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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Groundwater Quality for Agricultural Irrigation in Plastic Film House Using Multivariate Analysis
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Chul-Mann ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Yun, Sun-Gang ; Lee, Jung-Taek ; Cho, Kwang-Rae ; Lim, Su-Jung ; Choi, Seung-Chul ; Lee, Gyeong-Ja ; Kwon, Yeu-Seok ; Kyung, Ki-Chon ; Uhm, Mi-Jeong ; Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Lee, You-Seok ; Kim, Chan-Yong ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Ryu, Jong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.001
The main purpose of this study is to accumulate the fundamental data representing groundwater of plastic film houses by means of water quality and its multivariate statistical analysis. Groundwater samples were collected in every two years since 2000 to 2004 from total 211 sites. According to the result of water quality analysis, ground water quality was suitable for irrigation purpose averagely. Correlation analysis showed that EC was highest positively correlated with
to 0.810(p<0.01), 0.776(p<0.01) in April and July, respectively.
was highest positively correlated with T-N to 0.794(p<0.01) in October. This result shows that it can lead to a different result even in similar case sometimes. Four factors were extracted through factor analysis in April and July, but five factors were extracted in October. The proportions of cumulative variance by the factor were 64.9, 60.2, and 70.7 in April, July, and October, respectively. The first factor was highly related to anions and cations such as
, and EC in contrast to that of stream water. According to the cluster analysis, 211 sites are classified into four groups. Common type of ground water quality was shown in group A. The pH and
were highest in Group B. The anions and cations were highest in Group C.
was highest in Group D.
Estimation of the Pollutant Loads from Paddy Fields by Cultivation Practices Using a Non-point-source Model
Han, Kuk-Heon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 10~17
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.010
The objective of this study was to estimate the pollutant loads from paddy fields by cultivation practices using a non-point-sources models. One of them is CREAMS-PADDY model that was developed considering the water balance and mass balance of paddy fields. The CREAMS-PADDY model was applied to provide basic data to reduce runoff loadings under various scenarios such as various water management control and various fertilizer condition. The model was verified against T-N, T-P and runoff flow data collected during cropping periods at 2000. The model results agreed well with the measured data in verification. The results showed that the model could be used for estimating the runoff loadings from irrigated paddy fields by cultivation practices was possible. Comparison of simulated the standard height and the sluice management of T-N and T-P runoff loadings from paddy fields were +32.4%, +10.3% in 10 mm below the standard height, -29.2%, -35.9% in 20 mm above the standard height, 52.6%, 59.0% in 40 mm above the standard height, respectively. Comparison of simulated the standard fertilizer and the fertilizer control of T-N and T-P runoff loadings from paddy fields were -1.3%, -21.7%in reduction of conventional fertilizer 30%, -1.0%, -12.5% in reduction of standard fertilizer 30%, respectively. Therefore, reducing nonpoint-sources nutrient loading by reducing fertilization may not work well in the range of normal paddy rice farming practices, and instead it could be achieved by reducing surface drainage outflow.
Behavior and Decomposition Velocity of Pollutants on Various Forms from Domestic Sewage in Small-scale Sewage Treatment Plant by Natural Purification Method
Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Park, Woo-Young ; Lim, Jong-Sir ; Hwang, Seung-Ha ; Park, Chan-Hoon ; Choi, Jeong-Hwan ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Lee, Do-Jin ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 18~26
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.018
Behavior and decomposition velocity of pollutants on various forms from domestic sewage in sewage treatment plant were investigated in order to obtain the basic data for improving the removal efficiency of pollutants and to reduce the area in constructed wetland by natural purification method. The removal amounts of BODs and CODs in aerobic bed were significantly higher than those of the other beds. In aerobic bed, the removal amounts of IBOD and ICOD were more than those for SBOD and SCOD, respectively, whereas the removal amounts of BODs and CODs in anoxic and anaerobic beds were little different. The removal amounts of SSs in aerobic bed were also higher than those for the other beds, and the removal amounts of VSS in all beds were more than those for FSS. The removal amounts of DTN and DTP in all beds were more than those for STN and STP, respectively. In addition, the decomposition velocities of TBOD, TCOD and TSS in aerobic bed were 30.79, 17.15 and 29.96
. Moreover, the decomposition velocities of BODs, CODs and SSs in aerobic bed were very rapid than those in the other beds. On the other hand, the decomposition velocities of BODs, CODs and SSs in anoxic and anaerobic beds were a little different regardless of the forms of pollutant. The decomposition velocities constants of T-N in aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic beds were 4.78, 0.12 and 0.10
, respectively. Moreover, the decomposition velocities constants of T-P in aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic beds were 13.09, 0.12 and 0.13
respectively. The decomposition velocity of T-Ns and T-Ps in aerobic bed were slightly rapid than those in the other beds, whereas the decomposition velocities of T-Ns and T-Ps in anoxic and anaerobic beds were slightly different regardless of the forms of pollutant.
A Study on the Improvement of Treatment Efficiency for Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Improved Sewage Treatment Process in Constructed Wetland by Natural Purification Method
Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Park, Woo-Young ; Lim, Jong-Sir ; Park, Chan-Hoon ; Lee, Hong-Jae ; Kim, Hong-Chul ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Lee, Do-Jin ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.027
To effectively treat the domestic sewage that was produced on a small-scale in farming and fishing village in order to encourage an ecologically friendly environment, a small-scale sewage treatment apparatus using natural purification methods that consisted of an aerobic and an anaerobic plots were constructed. The efficiency of sewage treatment according to the sewage loading was investigated to obtain the optimum sewage loading in small-scale sewage treatment apparatus. Removal rate of pollutants according to the sewage loading were in the order of
. Therefore, the optimum sewage loading was 300 L m-2 day-1. Under the optimum sewage loading, removal rate of BOD,
, turbidity, T-N and T-P were 99, 94, 99, 49 and 89%, respectively. However, to satisfy the water quality standard in effluent in small-sclae sewage treatment apparatus for domestic sewage treatment, the low removal efficiency of T-N and T-P must be improved. So to improve the removal rate of T-N and T-P, the efficiency of sewage treatment according to the improved sewage treatment process such as, re-treatment at aerobic plot, anaerobic condition of aerobic plot, changing the filter media sizes and the depths in anaerobic plot, and also addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot were investigated. In case of 150 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium A (effectivity particle size 1.50 mm) and addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot, removal rate of T-N and T-P in both plots were increased by 10 and 3%, and 14 and 7% in comparison with 100 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium B(effectivity particle size 0.95 mm), respectively. The optimum improved sewage treatment process in small-scale sewage treatment apparatus were 150 cm depth in anaerobic plot with filter medium A and addition of oyster shells to filter media at anaerobic plot.
Unit Loadings of Heavy Metals by Non-point Sources - Case Study in a Valley Watershed -
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Han, Kuk-Heon ; Lee, Jong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.035
The study was carried out to estimate runoff loads of heavy metals in the valley watershed at the middle of South Korea, during farming season. There were no other pollution sources except agricultural activity. From 27 April 2006 to 31 October 2007, water samples were collected using two methods. The first method was regular sampling wherein water samples were taken every two weeks; and the other method was through regular sampling when water were collected during each rainfall event. Results showed that heavy metals were found in the water from the regular samples, and were highest during May and June. It was presumed that this might have been contributed by farming activities. Heavy metal concentration of the irregular samples was lower than regular samples. The correlation coefficient between each heavy metal of the regular samples were as follows: Fe-Al>Cr-Al>Fe-Cr>Mn-Fe. The correlation coefficient of the irregular samples were the following: Fe-Al>Fe-Cu is positive; and Pb-Cu>Ni-Al is negative. Measured pollutant loads of heavy metals in the valley watershed were : 2.047 kg
of Al, 0.008 kg
of Cd, 0.034 kg
of Cr, 0.311 kg
of Cu, 0.601 kg
of Fe, and 0.282 kg
of Zn in 2006; while in 2007, the following were observed: 2.535 kg
of Al, 0.026 kg
of Cd, 0.055 kg
of Cu, 0.727 kg
of Fe, and 0.317 kg
of Zn. In the analysis of data gathered, the loading rates of effluents from the valley watershed during the rainy season were : 79.8% of Al, 69.1% of Cu, 82.5% of Fe, and 69.1% of Zn in 2006; while 69.9% of Al, 67.5% of Cu, 70.4% of Fe, and 67.5% of Zn in 2007.
Generation and Current Treatment Status of Sewage at the Rural Village in Chungnam Province
Kang, Bang-Hun ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Chul-Mann ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 44~49
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.044
The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status, including the maintenance problems and removal efficiency, of small sewage treatment facilities in Chung-nam province(Asan, Buyeo, and Gongju city). Our results showed that inflow water quality of Asan city was 19.1 mg/L of BOD, 29.0 mg/L of COD, 13.4 mg/L of T-N and 1.5 mg/L of T-P, respectively, which was much higher than any other site. Among the factors known to be an important index of water quality, the SS and BOD removal efficiency was about 70% and 50% respectively. However, the nitrogen removal efficiency was less than 10%. The total removal efficiency of pollutant was 71.1% of SS, 52.6% of BOD, 46.2% of COD, 9.2% of T-P and 4.6% of T-N respectively. Therefore nitrogen removal processes are required to prevent serious eutrophication of small river. Removal efficiency for BOD and SS of high-efficient sewage treatment facilities (STFs) and contact oxidation process was much higher than another process. Performance of these sewage treatment facilities(STFs) is not optimal due to ineffective planning for the inflow water quality. To improve these facilities, it is proposed that a technical expert analysis of water quality at these facilities is periodically required.
Growth Response and Arsenic Uptake of White Clover (Trifolium repens) and Evening Primrose(Oenothera odorata) Colonized with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Arsenic-Contaminated Soil
Kim, Dae-Yeon ; Lee, Yun-Jeong ; Lee, Jong-Keun ; Koo, Na-Min ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 50~59
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.050
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae(BEG 107) in enhancing growth and arsenic(As) and phosphorus(P) uptake of white clover(Trifolium repens) and evening primrose(Oenothera odorata) in soil collected from a gold mine having concentrations of 381.6 mg total As
and 20.5 mg available As
. Trifolium repens and O. odorata are widely distributed on abandoned metalliferous mines in Korea. The percent root colonization by the AM fungus was 55.9% and 62.3% in T. repens and O. odorata, respectively, whereas no root colonization was detected in control plants grown in a sterile medium. The shoot dry weight of T. repens and O. odorata was increased by 323 and 117% in the AM plants compared to non-mycorrhizal(NAM) plants, respectively. The root dry weight increased up to 24% in T. repens and 70% in O. odorata following AM colonization compared to control plants. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the accumulation of As in the root tissues of T. repens and O. odorata by 99.7 and 91.7% compared to the NAM plants, respectively. The total uptake of P following AM colonization increased by 50% in T. repens and 70% in O. odorata, whereas the P concentration was higher in NAM plants than in the AM plants. Colonization with AM fungi increased the As resistance of the host plants to As toxicity by augmenting the yield of dry matter and increasing the total P uptake. Hence, the application of an AM fungus can effectively improve the phytoremediation capability of T. repens and O. odorata in As-contaminated soil.
Effect of Organic Matter and Moisture Content on Reduction of Cr(VI) in Soils by Zerovalent Iron
Yang, Jae-E. ; Lee, Su-Jae ; Kim, Dong-Kuk ; Oh, Sang-Eun ; Yoon, Sung-Hwan ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 60~65
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.060
Current soil remediation principles for toxic metals have some limitations even though they vary with different technologies. An alternative technology that transforms hazardous substances into nonhazardous ones would be environmentally beneficial. Objective of this research was to assess optimum conditions for Cr(VI) reduction in soils as influenced by ZVI(Zero-Valent Iron), organic matter and moisture content. The reduction ratio of Cr(VI) was increased from 37 to 40% as organic matter content increased from 1.07 to 1.75%. In addition, Cr(VI) concentration was reduced as soil moisture content increased, but the direct effect of soil moisture content on Cr(VI) reduction was less than 5% of the Cr(VI) reduction ratio. However, combined treatment of ZVI(5%), organic matter(1.75%) and soil moisture(30%) effectively reduced the initial Cr(VI) to over 95% within 5 days and nearly 100% after 30 days by increasing oxidation of ZVI and concurrent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results demonstrated that ZVI was effective in remediating Cr(VI) contaminated soils, and the efficiency was synergistic with the combined treatments of soil moisture and organic matter.
Effects of Fly Ash and Gypsum Mixture on Reducing Phosphorus Loss from Paddy Soil
Lee, Yong-Bok ; Lee, Seul-Bi ; Oh, Ju-Hwan ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Hong, Chang-Oh ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 66~71
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.066
Phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils to surface waters is an important environmental issue. Fly ash and phospho-gypsum which are industrial by-product were investigated as a means of reducing dissolved phosphorus in arable soil. To determine the optimum mixing ratio of fly ash(FA) and phospho-gypsum(PG) for reducing dissolved reactive P(DRP) in soil, various mixture ratio of FA and PG were mixed with two soil. The DRP content and pH in soils were analysed after 3 weeks incubation under flooding condition. Although DRP content in soils was significantly decreased by FA-PG mixture compared with control, there were no significant difference among the FA and PG mixture ratio of 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. The mixture of 75% FA and 25% PG was selected for field test. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the reducing DRP content in paddy soil to which 0(NPK), 20(FG 20), 40(FG 40), and 60(FG 60) Mg
of the mixture were applied. The DRP content was reduced by 31% at the application rate of 60 Mg
. In contrast to deceasing DRP, Ca-P content increased significantly with the mixture application rate. After rice harvesting, available
, P, and exchangeable Ca content in soil increased significantly with application rate due to high content of Si, P, and Ca in the mixture. Mixtures of fly ash and gypsum should reduce P loss from paddy soil and increase soil fertility.
Habitat Characteristic and Community Structures of Humulus japonicus in Korea's Middle region
Oh, Young-Ju ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Moon, Byoung-Chul ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Oh, Se-Mun ; Kim, Seok-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.072
Phytosociological study was carried out to investigate the structural characteristics of Humulus japonicus community in the Middle area of Korea. The vegetation data of total 67
were analyzed by the
-Montpellier school's method. Upper layer plant communities of Humulus japonicus were classified into four community groups : Humulus japonicus-Artemisia princeps community, Chenopodium album community, Setaria viridis-Echinochloa crus-galli community and Typical community. Lower layer plant communities were classified into five community groups : Galium spurium-Stellaria aquatica community, Equisetum arvense community, Persicaria theunbergii community, Echinochloa crus-galli-Digitaria ciliaris community and Typical community. According to the results of canonical correspondence analysis by vegetation and environmental factor, Setaria viridis-Echinochloa crus-galli community of upper layer was distributed throughout the soil with high relative light and soil hardness. Chenopodium album community appeared in the soil with high pH. Galium spurium-Stellaria aquatica community of lower layer was formed in the high soil pH. Persicaria theunbergii community and Echinochloa crus-galli-Digitaria ciliaris community were distributed in the soil with high moisture.
The Antidermatophytic Potential of the Marine Isolate of Aspergillus sp. Collected from South Coast of Korea
Bajpai, Vivek K. ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 80~85
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.080
This study was carried out to assess the antidermatophytic potential of the ethyl acetate(EtOAc) extract of the marine isolate of Aspergillus sp.. The fungus was isolated by serial dilution, and was identified Aspergillus sp.. The EtOAc extract of the fungus was examined to evaluate the antidermatophytic efficacy against the fungal pathogens infecting human skin using the disc diffusion and MIC(minimum inhibitory concentration) determination methods. The EtOAc extract(
) was considered to have the antidermatophytic activity based on the inhibition percentage of the mycelial growth of the fungi tested such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6085, Microsporum canis KCTC 6591, Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6352, Microsporum canis KCTC 6349 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6316. The percentage of the inhibition ranged from 54% to 81, and the MIC obtained was 62.5, 62.5, 250, 125, 125, and
, respectively. The extract had a strong detrimental effect on the spore germination of the tested skin infectious pathogens. These findings strongly support the role of the ethyl acetate extract as a potential antidermatophytic agent.
Oxidative Degradation of the Herbicide Dicamba Induced by Zerovalent Iron
Lee, Kyung-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 86~91
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.086
Dicamba(3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is used to control for pre and post-emergence of annual and perennial broad-leaf weeds. It is very soluble in water and highly mobile, acidic herbicide. So it is easily moved and detected in groundwater. Zerovalent iron(ZVI) has been used for the reductive degradation of certain compounds through amination of nitro-substituted compounds and dechlorination of chloro-substituted compounds. In this study, we investigated the potential of ZVI for the oxidative degradation of dicamba in water. The degradation rate of dicamba by ZVI was more rapidly increased in pH 3.0 than pH 5.0 solution. The degradation percentage of dicamba was increased with increasing amount of ZVI from 0.05% to 1.0%(w/v) and reached above 90% within 3 hours of reaction. As a result of identification by GC-MS after derivatization with diazomethane, we obtained three degradation products of dicamba by ZVI. They were identified 4-hydroxy dicamba or 5-hydroxy dicamba, 4,5-dihydroxy dicamba and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxyphenol. 4-Hydroxy dicamba or 5-hydroxy dicamba and 4,5-dihydroxy dicamba are hydroxylation products of dicamba. 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxyphenol is hydroxyl group substituted compound instead of carboxyl group in dicamba. We also confirmed the same degradation products of dicamba in the Fenton reaction which is one of oxidation processes using ferric sulfate and hydrogen peroxide. But we could not find out the dechlorinated degradation products of dicamba by ZVI.
Residue Patterns of Indoxacarb and Thiamethoxam in Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L.) Grown under Greenhouse Conditions and Their Estimated Daily Intake
Lee, Eun-Young ; Kim, Dae-Kyu ; Park, In-Young ; Noh, Hyun-Ho ; Park, Young-Soon ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Jin, Chung-Woo ; Kim, Kwang-Ill ; Yun, Sang-Soon ; Oh, Sang-Kyun ; Kyung, Kee-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 1, 2008, Pages 92~98
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.1.092
This experiment was carried out to investigate the residue patterns of two insecticides, indoxcarb and thiamethoxam, commonly used for Chinese cabbage, under greenhouse conditions. The pesticides were sprayed onto Chinese cabbage at the recommended dose and double of the recommended dose 10 days before the prearranged harvest and then sampling was done at 0.17, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days after spraying. The amounts of their residues in the crop were analyzed with an HPLC. The limit of detection(LOD) of both indoxacarb and thiamethoxam was 0.01 mg
and mean recoveries of indoxacarb and thiamethoxam were from 97.91 to 104.36% and from 97.07 to 105.49%, respectively. Half-lives of indoxacarb and thiamethoxam were 3.4 and 2.3 days at the recommended dose and 3.3 and 3.5 days at the doubled dose, respectively. The ratios of the EDI to ADI by intake the crop harvested 10 days after spraying were less than 4% of their ADIs.