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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Properties of Water Quality and Land Use at the Rural Area in the Nakdong River Watershed
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Chan-Yong ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Choi, Chul-Mann ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 99~106
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.099
This study was focused on understanding the agricultural non-point sources pollution in 72 rural catchments of Nakdong river watershed from 2001 to 2005 every two year. Also. Pearson correlations between water quality and basin characteristic were computed. Water quality of this study watershed was better in 2003 than any other period. The water quality of upstream was recorded from 0.040 to 0.510 dS/m in EC, from 3.55 to 22.60 mg/L in DO, from 0.32 to 16.64 mg/L in T-N, from 0.00 to 12.21 mg/L in
, from 0.000 to 0.860 mg/L in T-P, and from 0.000 to 0.640 mg/L in
. A the downstream, EC was measured from 0.030 to 0.520 dS/m, DO from 4.13 to 18.36 mg/L, T-N from 0.38 to 26.88 mg/L,
from 0.10 to 20.12 mg/L, T-P from 0.002 to 0.820 mg/L,
from 0.002 to 0.690 mg/L. But there was no difference between upstream and downstream for the water quality. Based on the correlation analysis between water quality and land use, correlation between BOD and residential was the highest positive correlation of 0.541 (p<0.01), and correlation between
and forest was the highest negative correlation of -0.451 (p<0.01). Also, T-N,
, and pH were not correlated with all basin characteristics and basin was not correlated with all water quality parameter. According to the correlation residential was causative of growing worst for water quality, and forest was causative of improving for water quality.
Use of Drainage Water as Irrigation Resource in the Paddy Field to Mitigate Non-point Source Pollutants
Kim, Choon-Song ; Ko, Jee-Yeon ; Lee, Jae-Saeng ; Jung, Ki-Yeol ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Ku, Yeon-Chung ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 107~115
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.107
Objective of this study was to assess the efficient rice cultivation practice to mitigate the non-point source pollutants loading to the adjacent watershed. Cultivation practices consisted of machine transplanting, direct seeding on dry paddy, and no tillage in which no fertilizer and pesticide were applied to paddy field. Water in drainage canal was used as irrigation source during the entire rice growing season. Loading of the non-point source pollutants to the adjacent small stream was mitigated by all treatments. Rice yield, total biomass (rice + weeds), and uptake T-N,
were higher in machine transplanting practice than those in direct seeding and no tillage practices. However, the purification effects of non-point source pollutants were followed in orders of no tillage > direct seeding > machine transplanting due to quantity of irrigation water. The annual purification quantity of T-N, T-P, and K by rice cultivations ranged from 46 to 369 kg
, 4.1 to 16.4 kg
, and 55 to 238 kg
, respectively, during the entire rice growing season. Results revealed that no tillage practice of rice cultivation was the best management option in reducing the loading of the non-point source pollutants from the drainage canal into stream.
Wet Deposition of Heavy metals in Suwon Area
Jung, Goo-Bok ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Yun, Sun-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 116~123
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.116
This experiment was conducted to investigate the distribution and burden characteristics of heavy metals in the rainwater sampled at Suwon area, in the middle part of Korea, from April 2002 to October 2003. The relationship between concentration of heavy metal and other chemical properties in the rainwater was also evaluated. Chemical properties in the rainwater were various differences with raining periods and years. It appeared that a weighted average pH of rainwater was ranged from 4.7 to 5.5. Heavy metal concentrations in the rainwater were ranked as Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cr>As>Cd. As compared with heavy metal concentrations of rainwater in 2002, Cd, Cu and As were higher than other element in 2003. There were positive correlation between major ionic components, such as Ca, Mg, and K, and heavy metal concentrations of rainwater, and As, CU, Cu, Zn and Ni were relatively higher relationship than Pb and Cr in respective to correlation coefficient. For heavy metal distribution of rainwater, the order of average enrichment factors was Cd>Pb>AS>Cu>Zn>Ni>Cr, and these were relatively higher than the natural component such as Fe, Mg and Ca. The monthly enrichment factors were relatively high in the spring (from April to May) at Suwon. The monthly amount of heavy metal precipitation was high in the rainy season from June to August because of great influence of rainfall.
Estimation of Phosphorus Adsorption Capacity of Alum-amended and Composted Paper Mill Sludge
Lee, In-Bog ; Chang, Ki-Woon ; Park, Jin-Myeon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 124~130
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.124
Excess application of paper mill sludge (PMS) in field can limit phosphorus uptake by crops because aluminum presented in the sludge can fix or adsorb available phosphorus which is necessary for crop growth. To investigate phosphorus (P) adsorption characteristics of PMS, we examined P adsorption maximum
using Langmuir isotherm and P adsorption energy constant
using Freundlich isotherm for PMS without alum, PMS with alum, and composted PMS with alum through a laboratory incubation test. The maximum P adsorption capacities were 800
in soil, 47
in PMS without alum and 61
in PMS with alum. P adsorption capacity with alum treatment for PMS increased by 30%. That of PMS compost was 68
and showed that composting increases 11% of P adsorption. Freundlich constant
was 22 in check soil, while
values in PMS without alum and in PMS with alum were 398 and 426, respectively. After composting,
value of PMS compost significantly increased as 1,819. In conclusions, p adsorption capacity for PMS were increased by alum treatment or composting and therefore excess or continuous land application of alum-amended or composted PMS can limit P uptake for crops by reducing available P in sell.
Effect of Phospho-gypsum on reduction of methane emission from rice paddy soil
Ali, Muhammad Aslam ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 131~140
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.131
Phospho-gypsum a primary waste by-product in phosphate fertilizer manufacturing industry and a potential source of electron acceptors, such as mainly of sulfate and a trace amount of iron and manganese oxides, was selected as soil amendment for reducing methane
emissions during rice cultivation. The selected amendment was added into potted soils at the rate of 0, 2, 10, and 20 Mg
before rice transplanting.
flux from the potted soil with rice plant was measured along with soil Eh and floodwater pH during the rice cultivation period.
emission rates measured by closed chamber method decreased with increasing levels of phospho-gypsum application, but rice yield markedly increased up to 10 Mg
of the amendment. At this amendment level, total
emissions were reduced by 24% along with 15% rice grain yield increment over the control. The decrease in total
emission may be attributed due to shifting of electron flow from methanogenesis to sulfate reduction under anaerobic soil conditions.
Suppression of Methane Emission from Rice Paddy Soils with Fly ash Amendment
Ali, Muhammad Aslam ; Oh, Ju-Hwan ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.141
Fly ash, a by-product of the coal-burning industry, and a potential source of ferro-alumino-silicate minerals, which contains high amount of ferric oxide and manganese oxide (electron acceptors), was selected as soil amendment for reducing methane
emission during rice cultivation. The fly ash was applied into potted soils at the rate of 0, 2, 10, and 20 Mg
before rice transplanting.
flux from the potted soil with rice plants was measured along with soil Eh and floodwater pH during the cropping season.
emission rates measured by closed chamber method decreased gradually with the increasing levels of fly ash applied but rice yield significantly increased up to 10 Mg
application level of the amendment. At this amendment level, total seasonal
emission was decreased by 20% along with 17% rice grain yield increment over the control. The decrease in total
emission may be attributed due to suppression of
production by the high content of active and free iron, and manganese oxides, which acted as oxidizing agents as well as electron acceptors. In conclusion fly ash could be considered as a feasible soil amendment for reducing total seasonal
emissions as well as maintaining higher grain yield potential under optimum soil nutrients balance condition.
Species Composition of Forest Vegetation in the Mt. Geumwon Recreational Forest
Park, Jun-Ho ; Im, Jong-Taek ; Gu, Gwan-Hyo ; Cho, Min-Ki ; Jung, Hye-Ran ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Moon, Hyun-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 149~158
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.149
The objective of this study were to offer a basis data for application of management of forest resources through grasping of species composition by layer of forest vegetation in the Mt. Geumwon recreational forest. The tree and subtree layer consisted of 27 and 44 species in Mt. Geumwon recreational forest respectively. The importance value of Quercus mongolica (57.1) and Q. serrata (40.4) were highest in the tree layer and that of Acer pseudo-sieboldianum (43.4) was highest in the subtree layer, respectively. The shrub and herb layer was composed of 71 and 69 species, respectively. The value of species diversity ranged from 1.0391 to 1.5403. Evenness ranged from 0.7259 to 0.8320. Dominance was 0.2741 at tree layer, 0.2440 at subtree layer, 0.1680 at shrub layer, and 0.1702 at herb layer, which showed that Mt. Geumwon recreational forest is dominated by a large number of species at all layer. The result of forest vegetation in Mt. Geumwon recreational forest may be utilized as a basic data for application of reasonable ecological management of forest resources.
Phytoplankton Flora and Community Structure in the Lower Nakdong River
Choi, Chul-Mann ; Kim, Won-Il ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Lee, Jeong-Taek ; Moon, Sung-Gi ; Kim, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 159~170
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.159
This study was focused on the investigation of the phytoplankton flora and community structure for changing of water environment at the rivers in the lower part of Nakdong river, The samples for this study were collected every month from Jan. 2004 To Dec. 2004. the 196 species belonged to 94 genera were identified during this study periods. The number of species was recorded the maximum 124 taxa in summer and the minimum 69 taxa in winter, We observed the maximum taxa (92 taxa) at the site No. 20 and the minimum taxa (55 taxa) at the site No. 8, respectively. Among the phytoplankton communities, diatoms were dominated over 40% of total phytoplankton groups. Subdominant groups were green algae (over 20% of total phytplankton groups). During this study periods, the 60 species were investigated ecologically significant species (46 cosmopolitic species, 25 pollution indicator, 21 redtide causative species, 8 dominant species, and 7 frequently occurred species). According to the cluster analysis by similarity index, the study sites could be divided into 4 groups.
Diffusion of Ethoprophos in Apple and Pear
Park, Hyeon-Ju ; Lee, Ki-Won ; Chung, Kyong-Hwan ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Seo, Gon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 171~178
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.171
Diffusion and accumulation of ethoprophos in fruit such as apple and two types of pears were examined by dipping them into the solution of ethoprophos. The effective diffusivities of ethoprophos at the skin and flesh of apple and pear were determined by simulation their experimental accumulation curves with calculated ones from the model assuming consecutive diffusion of ethoprophos from skin to flesh. Its effective diffusivity at the flesh with higher content of water were higher,
, regardless of the types of fruits, while that at the skin was small,
and increased with the order of 'Niitaka' pear < 'Whangkeumbae' pear < 'Fuji' apple. The variation in the concentration of ethoprophos in its solution did not induce any change in affecting its effective diffusivity at the flesh of 'Whangkeumbae' pear, but the increase in the concentration caused the increase in its effective diffusivity at the skin. The penetration rate of ethoprophos at the skin was an important factor in determining its accumulation rate in fruit.
Electricity Generation from Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) Using a Microbial Fuel Cell
Oh, S.E. ; Kim, S.J. ; Yang, J.E. ; Jung, Y.S. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 179~185
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.179
A new technology that utilizes a microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed to generate electricity directly from the oxidation of organic matters such as carbohydrates or complex organics in wastewater. Fermentation of these organic matters results in production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), alcohols,
. We investigated the electricity-producing potential of the VFAs and actual food processing wastewater using a two-chambered MFC. The electrons produced by acetate degradation were proportional to acetate concentration in the medium. Acetate concentration and generated power were linearly correlated at a low range or acetate concentration (< 8 mg/L), but at above 8 mg/L of acetate the power produced was maintained at 0.1 mW. When butyrate was added to the anode acclimated to acetate, there was a lag period of 30 hr for electricity generation. However, when propionate was added to the same anode bottle, lag periods were not existed. The wastewater from baby food processing generated the maximum power density of
of electricity and exhibited the Coulombic efficiencies of 27.1% and 40.5% based on TCOD and SCOD, respectively. Sugars in the food processing wastewater were reduced within 50 h from 230 mg/L < 30 mg/L.
Radioactivity Analysis for Reliability Assessment in the Environmental Samples
Kang, Tae-Woo ; Hong, Kyung-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 186~191
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2007.26.2.186
The objective of this research was to assess the reliability of data and to improve nuclear analytical techniques concerning the Domestic Radioactivity Intercomparison program for environmental radioactivity monitoring of Jeju from 1998 to 2006. Gross beta for filter papers and water samples was determined, and gamma nuclides for natural and artificial nuclides in soil and water samples were analyzed. The gross beta activity of all samples except for the water samples of 1998 and 1999 showed a good agreement within the confidence intervals. In gamma nuclides,
of soil samples and most nuclides in the water samples, with the exception of several nuclides, were evaluated to be reliable. Based on these results, it is considered that a reliable method for the analysis and monitoring of environmental radioactivity were established, which may play an important role in case of emergency radiation accident.