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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Zn Acquisition by Extraradical Hyphae in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plant Depending on Zn Nutritional Status of Cucumber(Cucumis sativus cv. Baekdadagi)
Lee, Yun-Jeong ; Kim, Tae-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.191
The contribution of plant nutrition status in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plant to the nutrient acquisition by extraradical hyphae of AM fungi was investigated using cucumber colonized with Glomus intraradicies (BEG 110) focusing on the Zn. Compartmentalized pots with separated Bones for hyphal growth were used to determine the contribution of extraradical AM hyphae to Zn uptake from hyphal zones.
Zn was supplied into the hyphal zones as nutrient solution (10 mL/day) with a form of
. Zn foliar application was made two times for one week before harvest (8 mL/plant). The colonization rate by AM were high in all of Zn treatments. The dry weight of cucumber increased by AM colonization compared to those of non-mycorrhizal counterpart. However: Zn foliar application resulted in no significant difference in dry weight between mycorrhizal- and non-mycorrhizal plant. In addition, the enhancement of Zn content in cucumber shoot by AM colonization were also reduced by Zn foliar application. These results indicate that the interaction between host plant and AM fungus for nutrient uptake might be related to plant nutritional status and nutrient contents. In consequence, higher Zn contents in host plant by foliar application of Zn could restrict the role of extraradical hyphae of AM fungus on the Zn acquisition and transfer from fungus to host plant.
Partial Reduction of Dinitroaniline Herbicide Pendimethalin by Bacillus sp. MS202
Lee, Young-Keun ; Chang, Hwa-Hyoung ; Jang, Yu-Sin ; Hyung, Seok-Won ; Chung, Hye-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 197~202
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.197
The persistence of pendimethalin in soil and ground water has an injurious effect on ecosystem. Pendimethalin-degrading bacterium was isolated from Masan, Gyeongnam province and temporarily identified as Bacillus sp. MS202 by the analysis of API CHB50, kit, FAME, and 16S rDNA sequence. from the analysis of pnedimethalin metabolite using TLC, GC, and GC-MS, we found that the degradation of pendimethalin by Bacillus sp. MS202 did not result in the dealkylated form, but the formation of the reduced compound, 6-amino-2-nitro-N(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-xylidine or 2- amino-6-nitro-N(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-xylidine.
Assessment of Organic Compound and Bioassay in Soil Using Pharmaceutical Byproduct and Cosmetic Industry Wastewater Sludge as Raw Materials of Compost
Lim, Dong-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Beom ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Nam, Jae-Jak ; Na, Young-Eun ; Kwon, Jang-Sik ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; So, Kyu-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 203~210
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.203
This study was conducted to assessment organic compound and bioassay (density of inhabited animal, fluctuation of predominant fungi, and survival ratio of earthworm) for finding damage on red pepper by heavily amount application of sludges in soil, which was treated with 3 pharmaceutical byproducts and a cosmetic industry wastewater sludge as raw materials of compost, and for establishing estimation method. HEM contents in the soil treated with pharmaceutical byproducts sludge2 (PS2) and cosmetic sludge (CS) were 0.51, 1.10 mg/kg respectively. PAHs content of PS2 treatment in the soil was 3406.8 ug/kg on July 8. In abundance of soil faunas, the pharmaceutical byproducts sludge2 treatment was the most highest. The next was decreased in the order of pig manure (PM) and the cosmetic sludge treatment. However the other pharmaceutical sludge treatments were remarkably reduced populations of soil inhabited animals. In upland soil treated with organic sludges, the numbers of bacteria and fungi of the pharmaceutical sludge treatment were 736, 909 cfu/g and those of the cosmetic sludge treatment were 440, 236 cfu/g, respectively. The pharmaceutical sludge treatments and the cosmetic sludge treatment in identification of predominant bacteria were not any tendency to compare with non fertilizer and pig manure treatments, but they had diverse bacteria than NPK treatment. In microcosm tests, the survival of the tiger earthworm in five soil samples was hardly affected against the soil of PSI (20%) after three months treated in the upland But after six months, survival of PS1 was 80%. At present, raw material of compost was authorized by contents of organic matter, heavy metal (8 elements), and product processing according to 'The specified gist on possible materials of using after analysis and investigation among raw materials of compost', however, for preparing to change regulation of raw material of compost and for considering to possibility of application, this study was conducted to investigate toxic organic compound and bioassay methods using inhabited animal, fungi, and earthworm without current regulation.
Affect of Pharmaceutical Byproduct and Cosmetic Industry Wastewater Sludge as Raw Materials of Compost on Damage of Red Pepper Cultivation
Lim, Dong-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Beom ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; So, Kyu-Ho ; Sung, Ki-Suk ; Koh, Mun-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 211~219
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.211
Three sludge types from pharmaceutical byproducts and one sludge type from cosmetic waste-water sludge as raw materials of compost were used in a field based concrete pot (
) for investigating damage of red pepper cultivation. These sludges and pig manure (1 Mg/10a, dry basis) were incorporated into the upper of clay loam soil prior to transplanting with red pepper. Changes in concentration and properties of heavy metal for both of soil and plant were investigated 4 times during of red pepper growth. Plant height and stem diameter of red pepper in sludge treatments except to Pharmaceutical sludge 3 were poor than those of NPK treatment. This result were regarded as an effect of incompleted decomposition sludge which has a lot of organic matter concentration. Amount of total As was increased rapidly Jul. 8. in soil, total Zn Cu Pb Cd were in harvest time, and 1 N-HCl extractable Zn Cu Pb Cd As were in harvest at middle stage and then decreased. Amounts of nitrogen in plant (leaf and stem) were high in Phamaceutical Sludge 1 and fig Manure treatment in early and middle stage because of organic matter and nitrogen concentrations and characteristics. Amounts of Zn, Pb, and Ni in leaf and amount of Zn and Pb in stem were increased in harvest time so that we need to have a concern in detail. Total yield of red pepper was Pig Manure > Phamaceutical Sludge 3 > Phamaceutical Sludge 1 > NPK > Phamaceutical Sludge 2 and Cosmetic Sludge treatment was decreased considerably to compare to others. Amounts of Zn and Cu in green and red pepper in harvest time were higher than the other heavy metals. Finally these results can use to utilize that finding damage on crop for authorization and suitability estimation of raw material of compost.
Thermophilic Anaerobic Acid Fermentation of Food Wastes after NaOH Addition
Ahn, Chul-Woo ; Lee, Chul-Seung ; Seo, Jong-Hwan ; Park, Jin-Sik ; Moon, Choo-Yeon ; Jang, Seong-Ho ; Kim, Soo-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 220~227
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.220
This study showed that thermophilic anaerobic acid fermentation of food wastes had an enhanced hydrolysis capability and improvement of acidification efficiency. Influence of pH on the anaerobic hydrolysis and acidogenesis was investigated to determine the proper alkalinity in the thermophilic fermentation of food wastes. The results of putting NaOH as alkali to evaluate hydrolysis and acid fermentation efficiency In acid fermentation process of food wastes showed that the food wastes pretreated with 0.05 g NaOH/g TS had the maximum 12,600 mg/L of VFAs concentration during HRT 3 days in
thermophilic condition and the maximum 9,700 mg/L of VFAs concentration during HRT 5 days in
mesophilic condition. The accomplishment of high VFAs concentration resulted from that the main component of food wastes such as cellulose, lignin and etc. is performed active chemical decomposition by alkali in thermophilic condition. The major components of VFAs produced from the thermophilic acid fermentation process of food wastes were the short chain fatty acids such as acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid.
Nitrate Removal of a Cattail Wetland Cell Purifying Effluent from a Secondary-Level Treatment Plant During Its Initial Operating Stage
Yang, Hong-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 228~233
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.228
Nitrate removal was examined from May to October 2003 of a surface flow treatment wetland cell, which was a part of a treatment wetland system composed of four wetland cells and a distribution pond The system was established on rice paddy near the Kohung Estuarine Lake located in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Effluent from a secondary-level night soil treatment plant was funneled into the system. The investigated cell, 87 m in length and 14 m in width, was created in April 2003. An open water was designed at its center, which was equivalent to 10 percent of its total area. Cattails (Typha angustifolia) were transplanted from natural wetlands into the cell and their stems were cut at about 40cm height from their bottom ends. Average
of effluent from the treatment plant was funneled into the cell by gravity flow and average
of its treated effluent was discharged into the Sinyang Stream flowing into the lake. Its water depth was maintained about 0.2 m and its hydraulic detention time averaged 5.2 days. Average height of the cattail stems was 42.5 cm in May 2M3 and 117.7 cm in September 2003. The number of stems averaged
in May 2003 and
in September 2003. The growth of cattails was good. Temperature of influent and effluent averaged 25.9 and
-N loading rate of influent and effluent averaged 176.67 and
, respectively. Removal of rf03-N averaged
and its removal rate by mass was about 50%. Considering its initial operating stage in which cattail rhizomes and litter layer on the bottom were not Idly established, the
-N removal rate of the cell was rather good.
Comparison of Nitrogen Removal Between Reed and Cattail Wetland Cells in a Treatment Pond System
Yang, Hong-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 234~239
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.234
]-N and T-N removal rates of cattail wetland cells were compared with those of reed wetland cells. The examined cells were a part of a pond-wetland system composed of two ponds in series and six wetland cells in parallel. Each wetland cell was 25m in length and 6m in width. Cattails (Typha angustifolia) were transplanted into three cells and reeds Phragmites australis) into another three ones in June 2000. Water of Sinyang stream flowing into Kohung Estuarine lake located in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula was pumped into the primary pond, its effluent was discharged into the secondary pond Effluent from the secondary pond was funneled into each cell. Two cattail and reed cells were chosen for this research. Water quantity and quality of influnt and effluent were analyzed front May 2001 through October 2001. The volume of influent and effluent of the cells averaged about
, respectively. Hydraulic retention time was approximately 1.5 days. Influent
-N concentration for the four cells averaged 2.39 mg/L. Effluent
-N concentration far the cattail and reed cells averaged 1.74 and 1.78 mg/L, respectively. Average
-N retention rate for the cattail and reed cells by mass was 30 and 29%, respectively. Influent T-N concentration far the four cells averaged 4.13 mg/L. Effluent T-N concentration for the cattail and reed cells averaged 2.55 and 2.61 mgL respectively. Average T-N retention rate for the cattail and reed cells by mass was 39 and 38%, respectively.
-N and T-N concentrations in effluent from the cattail cells were significantly low (p=0.04), compared with those from the reed cells. Cattail wetland cells were more efficient for
-N and T-N abatement than reed ones.
Development of Adsorbent for Heavy Metals by Activation of the Bark
Park, Chang-Jin ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Ryu, Kyeong-Ryeol ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 240~244
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.240
The objective of this research was to develop the adsorbent far heavy metals by activating the bark sample. Barks from pine tree with diameters of
were activated in the muffle furnace under a high relative humidity condition at temperatures of
. The removal efficiency of the activated bark (ACTBARK) for Cu and Cd was temperature dependent showing the order of
. The critical temperature was considered to be
to become an efficient adsorbent for Cu and Cd. The bark samples activated at temperatures lower than
showed a less removal efficiency than the crude bark. The ACTBARK activated at
removed more Cu and Cd from solution than the commercial activated carbon and charcoal. The ACTBARK (activated at
) adsorbed all of the Cu and Cd in solution with concentrations less than 150 mg/L. The selectivity of the ACTBARK was in the order of Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Fe > Cd > Mn.
Determination of Monocrotophos Residues by HPLC
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 245~250
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.245
An analytical method was developed to determine monocrotophos residues in apple, citrus, and soil using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet absorption detection. Monocrotophos was extracted with acetone from apple, citrus and moist soil samples. The extract was concentrated, added with saline water, and subjected to n-hexane washing to remove nonpolar co-extractives. Dichloromethane partition was then followed to recover monocrotophos from the aqueous phase. Silica gel column chromatography was employed to further purify the extract prior to HPLC determination. Reverse-phase HPLC using an oct-adecylsilyl column was successfully applied to separate and quantitate the monocrotophos residue in sample extracts at the wavelength of 230 nm. Overall recoveries of monocrotophos from fortified samples averaged
(n=12) for apple, citrus, and soil, respectively. The proposed method was quite reproducible and sensitive enough to replace the troublesome gas-liquid chromatographic analysis for monocrotophos residues.
High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Cyclosulfamuron Residues in Soil, Water, Rice Grain and Straw
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 251~257
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.251
Analytical methods were developed to determine cyclosulfamuron residues in soil, water, rice grain and straw using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet absorption detection. In these methods, cyclosulfamuron was extracted with aqueous
/acetone and acetone/methanol mixture from soil and rice samples respectively. Liquid-liquid partition coupled with ion-associated technique, Florisil column chromatography, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used to separate cyclosulfamuron from interfering co-extractives prior to HPLC analysis. For water sample, the residue was enriched in
-SPE cartridge, cleaned up in situ, and directly subjected to HPLC. Reverse-phase HPLC under ion-suppression was successfully applied to determine cyclo-sulfamuron in sample extracts with the detection at its
(254 nm). Recoveries from fortified samples averaged
(n=6) for soil, water, rice grain and straw, respectively. Detection limits of the methods were 0.004 mg/kg, 0.001 mg/L, 0.01 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg for soil, water, rice grain and straw samples, respectively.
Toxicity Assessment of the Soil by Bioassay Following a Long-Term Application of Sewage Sludge
Nam, Jae-Jak ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Hong, Suk-Young ; Lim, Dong-Kyu ; Koh, Mun-Hwan ; Song, Beom-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 258~263
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.258
Bioassay was employed to assess toxicity of soil which had been treated with sewage sludges for seven years. The
and root elongation test of lettuce (Lactuca Sativa.) elucidated that the intensity of soil toxicity was closely related with the types and amount of sewage sludges applied. Both bioassay methods proved to be useful in an assessment of soil toxicity and were consistent to some extent with the conventional chemical analysis methods.
values resulted from
were highly correlated with concentration of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludges : Cu (
), Cr (
), Ni (
), and Zn (
). This demonstrated that both bioassay techniques could be employed as tools for soil toxicity assessment when the soil was exposed to solid wastes such as sewage sludge.
A Numerical Study of the Effects of Land Characteristics on the Air Cooling
An, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Lee, Sang-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 23, issue 4, 2004, Pages 264~271
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2004.23.4.264
A three-dimensional numerical mesoscale model by Pielke's estimation (University of Virginia Mesoscale Model, UVMM) was applied to investigate the effects of land characteristics including land-humidity, land-roughness and land-albedo on some micro-climatic coefficients and the air cooling capacity. The results indicated that land-characteristics exposed a significant effect on air cooling. Air cooling effects between in urban and agricultural areas were compared and the effects were much higher in agricultural area. Air cooling effects of weed species were different and when converted into economic values by diesel oil price the effects were ranged from 411 to 816 Won/plant.