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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Optimum Configuration, Filter Media Depth and Wastewater Load of Small-scale Constructed Wetlands for Treating the Hydroponic Waste Solution in Greenhouses
Park, Woo-Young ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Lim, Jong-Sir ; Park, Seong-Kyu ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ; Yoon, Hae-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 217~224
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.217
To obtain optimum configuration, depth and load of constructed wetlands(CWs) for treating of hydroponic waste solution(HWS) which was produced in greenhouses, the study was conducted with 4 kinds of combined systems such as Vertical flow(VF)-Horizontal flow(HF), VF-VF, HF-VF and HF-HF CWs. In four configurations of CWs, the treatment efficiency of pollutants from HWS under depth of HF and VF beds, HWS loading and HWSs were investigated. Removal rate of pollutants under different depth of VF and HF in 2-stage hybrid CWs was in the order of 50 cm < 70 cm regardless of CWs configuration. Removal rate of pollutants under HWS loading in 2-stage hybrid CWs was in the order of
. The optimum depth and HWS loading were 70 cm and
in four configurations of CWs, respectively. Using this optimum condition, for various HWSs (cucumber, paprika and strawberry HWS), removal rate of pollutants in HF-HF CWs was higher than that in HF-VF CWs. Optimum configuration of 2-stage hybrid CWs for treating hydroponic waste solution in greenhouses was found out to be HF-HF CWs. Therefore, under the optimum conditions, removal rate of BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P in HF-HF CWs were 84, 81, 84, 51 and 93%, respectively.
Effects on Water Quality and Rice Growth to Irrigation of Discharge Water from Municipal Waste Treatment Plant in Rice Paddy during Drought Periods
Shin, Joung-Du ; Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Won-Il ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Yun, Sun-Gang ; Choi, Chul-Mann ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 225~230
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.225
Objective of this study was to access the environmental impacts of the use of discharge water from municipal waste water treatment plant as alternative irrigation resources during drought season for rice cultivation. For the field experiments, it was observed that plant growth and yield characteristics at 20 days of alternative irrigation period with application of FAST (fertilizer application based on soil test) 50% were relatively the same as the control. For the surface water quality, it appeared that
(electrical conductivity of irrigation water) and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) values of DMWT (discharge waters from municipal wastewater treatment plant) irrigation were twofold higher than those of ground water irrigation as the control regardless of fertilization levels. For the irrigation periods, there were not significantly difference between 10 and 20 days of treatments, but
and SAR values of surface water were highest at 30 days of irrigation periods at initial rice growing stages. Generally,
values of percolation water in all the treatments were gradually increasing until 30days after irrigation, and then decreasing to harvest stage. Overall, it might be considered that there was possibility to irrigate DMWT with application of FAST 50% for 20 days of drought periods at rice transplanting season. Furthermore, efficiency rate of alternative irrigation water for 20 days of drought period was 32.7% relative to the total annual irrigation water for rice cultivation.
Application of Adsorption Characteristic of Ferrous Iron Waste to Phosphate Removal from Municipal Wastewater
Kim, Jin-Hyung ; Lim, Chae-Sung ; Kim, Keum-Yong ; Kim, Dae-Keun ; Lee, Sang-Ill ; Kim, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.231
This study proposed the method of phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater by using ferrous iron waste, generated from the mechanical process in the steel industry. In the analysis of XRD, ferrous iron waste was composed of
(magnetite), practically with
. It had inverse spinel structure. In order to identify the adsorption characteristic of phosphate on ferrous iron waste, isotherm adsorption test was designed. Experimental results were well analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm theories. Empirical constants of all isotherms applied increased with alkalinity in the samples, ranging from 1.2 to 235
. In the regeneration test, empirical constants of Langmuir isotherm, i.e.,
(maximum adsorption capacity) and b (energy of adsorption) decreased as the frequency of regeneration was increased. Experiment was further performed to evaluate the performance of the treatment scheme of chemical precipitation by ferrous iron waste followed by biological aerated filter (BAF). The overall removal efficiency in the system increased up to 80% and 90% for total phosphate (TP) and soluble phosphate (SP), respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations were detected below 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L for TP and SP, respectively. However, short-circuit problem was still unsolved operational consideration in this system. The practical concept applied in this study will give potential benefits in achieving environmentally sound wastewater treatment as well as environmentally compatible waste disposal in terms of closed substance cycle waste management.
Chemical characteristics of Rainwater in Suwon
Lee, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Jung, Goo-Bok ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Yu, Sun-Gang ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.239
To evaluate the acidity and chemical characteristics of rainwater in Korea, its pH and ion concentrations were investigated in Suwon from April to December, 2006. In addition, to estimate the contribution of ions on its acidity, ion composition and neutralization effect of major cations were investigated. Ion balance and electrical conductivity balance between measured and estimated values showed a high correlation. The mean pH and EC in rainwater collected during the investigation periods were 4.7 and
, respectively. The monthly variation in EC showed a clear seasonal pattern, which had the lowest value of
in July and increased remarkably in November.
was the most abundant cation and followed by
. Among them,
accounted for more than 65% of the total cations. In case of anions, the relative abundance was
. About 67% of the total anions in rainwater was
, which showed
as mean value during the monitoring periods. Furthermore, 94% of the soluble sulfate in rainwater was identified as nss-
(non-sea salt sulfate). We also found that
contributed greatly in neutralizing the rain acidity, especially in dry season.
Effects of Soil Texture on Germanium Uptake and Growth in Rice Plant by Soil Application with Germanium
Lim, Jong-Sir ; Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Park, Woo-Young ; Cheon, Yeong-Seok ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.245
The growth characteristics and the Germanium (Ge) uptake of rice plant (Hopyungbyeo) in soil with Ge were investigated under different soil textures to obtain the basic information for agricultural utilization of Ge. This study was carried out in the Wagner pot (
). Ge concentration in soils such as clay loam, silt loam, loam and sandy loam for rice plant cultivation was treated at
. The growth status of rice plant was almost similar in all soil texture, and rice yield was higher in the order of silt loam > clay loam > loam > sandy loam. In rice bran, the Ge uptakes in silt loam, clay loam, loam and sandy loam were 980, 868, 754 and
, respectively. The Ge uptakes of brown rice and polish rice were greater in the order of silt loam > sandy loam > clay loam > loam. In silt loam, the Ge uptake rates in leaf, stem, root, rice bran and brown rice were 19.7, 2.3, 0.03, 3.1 and 0.44%, respectively. Therefore, under the given experimental condition the optimum soil texture for production of functional rice with Ge is a silt loam.
Effects of Soil Chemical Properties in Orchards on 'Niitaka' Pear Quality
Kim, Ik-Youl ; Chang, Tae-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.253
Soil environmental conditions can affect nutrient availability during growth stage of tree fruit. We investigated the cause of disorderd fruit by the influence of soil chemical properties in orchard soil, composition of mineral nutrient in leaves and fruit to occur physiological disorderd fruit at four locations (Ulsan, Gyeongju, Pyeongtaek, Ansung) compared to healthy. There were significantly different (P=0.05) in exchangeable Ca, K, Mg and total nitrogen content in orchard soil between physiological disordered fruit and healthy fruit. The exchangeable Ca content in orchard soil caused by physiological disordered fruit was statistically lower than that of healthy fruit. However, exchangeable K, Mg and total nitrogen contents were higher than that healthy (P=0.05). There was a significant difference (P=0.05) in Ca content between physiological disordered fruit and healthy. Ca content in fruit flesh of physiological disorderedfruit was statistically lower than that of healthy. The physiological disordered fruit was a higher ratio of Mg/Ca in fruit flesh and peel compared to healthy fruit and also the ratios of N/Ca and K/Ca in a leaf were higher. The negative correlation between Ca and K, and Ca and Mg was detected in the fruit flesh of physiological disordered fruit. Therefore, we concluded that insufficient Ca content in fruit may cause 'the physiological disorder' pomelo disease and high content of N, exchangeable K and Mg ion in the soil solution might be disturbs exchangeable Ca ion to be absorbed in fruit.
Influence of Growing Green Manures on Soil Microbial Activity and Diversity under Organically Managed Grape-greenhouse
Park, Kee-Choon ; Seo, Young-Jin ; Kim, Chan-Yong ; Kim, Jong-Su ; Yi, Young-Keun ; Seo, Ji-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 260~266
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.260
The aim of present work was to assess the response of soil microbial activity and diversity to green manures under the organically managed grape-greenhouse in early spring. Hairy vetch, milk vetch, and red clover were seeded in fall, and enzymatic activities by dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase, and microbial diversities by Biolog
and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) were characterized for soils sampled in early spring. Dehydrogenase activity and FDA hydrolytic activity did not differentiate the green manures but the average well color development of Biolog EcoPlate was higher in soils covered with red clover than control soil. Soil microbial functional diversity by Biolog EcoPlate differentiated the soils covered with hairy vetch and milk vetch, and Shannon diversity index by Biolog EcoPlate was higher in soils covered with hairy vetch than control soil. Principal component analysis of PLFA differentiated the soils covered with milk vetch from control soil.
Assessment of Energy Efficiency and Nutrient Balance in Organic Rice Farming Area
Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Kang, Jong-Gook ; Lee, Kyung-Do ; Lee, Jang-Hee ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ; Kim, Jae-Duk ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 267~273
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.267
Energy efficiency and nutrient balance are good methods for environmental assessment of the environmentally-friendly agriculture. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate the energy efficiency and nutrient balance of the organic rice farming, and 2) to suggest a solution to improvement the energy efficiency and nutrient balance. The set of estimation was performed at the organic rice farming area (8.9 ha) in Wanju-gun during the paddy cultivation period from 2006 to 2007. The organic farming complex consists of four weeding methods using 1) duck, 2) apple snail, 3) duck and apple snail and 4) hands and machinery. Results from this estimation should that the organic rice farming area was less efficient than conventional rice farming. The efficiency of organic farming area in 2006 was higher than in 2007. For the calculation of the nutrient balance, the N, P and K contents of input materials (cattle manure, milk vetch, mixed oilcake, rice bran, rice straw and barley straw) and output (farm products) were analysed. Annual environmental loads of N,
were estimated at 4.4 kg/10a, 13.8 kg/10a and 14.5 kg/10a, respectively. Cattle manure had the largest portion among the inputs items and nutrient concentration of cattle manure was high. Thus energy efficiency and nutrient balance depend on cattle manure input. Therefore it is necessary to control the manure input to improve the efficiency of organic rice farming.
Ovipositional Characteristics of the Ussur Brown Katydid, Paratlanticus ussuriensis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)
Bang, Hea-Son ; Na, Young-Eun ; Han, Min-Su ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Roh, Kee-An ; Lee, Jung-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 274~278
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.274
Paratlanticus ussuriensis oviposited from early July to mid-September under laboratory condition. A female laid on average 145 eggs during the period of reproduction and over 54% of the eggs were laid within 2 weeks after the first laying. The average depth of egg-laying in soil was 19.4 mm under surface. The average major axis of an egg was 5.7 mm and the minor axis was 2.0 mm. Just before hatching, the egg swelled about twice the weight of a newly laid. In tests of ovipositional preference in different types of media, more eggs were laid in soil than in vermiculite or in
floral form. Females also prefer shaded places in the field for reproduction, away from sunshine. In terms of the strategy for egg survival, adult moves to the hill-side adjacent to orchard farm to find a proper place for their egg laying and its survival in winter.
Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids in Brassica pekinensis Rupr. and Growing soil Influenced by Simulated Nitrate Deposition
Xie, Wen-Ming ; Liu, Xing-Quan ; Ko, Kwang-Yong ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 279~284
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.279
We investigated whether carboxylate exudation of Brassica pekinensis Rupr. was affected by nitrate deposition from simulated acid rain. A gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was employed for the determination of low molecular weight organic acids (LOA) in rhizosphere soils, bulk soil, roots and leaves of Brassica pekinensis Rupr.. Rhizosphere soils were collected after 8 weeks of plant growth by first removing the bulk soil from the root system and then by mechanical move off the rhizosphere soil that adhered to the root surface with soft brush. Soil and plant materials were simultaneously extracted with the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid (100:7, v/v). Seven organic acids, oxalic, malonic, fumaric, succinic, maleic, L-malic and citric acid were identified and quantified by GC equipped with FID. Oxalic, L-malic, and citric acids were found in both the bulk and rhizosphere soils, while most LOAs were not detected in the control treatment. On the contrary, except maleic acid, all other organic acids were detected in the leaves and roots of cabbages treated with nitrate deposition.
Actual Conditions and Alternative Materials for the Pesticides containing Persistent Organic Pollutants in South Korea
Lim, Young-Wook ; Kim, Ho-Hyun ; Lee, Jun-Sang ; Roh, Young-Man ; Lee, Gee-Young ; Jung, Hae-Woong ; Lee, Jae-Young ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 285~291
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.285
A global binding agreement was adopted with the leading of United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) on May 22, 2001 in Stockholm to regulate the production and distribution on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The agreement took effectuation with the ratification of 59 countries from the approval of 151 countries on May 17, 2004. After the approval on October 4, 2001, South Korea performed systematical investigation on POP-related substances such as chlordane, dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzenes (HCB), heptachlor, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to get ready for the ratification of the convention with country-specific exemption. The domestic distributions of those chemical substances have been officially prohibited since the late 1960s to the early 1980s. Although there were occasional reports for the detection of some of those chemical substances, those performed minute signification in their existence in the environment. A series of investigation with documentary examination and fact-finding survey showed the possibility for the ratification on the convention without country-specific exemption.
Isolation of endosulfan degrading bacteria and their degradation characteristics
Shin, Jae-Ho ; Kwak, Yun-Young ; Kim, Won-Chan ; So, Jai-Hyun ; Shin, Hyun-Soo ; Park, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Rhee, In-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 27, issue 3, 2008, Pages 292~297
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2008.27.3.292
A bacterium, which was named to be Bacillus sp. E64-2, capable of degrading endosulfan was isolated from the environmental sample using enrichment culture technique. The Bacillus sp. E64-2 was able to degrade 99% of 10 mg/L endosulfan in the culture media within 7 days at
. Endosulfan diol was the only intermediate by the endosulfan degrading bacterial culture and the pH value of the culture media was significantly increased to pH 8.4 from pH 7.0 after 7 days of incubation. When the endosulfan and the crude extract of the strain were incubated, endosulfan diol was a major metabolite. Both the enzymatic reaction and the pH-increasing effect contribute to the degradation of endosulfan by the bacterial culture.