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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
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Effects of Soil Addition and Subsoil Plowing on the Change of Soil Chemical Properties and the Reduction of Root-Knot Nematode in Continuous Cropping Field of Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo L.)
Jun, Han-Sik ; Park, Woo-Chul ; Jung, Jae-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.001
To elucidate the effect of soil addition and subsoil plowing on the change of sell chemical properties and the reduction of root-knot nematode, this experiment carried out in continuous cropping field of protected oriental melon (Cucumis melo L.). Soil addition reduced electric conductivity (E. C.) from 4.3 to 1.8 dS/m (58%), available
from 406 to 182 mg/kg (55%) and organic matter content from 16 to 11 g/kg (31%). Population densities of root-knot nematode in soil reduced as much as 89%, 84%, and 69% at first year, third years, and of five years later, respectively The effects of subsoil plowing were similar to that of soil addition. E. C. and phosphate were reduced from 4.30 to 1.98 dS/m (54%) and phosphate from 406 to 329 mg/kg (19%), respectively. Population densities of root-knot nematode reduced as much as 71%, 67%, and 42% after 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively Subsoil plowing reduced nematode densities only for three years.
Estimation of Pesticide Leaching Potential Using GUS, RF and AF Index in Cheju Citrus Orchard Soils
Oh, Sang-Sil ; Moon, Doo-Khil ; Chung, Jong-Bae ; Hyun, Hae-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 7~16
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.007
Contamination of groundwater by agrochemicals used in the regional-scale Is now a major environmental problem, and this is especially true for Cheju island where virtually all potable water is from groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess leaching potential of eight pesticides in soils of citrus orchards using groundwater ubiquity score (GUS), retardation factor (RF) and attenuation factor (AF). Considering GUS estimated in 30 citrus orchard soils, metribuzin and metolachlor were classified as leacher, alachlor in volcanic ash soils and linuron in non-volcanic soils were classified as leacher, but chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos were classified as non-leacher. For RF values, metribuzin was classified to be mobile in soils of low organic carbon, metolachlor and alachlor were classified to be moderately immobile in most soils, but linuron, diuron, diniconazole, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos were all classified to be very immobile. For AF values, diniconazole, chlorothalonil, and chlorpyrifos were classified to be very unlikely leachable in all of the soils, metribuzin was classified to be likely leachable, and metolahclor, alachlor, linuron and diuron were classified to be leachable only in non-volcanic soils. Although there were some variations in the relative potential of teachability of pesticides estimated with the three different indices, the ranking was essentially determined on the base of the intrinsic properties of the chemicals and environmental properties. Among the eight pesticides, metribuzin, metolachlor, and alachlor, which have high water solubility and low
values, have a significant leaching potential especially in non-volcanic ash soils of low organic carbon. But diniconazole, chlorothalonil, and chlorpyrifos, which have low water solubility and high
values, were classified to be very immobile in all of the soils. Therefore, to lower the possibility of pesticide contamination of the groundwater in Cheju island, those pesticides which have high water solubility and low
values should be used with care in soils of low organic carbon including non-volcanic ash soils.
Effects of Loess on the Mycellial Pellet Formation of Phosphate-solubilizing Fungus, Aspergillus sp. PS-104 in the Submerged Culture
Kang, Sun-Chul ; Koo, Bon-Sung ; Tae, Un-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 17~23
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.017
In order to investigate effects if loess on the mycellial pellet formation a phosphate-solubilizing fungus. Aspergillus sp. PS-104 was cultured in potato dextrose broth containing loess. The strain formed an amorphous pellet or loose aggregates agitated at a low speed (50 rpm) while spherical and regular pellets at a high speed (150 rpm) The higher concentration of loess was added, the smaller size of a pellet was formed during the submerged culture of the strain. As shown in results, being cultured in the PDB medium supplemented with 1.0% loess the pellet size was maximally reduced to a fourth compared to the control. Evaluating the addition effect of several components of loess such as
on the reduction of mycellial pellet size the higher concentration was supplied, the smaller size of pellet was formed except
. And the smallest pellet size was recorded at the concentration of 1.0% (W/V) magnesium carbonate.
Effect of Coverings on the Growth of Ginseng and the Persistency of Procymidone in Growing Soils
Kim, Hyo-Kun ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.024
Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been cultivated on raised beds with shading condition for 4 to 6 years because of its physiological characteristics. This shading condition maintains relatively stable soil environments protecting from rainfall and direct sunlight. Therefore, pesticides in ginseng growing soil are exposed to far different environment from the general cropping field. To study the behavior of pesticides under this condition, the effect of covering on the persistency of Procymidone in ginseng cultivating soil was investigated by using several shade materials. The most important factor affecting Procymidone persistency in soil under covering was water leakage rates of shade materials.
Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metal by Long-Term Cultivation
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Won-Il ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Kyung-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.031
In order to select proper plants for phytoremediation at heavy metal contaminated areas, eight species of non-edible plants were cultivated at the heavy metal contaminated soils near a metal smelter. The content of the absorbed heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and As) at different part of the plants were analyzed. Plants included five tree species (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii, Euonymus japonica, Acer palmantum, Celtis sinensis, Buxus microphylla), two flower species (Rhododendron lateritium, Calendula officinalis), and lawn (Zoysia japonica). Biomass yield of tree species was higher than those of flower or lawn species. Heavy metals were highly accumulated in roots compared to those In leaves and stems. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and As in Buxus microphylla were greater than those in other plant species. Total absorbed Cd and Pb contents, from high to low by each plant in experimental plots were in the order of Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii, Celtis sinensis and Acer palmantum. They were Celtis sinensis, Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii and Buxus microphylla for Cu, and Buxus microphylla, Acer palmantum and Populus nigra x P. maimowiczii for As. It was estimated that among eight plant species used in the experiment Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii, Buxus microphylla, Acer palmantum, and Celtis sinensis were the most effective species for phytoremediation in the heavy metals polluted areas considering biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.
Effects of Liming on Uptake to Crops of Heavy Metals in Soils amended with Industrial Sewage Sludge
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Won-Il ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 38~44
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.038
The effect of lime on plant availability of heavy metals in soils amended with industrial sewage sludge (ISS) or pig manure compost (PMC) was investigated. A pot experiment with Altari radish (Raphanus sativus) was conducted. Industrial sewage sludge and Pig manure compost were added at 25 and 50 Mg/ha, and lime was added at 3 Mg/ha. Heavy metal contents of ISS treated soils after experiment were higher than those in control (NPK plot) and PMC treatment. Specially, the contents of copper, zinc, nickel and chromium in the 50 Mg/ha of ISS treated soils were higher 12
48 times than those in control. Copper, zinc, and nickel contents in Altari radish leaves cultivated at the ISS treated soil exceeded the critical levels of plant toxicity. Copper, zinc, and nickel contents in Altari radish loaves and roots cultivated at the ISS treated soil were reduced by the addition of lime. Copper, zinc, and nickel contents in Altari radish loaves were negatively correlated with soil pH after experiment. It concluded that liming would reduce the uptake of heavy metals by plants and be a temporary method of reclamation at the highly heavy metal accumulated soils by ISS.
Quantitation of n-Hexane Extractable Material (HEM) and Estimation of Annual Pollutant Loading Rate by Sewage Sludge Applicated to Land
Nam, Jae-Jak ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Lim, Dong-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 45~49
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.045
To estimate annual pollutant loading rate of n-hexane extractable material (HEM) to soil 84 sewage sludge samples were analyzed. The average content of HEM was 27.7
26.5 g/kg, and ranged from 1.05 to maximum 194 g/kg. According to the number of population of the city the areas were classified as five regions, i.e. big, large, middle, small, and rural area in which the waste water treated plants were grown. The contents of HEM were 22.7
25.1 g/kg, in big, large, middle, small, and rural area, respectively. The applicated areas with sewage sludge to land also were divided as 4 sites by US EPA criteria such as agricultural, forest, public contact sites, and reclamation site. The quantitation of annual pollutant loading rate was estimated using a function (99 percentile concentration =
) when the application amounts were in dosages of 7,000, 26,000, 18,000, 74,000 kg/ha in 5 regions, respectively. The annual pollutant loading rate of HEM to soil by sewage sludge application was maximum 1,032, 3,832, 2,653, and 10,908 kg/ha in agricultural, forest, public contact sites, and reclamation site, respectively.
Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of the Apple Snails
Lee, Sang-Beom ; Koh, Mun-Hwan ; Na, Young-Eun ; Kim, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 50~56
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.050
This experiment was carried out to obtain some information about overwintering, physiological and ecological characteristics of apple snails. Another purpose of this experiment was to characterize an appetite for rice plants by apple snails and to elucidate their choice of fresh green ones (vegetables, some other crops, weeds in rice fields). The freshwater snails were found with higher population at sites abundant organic compounds such as plant debris and at regions with high temperature. They also prefer calcium-rich water. This is a naturally occurring process. Apple snails were exceptionally veil-adapted to the south regions of Korea, especially Janghang, Jangseong and Haenam, even if the temperature of winter season is cold below 0
. Apple snails were not very selective in their food choice and eat almost everything available in their environment. A snail have something called a radula in its mouth for grinding up its food. A apple snail also chews on fruits and young succulent plant barks. In case of reproduction. apple snails deposit about 157
784 (average of 321 eggs) milky white to pale orange colored eggs above the waterline. In approximately every 22.4 seconds a new egg appears. The total time needed to deposit a egg mass varies from 58 minutes
4 hours 13 minutes. Apple snails reproduct actively from May to June and from September to October. An appetite of apple snails for rice plants was the different depending on their size and glowing stage for rice plants. Apple snails had a great appetite of rice plants as well as dropwort, tomato, cabbage, radish, aquatic plants etc. They preferred to eat young rice plants and drastically quit eating rice plants of over 40 cm in height. Thus considering the food preference of apple snail for various plants including rice, they were thought to be a potentially strong predator in fields, especially, at regions with warmer winter.
Effect of Phenobarbital Sodium and 3-Methylcholanthrene on Metabolism of
C-carbofuran in Rat
Rim, Yo-Sup ; Han, Seong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 57~68
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.057
In order to elucidate the effect of phenobarbital sodium (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) on metabolism of insecticide carbofuran in rat. Carbofuran metabolites and its formation rates were determined when orally administered
-carbofuran alone and its combination with PB or 3-MC to rat.
-carbofuran administered orally, alone or in combination with PB or 3-MC, was secreted rapidly within 48 hrs. That is, 79.9 to 81.1% of the original radioactivity was secreted into the urine and 5.7 to 6.5% into the feces. The secretion rate was faster in the combined administration than that in carbofuran alone. Metabolites of carbofuran in main organs, urine, feces and blood of rat were largely 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydroxycarbofuran phenol, 3-ketocarbofuran phenol, and carbofuran phenol, the major ones being 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, respectively, in all administrations of carbofuran alone, carbofuran+PB and carbofuran+3-MC. In addition, formation rate of the two major metabolites detected in the urine was 17.4% and 12.8%, respectively, when carbofuran alone was administered. Meanwhile, when carbofuran was administered with PB or 3-MC, they were 8.6% and 23.5, repectively. These results indicate that the oral administration of PB or 3-MC can reduce carbofuran toxicity by fastening and stimulating the carbofuran metabolism in rat.
Effect of Short Term Cold Treatment to Rhizosphere on Nitrate Concentration in Lettuce Plant under Hydroponic Culture System
Choi, Seung-Ju ; Yang, Jin-Chul ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 69~73
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.069
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants were grown under hydroponic system to characterize the diurnal change of nitrate concentration and nitrate uptake rate and to examine the effect of short term cold treatment to rhizosphere on nitrate concentration and uptake rate in lettuce plant. The nitrate concentrations in midrib were two times higher than those in leaf. Nitrate concentration in the shoot reached to minimum (8.7 mg-N/GDW) at 14:00 and, thereafter, increased continuously until 23:00. During 11:00
17:00, nitrate uptake by lettuce plant was maximum (4.8 mg-N/GDW-Root/hr). Short term cold treatment reduced nitrate concentration in the shoot by 14
18%, and nitrate uptake rate by 50
55%, respectively. These results showed that short term cold treatment before harvest could be applied for the purpose of reduction of nitrate concentration in the leaf under hydroponic culture.
Roles of Azospirillum spp. Inoculation in Two Consecutive Growth of Maize Plants
Choi, Seung-Ju ; Gadagi, Ravi ; Park, Myung-Su ; Yang, Jin-Chul ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 21, issue 1, 2002, Pages 74~79
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2002.21.1.074
Two consecutive green house experiments were carried out to examine the effect of Azospirillum spp. inoculation on growth, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in maize plants grown in pots. There were eight treatments including an uninoculated control and Azospirillum strains OAD-3, OAD-9, AZ-22, AZ-8, AZ-9, Azospirillum brasilense BR-11001 and Azospirillum lipoferum BR-11080. The inoculated plants showed higher values in each of the following measurements; plant height, total dry mass and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in shoot when compared to the uninoculated control plants in two consecutive experiments conducted in the same soil. Among Azospirillum strains, Azospirillum sp. OAD-3 inoculated plants showed higher nitrogen accumulation by 44.5% and 45.1%, total dry mass by 48.6% and 66.9% in two consecutive experiments respectively. The nitrogen concentration in the maize plants was not changed significantly in the first experiment, however it increased significantly in the second experiment due to Azospirillum inoculation. In addition, Azospirillum sp. OAD-9 and A. brasilense BR-11001 also proved to be effective with respect to total dry mass, total nitrogen accumulation and total phosphorus accumulation. The nitrogen concentrations in maize plants were increased in the second experiment due to Azospirillum inoculation.