samples were collected from the four treatments (control, compost, NPK and compost+NPK). Long-term NPK+compost application significantly increased activities of urease, dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase than all other treatments. The compost application enhanced activities of urease, dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase than the NPK application. However, arylsulfatase activity was not significantly different between compost and fertilizer application. The highest microbial population was recorded in the NPK+compost treatment. The compost application also resulted in higher microbial population than the NPK application. The above results indicate that ecological stability could be maintained by application of compost alone or with NPK.
Polymorphism in Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance of Azospirillum Isolates from Ornamental Plants
Gadagi, Ravi ; U., Krishnaraj P. ; H., Kulkarni J. ; Ahn, Ki-Sup ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 330~334
The polymorphism of Azospirillum isolates from ornamental rhizosphere and two reference strains were examined with respect to intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR) profile. All the isolates showed different intrinsic resistances to different antibiotics viz., tetracycline, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, ampicillin, spectinomycin and chloramphenicol. All the strains demonstrated susceptibility to high concentration of all antibiotics used in the present experiment. In addition to these general patterns, we also obseved the multiple antibiotic resistances of Azospirillum strains. The Azospirillum sp. OAD-11 was resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin, and Azospirillum sp. OAD-57 was resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin. Conversely, Azospirillum sp. OAD-9 possessed the dual susceptibility to tetracycline and spectinomycin, whereas Azospirillum sp. OAD-37 was dual susceptible to streptomycin and kanamycin. Such multiple antibiotic resistant/susceptible traits could be useful for the identification of the strains in field experiments or in molecular genetic transfer experiments.
Performance of MPS Bacterial Inoculation in Two Consecutive Growth of Maize Plants
Park, Myung-Su ; Gadagi, Ravi ; Singvilay, Olayvanh ; Kim, Chung-Woo ; Chung, Hee-Kyung ; Ahn, Ki-Sup ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 335~339
Two successive in vitro experiments were carried out to examine the effect of MPS bacterial inoculation on growth, and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of maize plants under greenhouse condition in the same soil. There were four treatments, uninoculated control and three phosphate solubilizing bacterial inoculations, viz., Pseudomonas striata, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia marcescens. The inoculated plants showed the higher plant height, total dry mass, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation when compared to uninoculated control plants in both experiments. In the combined data analysis from two experiments, the plants inoculated with P. striata and B. cepacia showed significantly higher plant height, total dry mass and P accumulation when compared to S. marcescens inoculated plant and uninoculated control plants. The P. striata and B. cepacia inoculation enhanced total dry matter accumulation by 14% and phosphorus accumulation by 25% over the uninoculated control plants. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of maize plants were also increased due to MPS bacterial inoculation, however, the effect was not significant.
Suppression of Nitrate Accumulation in Lettuce by Application of Mg and Micronutrients
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Park, Sang-Gyu ; Park, Shin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 340~345
High rates of nitrogen fertilization dangerously increase the nitrate content of vegetable crops, and the accumulation of nitrate in edible crops is undesirable because of potential risks to human health. Micronutrient solution containing Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn was tested for the suppression of nitrate accumulation in lettuce grown in pots treated with Mg fertilizer under a greenhouse condition. The micronutrient solution was sprayed on leaves at 3 and 4 weeks after transplanting of 20-day old seedlings. Plants were harvested after 5-week growth, and yield, contents of chlorophyll, sugar, micronutrient and nitrate, and also nitrate reductase activity were measured. Fresh weight of lettuce was significantly increased by the application of Mg and micronutrients, and the effect was the most significant in the Mg+micronutrient treatment. Also contents of chlorophyll and micronutrients were higher in the plants of micronutrient treatments. Contents of nitrate were reduced by about 14-18% in lettuce with Mg and/or micronutrient applications. Compared to the plants of control treatment, nitrate reductase activity was also higher in those plants treated with micronutrients, and in the treatment of Mg+micronutrients the enzyme activity was six times as high as that of control treatment. Although the effect of mineral nutrients on the suppression of nitrate accumulation in lettuce was relatively small in this study, an appropriate supply of mineral nutrients could be one of the solutions for the nitrate accumulation in vegetables.
Effects of Organic Matter and pH on Chromium Oxidation Potential of Soil
Chung, Jong-Bae ; Eum, Jin-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 346~351
Oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) can increase availability and toxicity of chromium. In this study, possible mechanisms by which pH and organic matter can control the chromium oxidation and reduction in soil system were examined using four soils of different pHs and organic matter contents. Reduction of Mn-oxides occurred in the soils of higher organic matter content (4.0%), but Mn-oxide was quite stable during the incubation in the soil of pH 7.0 and 0.5% organic matter content. Manganese oxides can be reductively dissolved at lower pH and higher organic matter conditions. The soil of pH 7.0 and 4.0% organic matter content showed the highest Cr-oxidation potential. Reduction of soluble Cr(VI) was observed in all the soils examined. The most rapid reduction was found in soil of pH 5.5 and 4.0% organic matter content, but the reduction was slow in soil of pH 7.0 and 0.5% organic matter content. Thus, the reductive capacity of organic matter added soils was much higher as compared to other two soils of lower organic matter content. In all the soils examined, the reductive capacity of soluble chromium was much higher than the oxidative capacity. Organic matter was found to be the most important controlling factor in the chromium oxidation and reduction. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) could be a potentially useful remediation or detoxification process, and availability and toxicity of chromium in soil would be controlled by controlling organic matter content and pH of the soils.
Influences of Sulfate and Nitrate Application on Cadmium Sorption in Soils
Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 20, issue 5, 2001, Pages 352~357
Cadmium (Cd) has been identified as a potential contaminant in agricultural and environmental soils. Ionic condition in the soils is an important factor to influence Cd availability. In this study, the effect of sulfate or nitrate application on Cd sorption in acidic and calcareous soils was investigated. The Cd, sulfate
, and nitrate
sources were solutions of
, respectively. The soil-solution system pH was affected by the application of sulfate or nitrate in both acidic and calcareous soil system, but there was not clear pH difference between pre- and simultaneous applications of sulfate or nitrate (PAS/PAN or SAS/SAN). Solution ionic strength (I) values were similar between the acid and calcareous soil systems after applying the Cd even though it was significantly different in the untreated control soils. However after applying the sulfate or nitrate, the I values increased and were always higher with SAS/SAN treatments. Solution Cd concentration also increased with the application of sulfate or nitrate. However, the Cd concentration in soil solution controlled by Cd sorption in the systems was different between PAS/PAN and SAS/SAN treatments only in the calcareous soil system, but not in the acidic soil system. The difference in Cd concentration between SAS/SAN and PAS/PAN in the calcareous systems may be caused by system pH, ionic strength, complexation, and predominately, competition of the
with the index
ion. Potassium ion-Cd competition in the acidic soil system may be minimized because of the abundance of hydrogen ions.