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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Relationship between Soil Management Methods and Soil Chemical Properties in Protected Cultivation
Kang, Yun-Im ; Lee, In-Bog ; Par), Jin-Myeon ; Kang, Yong-Gu ; Kim, Seung-Heui ; Ko, Hyeon-Seok ; Kwon, Joon-Kook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 333~339
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.333
Various cultural practices have been promoted as management options for enhancing soil quality and health. The use of soil management methods can cause changes in fertility by affecting soil chemical properties. This study aimed to evaluate interactions between soil chemical properties and soil management methods in protected cultivation, and to classify soil management methods that similarly affect soil chemical properties. Water-logging and irrigation reduced soil pH and available
content. Application of animal manures has a positive effect on levels of organic matter, Av.
, K, Zn, and Cu. The electrical conductivites tened to be low in the application of organic amendments, including rice and wood residues. Deeper plowing caused a reduction in Ca content. Practicing soil nutrient-considering fertilization and fertigation did not exert an influence on nutrient element contents. In a cluster analysis of the soil management methods according to major nutrients, low similarities were found with deeper plowing and crop rotation with rice in comparison with other practices. In a cluster analysis by minor nutrient characteristics, crop rotation and application of animal manures and rice residues were linked at a high Ward's distance, while other practices were found to be relatively low distinct. Each soil management method has a similar or different effect on soil chemical properties. These results suggest the necessity of establishing limits and standards according to the effects of soil management methods on soil chemical properties for economic soil practices.
Environmental Monitoring of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Soils Adjacent to CCA-Treated Wood Structures in Gangwon Province, South Korea
Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. ; Awad, Yasser M. ; Kim, Min-Su ; Ham, Kwang-Joon ; Lim, Kyoung-Jae ; Joo, Jin-Ho ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 340~346
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.340
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative that has been intensively used to protect wood from decay during the last few decades. CCA is widely used to build structures such as decks, fences, playgrounds and boardwalks. However, structures constructed of CCA-treated wood have caused adverse environmental effects due to leaching of Cr, Cu and As into surrounding soils. This research was conducted to monitor the vertical and horizontal distribution of Cr, Cu and As in soils adjacent to CCA-treated wood structures in Korea. Two structures constructed with CCA-treated wood were selected at Hongcheon and Chuncheon in Gangwon Province, South Korea. Eleven soil profile samples were collected at depths of 0 to 80 cm at each site, while 12 surface soil samples were collected at distances of 0 to 200 cm from each structure. The soil chemical properties, soil particle size distribution and total metal concentrations were then determined. The results revealed that soils near CCA-treated wood structures were generally contaminated with Cr, Cu and As when compared to the background concentration of each metal. In addition, the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils decreased as the vertical and horizontal distance from the structure increased. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the mobility and distribution of these metals in the environment as well as to develop novel technologies for remediation of CCA contaminated soils.
Effect of Magnesium deficiency on Chlorosis and Fruit Quality of Grapevine
Chang, Tae-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 347~355
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.347
Grape fruit quality can be deteriorated with leaf chlorosis caused by magnesium (Mg) deficiency during fruit coloring season in several grapevine varieties. The occurrence of leaf chlorosis and soil Mg states for four grapevine varieties (Campbell Early, Muscat bailey A (MBA), Sheridan, and Kyoho) in the vineyards of Gyeongsan and Youngcheon were surveyed. The relationships between leaf chlorosis and fruit qualities were also investigated. Leaf chlorosis was more widely found and the symptom was stronger in Campbell Early in comparison to the other varieties. Sugar content and Hunter values (L, a, b) of grape fruit were significantly lower in the trees of chlorosis when compare to healthy grapevine trees. Soil Mg contents in the vineyards where leaf chlorosis was found were lower than the optimum level for grapevine. Also Mg content in the petioles of chlorosis grapevines was significantly lower than healthy grapevines. Application of Mg through foliar spray and soil fertigation was quite effective in correcting deficiencies of Mg in grapevine. Proper management of soil Mg availability and K/Mg ratio is strongly recommended to prevent Mg deficiency in grapevine.
The Physio-chemical Variation of the Host Plants and Feed Preference of the Ussur Brown Katydid, Paratlanticus ussuriensis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)
Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Jung, Myung-Pyo ; Na, Young-Eun ; Han, Min-Su ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 356~364
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.356
In 2006 and 2007, there was a big outbreak of the Ussur Brown Katydid, Paratlanticus ussurriensis in the central part of Korea attacking some orchard trees. Until 2000, the katydid had not been regarded as an agricultural pest because they were distributed widely in Korea with low population density and their habitats were confined mainly to hillsides of forested areas. The fact that katydid attacked orchard trees with a higher population density seemed to be related to a change in feeding environment. And the shift of their habitats from oak woodlands to commercial orchards was thought to be related to the nutritional contents of their feed. In an attempt to understand these relationships, we conducted an ecological study of the affected areas. When the katydids changed their habitats in early May of 2008 and 2009, they shifted their host plants from oak trees to peach trees. The habitat shift was closely related to the nitrogen (N) content of the host plant leaves. When katydid moved to the hillside adjacent to orchard farm, N content of oak tree leaves decreased dramatically from 5.3% to 2.2%. At that time N content of peach tree leaves were higher than the 2.2% of oak leaves, showing 3.5~5.0%. This range of N content of peach tree leaves has been consistent until late June. And feed preference analysis carried out in the laboratory showed that katydid prefered peach tree leaves to peach fruit to oak tree leaves.
Formation of Vegetation in an Inland Wetland, Minarimot, of Jeju Islands, and its Relationship to Water Environment
Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Han, Min-Su ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Jung, Myung-Pyo ; Na, Young-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 365~370
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.365
The aim of this study was to investigate the vegetation types of Minarimot, in Jeju Islands. The vegetation types were classified by the Z-M school method and cluster analysis. The vegetation in Minarimot was classified into 6 communities and 2 subcommunities: Persicaria thunbergii-Isachne globosa community (vegetation type: A), Scirpus tribangulatus-Eleocharis manillata var. cyclocarpa community (B) (Aneilema keisak subcommunity (B-1) and Caldesia parnassifolia-Potamogeton distinctus subcommunity (B-2)), Eleocharis kuroguwai community (C), Phragmites communis community (D), Scirpus tabernaemontani community(E) and Typha orientalis community (F). These communities were grouped into three main categories according to cluster analysis. The community (A) established at the edge of the wetland which has the driest condition was distinguished as Group I, while the community (B) emerged in the submerged zone was distinguished as Group III. The Group II was designated as the communities (C, D, E, F) between Group I and III, whose communities were occasionally submerged. The result of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) appeared that the different vegetation established along the wetland were depending on water environment such as water depth and the period submerged.
Effects of DO concentration on Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification(SND) in a Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)
Park, Noh-Back ; Choi, Woo-Yung ; Yoon, Ae-Hwa ; Jun, Hang-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 371~377
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.371
In this study, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) from synthetic wastewater were performed to evaluate dissolved oxygen(DO) effects on chemical oxygen demand(COD) and nitrogen removal in a single membarne bio-reactor(MBR). DO levels in MBR at Run 1, 2, and 3 were 1.9~2.2, 1.3~1.6, and 0.7~1.0 mg/L, respectively. Experimental results indicated that DO had an important factor to affect COD and total nitrogen(TN) removal. SND were able to be accomplished in the continuous-aeration MBR by controlling ambient DO concentration. It is postulated that, because of the oxygen diffusion limitation, an anoxic micro-zone was formed inside the flocs where the denitrification might occur. From the results of this study, 96% of COD could be removed at DO of 0.7mg/L. At run 2 72.92% of nitrogen was removed by the mechanisms of SND (7.75mg-TN/L in effluent). In this study, SND was successfully occurred in a MBR due to high MLSS that could help to form anoxic zone inside microbial floc at bulk DO concentrations of 1.3~1.6mg/L.
Stabilization of As in Soil Contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Using Calcinated Oyster Shells
Moon, Deok-Hyun ; Cheong, Kyung-Hoon ; Kim, Tae-Sung ; Khim, Jee-Hyeong ; Choi, Su-Bin ; Moon, Ok-Ran ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 378~385
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.378
Arsenic (As) is known to be very toxic and carcinogenic to human beings. Arsenic contaminated soil was collected from a timber mill site at Busan Metropolitan City, Korea, where chromated copper arsenate (CCA) had been used to protect wood from rotting caused by insects and microbial agents. The soil was stabilized using both natural oyster shells (NOS) and calcinated oyster shells (POS). The calcination of natural oyster shells was accomplished at a high temperature in order to activate quicklime from calcite. Two different oyster shell particle sizes (-#10 mesh and -#20 mesh) and curing periods of up to 28 days were investigated. The stabilization effectiveness was evaluated based on the Korean Standard Test (KST) method (1N HCl extraction). The stabilization results showed that the POS treatment was more effective than the NOS treatment at immobilizing the As in the contaminated soils. A significant As reduction (96%) was attained upon a POS treatment at 20 wt% and passed the Korean warning standard of 20 mg/kg ('Na' area). However, an As reduction of only 47% (169 mg/kg) was achieved upon a NOS treatment at 20 wt%. The -#20 mesh oyster shells seem to perform better than the -#10 materials. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results showed that As immobilization was strongly associated with Ca and O in the presence of Al and Si.
Adsorption of Divalent Cationic Herbicides from Aqueous Solution by FA-zeolite A and X
Choi, Choong-Lyeal ; Yeo, Sang-Woon ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Park, Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 386~391
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.386
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the adsorption properties of fly ash (FA)-derived zeolites A and X for the divalent cationic herbicides, paraquat and diquat. Their adsorption isotherms were well fitted to the Langmuir equation, indicating that adsorption mainly occurred on the crystal surface. FA-zeolite X showed a higher adsorption capacity than that of FA-zeolite A due to wide pore window size in spite of its low CEC. The equilibrium adsorption increased with increasing the reaction temperature because of the enhanced molecule activity and the thermal expansion of zeolite pore windows. Overall, these results demonstrated that the FA-zeolite synthesized from fly ash could be used as a low-cost mineral adsorbent for the removal of environmental cationic organic pollutants from the aqueous solution.
Ammonia Emission and Nitrogen and Phosphorous Loss by Rainfall from Cow Manure Pile
Yun, Hong-Bae ; Lee, Youn ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Kim, Suk-Chul ; Hong, Seung-Gil ; Lee, Yong-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 392~396
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.392
For the reduction of ammonia (
) volatilization from the cow manure composting process, a cow manure pile was covered with vinyl (white polyethylene) and the ammonia emissions were evaluated using the dynamic chamber system for 47 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss from cow manure pile by rainfall was also measured in this study. In the cow manure pile without covering, the amount of
emission was 0.78 N kg/Mg which accounted for 9.4% of total nitrogen contents in the cow manure. Eighty nine percent of the total
emission during experimental period from the cow manure pile without covering was emitted for the first 21 days. The vinyl covering of cow manure pile reduced 91% of
emission compared to the pile without covering. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus loss by rainfall from cow manure pile without covering were 1.27 N kg/Mg and 0.23 P kg/Mg for 47 days, respectively. Results from this study demonstrated that vinyl covering of cow manure pile could reduce
emission and loss of nitrogen and phosphorus by rainfall during composting.
Effect of Organic Residue Incorporation on Salt Activity in Greenhouse Soil
Lee, Seul-Bi ; Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Hong, Chang-Oh ; Kim, Sang-Yoon ; Lee, Yong-Bok ; Kim, Pil-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 397~402
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.397
In Korea, salt stress is one of the major problems limiting crop production and eco-environmental quality in greenhouse soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of organic residues (Chinese milk vetch, maize stalk, rice straw, and rye straw) for reducing salt activity in greenhouse soil. Organic residues was incorporated with salt-accumulated soil (EC, 3.0 dS
) at the rate of 5% (wt
) and the changes of electrical conductivity (EC) was determined weekly for 8 weeks under incubation condition at
. The EC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and water soluble ions in soil was strongly affected by C/N ratio of organic residues. After 8 weeks incubation, the concentration of water soluble
was significantly decreased in organic residues having high C/N ratio (maize stalk, rice straw, and rye straw) incorporated soil compared to organic residues having lower C/N ratio (Chinese milk vetch) incorporated soil. The EC value in Chinese milk vetch incorporated soil was higher than control treatment. In contrast, maize stalk, rice straw, and rye straw amended soil was highly decreased the EC value compared to control and Chinese milk vetch applied soil after 4 weeks incubation. Our results indicated that incorporation of organic residues having high C/N ratio (>30) could reduce salt activity resulting from reducing concentration of water soluble ions.
Optimization of in vitro seed germination of Taraxacum platycarpum
Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Kim, Young-Kwan ; Oh, Eun-Yi ; Jung, Kuk-Young ; Ko, Ki-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 403~408
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.403
Dandelion (Taraxacum platycarpum) has been widely utilized for medicinal purposes. However, the dandelion seeds are relatively difficult to germinate under cultivation conditions, which hampers seedling propagation of dandelion plants and reduces the opportunity of usage of such a useful medicinal plant. Thus, in this study, in vitro conditions for the dandelion seed germination were optimized to enhance the germination rate. In seed washing steps, the sequential treatments with 20% of ethanol, 20% of NaOCl, and distilled water avoided microbial contamination with the highest in vitro germination rate (67.5%) from seeds sown in germination media. The media supplemented with 1.4 g/L of MS salts and 1% of sucrose significantly enhanced the germination rate compared to the media with 4.4 g/L of MS and 3% of sucrose. Sowing the seeds vertically in the optimized media supplement conditions, 1.4 g/L of MS salts and 1% of sucrose, gave the maximum in vitro germination rate (61%), which was almost three times higher than sowing seeds on a soil pot (23%). Our results indicate that the seed washing and sowing methods including germination medium supplements can be optimized to enhance in vitro seed germination of dandelion.
Effect of Phytochelatin Synthase Expression on Degradation of Fungicide Tolclofos-methyl in Mutant Plant and Transformed yeast
Yoon, Ha-Im ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Shin, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Hoe ; Lee, Sang-Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 409~411
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.409
Phytochelatins (PCs) are small-sized peptides synthesized by PC synthase (PCS) using glutathione (GSH) as a substrate, and they play an important role in the detoxification of toxic heavy metals in plants, fission yeast, and other living organisms. Recently, it has been suggested that PCS is also involved in degradation of some xenobiotics including monobromobimane. PCS cleaves the Gly residue from GSH-xenobiotics conjugates resulting in
-Glu-Cys-xenobiotics, and this is to degraded further. Therefore, our research is focus on whether PCS is also involved in degradation of tolclofos-methyl, an important pesticide which has been used in ginseng cultivated areas. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis PCS confers tolerance to tolclofos-methyl in yeast. Furthermore, PCS-deficient Cad1-3 Arabidopsis mutant showed high sensitivity to tolclofos-methyl compared with wild-type plants. These results imply that PCS is involved in degradation of tolclofos-methyl as other xenobiotics.
Residues Amounts of Cypermethrin and Diethofencarb in Ginseng Sprayed by Safe Use Guideline
Lee, Ju-Hee ; Kim, Young-Hwan ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Shin, Kab-Sik ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Park, Chan ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 412~418
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.412
This study is conducted in order to know the residue patterns of insecticide cypermethrin and fungicide diethofencarb in ginseng sprayed by various application methods. Two pesticides were sprayed separately on ginseng using traditional, soil and vinyl mulching applications. The vinyl mulching application was that head part of ginseng protected from pesticides. When cypermethrin was sprayed on ginseng by traditional application, its residue amount in ginseng was 0.25 mg/kg which exceeded 0.1 mg/kg, maximum residue limit(MRL) established by Korea Food & Drug Administration(KFDA). But in case of vinyl mulching and soil application, its residue amounts were 0.04 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. The residue amount of diethofencarb in ginseng was 3.01 mg/kg which exceeded the MRL, 0.3 mg/kg. Further, in case of vinyl mulching and soil application, its residue amounts were 1.71 and 9.39 mg/kg which exceeded the MRL 0.3 mg/kg. Although the residue amounts of both pesticides exceeded the MRLs for ginseng, we can explain that pesticides remained in head part of ginseng is probably the reason why higher pesticides residue levels were observed.
Biological Half-lives of Fungicides in Korean Melon under Greenhouse Condition
Lee, Ju-Hee ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Shin, Kab-Sik ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Park, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 419~426
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.419
This study was conducted to know the biological half-lives and dissipation patterns of fungicides, pyrimethanil, chlorothalonil and tetraconazole in Korean melon under green house condition. The instrument for analyzing pyrimethanil and chlorothalonil was HPLC equipped with UV detector. Initial residue amounts of pyrimethanil were 0.16 mg/kg at recommended rate and 0.28 mg/kg at double recommended rate in Korean melon. The biological half-lives of pyrimethanil were 11.2 days at recommended rate and 10.1 days at double recommended rate in Korean melon. In case of chlorothalonil, initial residue amounts of chlorothalonil were 0.06 mg/kg at recommended and 0.11 mg/kg at double recommended rate in Korean melon. The biological half-lives of chlorothalonil in Korean melon were 3.4 days at recommended rate and 6.6 days at double recommended rate. The instrument for analyzing tetraconazole was GLC equipped with electron capture detector. Initial residue amounts of tetraconazole were 0.14 mg/kg at recommended and 0.22 mg/kg at double recommended rate in Korean melon, respectively. The biological half-lives of tetraconazole were 9.6 days at recommended rate and 18.5 days at double recommended rate in Korean melon.
Establishment of Analytical Method of Prochloraz in Cabbage, Apple, Mandarin, Pepper and Hulled rice with GC-ECD
Lee, Eun-Mi ; Lee, Hye-Ri ; Riu, Myoung-Joo ; Park, Hee-Won ; Na, Ye-Rim ; Song, Hyuk-Hwan ; Keum, Young-Soo ; Zhu, Youngzhe ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.427
Analytical method for prochloraz in cabbage, apple, pepper, mandarin, and hulled rice was established by conversion it to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP). Crop samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and partitioned with dichloromethane. The sample extracts were hydrolyzed with pyridine hydrochloride in a vial by heating for 1 hour, and analyzed with GC-ECD after partitioning with dichloromethane. Method quantification limit (MQL) of prochloraz was 0.01 mg/kg. Recoveries at 0.1 mg/kg level was 105-113% while at 0.5 mg/kg level was 82-87%. In both of the cases CV was less than 10%. Through this procedure soxhlet extraction and refluxing apparatus of conventional method were discarded and simple solvent extraction and small vial were successfully employed, resulting in simple, rapid, economic and more precise method.
Antifungal and Plant Growth Promotion Activities of Recombinant Defensin Proteins from the Seed of Korean Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
Hwang, Cher-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 435~441
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.435
In the present study, we analyzed the defensin protein deduced from Korean radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds.To express the genes in E. coli, we constructed a recombinant expression vector with a defensin gene, named rKRs-AFP gene isolated from Korean radish seeds. Over expressed rKRs-AFP proteins was separated by SDS-PAGE to determine the purity, and protein concentration was determined by the Bradford method. Antifungal activity was assessed by disk assay method against the tested fungi. As a result, when 500 mL of cell culture were disrupted by sonicator, 32.5 mg total proteins were obtained. The purified protein showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with estimated molecular weight about 6 KDa, consistent with the molecular mass calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence. The purified rKRs-AFP protein showed remarkable antifungal activities against several fungi including Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea causing the gray mold disease, and Candida albicans. In field tests using the purified rKRs-AFP protein, the protein showed the reducing activity of disease spot and the mitigating effect of spreading of disease like agrichemicals. The immuno-assay of rKRs-AFP protein showed that the purified protein entirely accumulated at B. cinerea cytoplasm through the hyphal septa shown by fluorescence imaging. There was no fluorescence inside the cell, when the hypha was incubated without the protein. These all results indicate that the recombinant rKRs-AFP proteins can be utilized as a potential antifungal drug to control harmful plant fungal pathogens.
Isolation and Morphological Identification of Apple Anthracnose Fungus of Colletotrichum sp. KV-21
Bajpai, Vivek K. ; Choi, Seak-Won ; Cho, Moon-Soo ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 442~446
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.442
This study was undertaken to isolate and to identify a fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sp. KV-21 associated with apple anthracnose. Rotted Gala apples were used for the isolation of the fungus. The infected tissues were sterilized with 70% ethanol, washed with sterilized distilled water and were transferred to 50 ml containing potato broth (PDB) flasks. The peripheral hyphae of the fungal colony which developed from the infected tissues were isolated on to potato dextrose agar (PDA). On PDA plates the fungus grew well at
and occupied more than half of a 9 cm petri dish within 5 days. The fungal cultures on PDA were used for morphological observation and identification of the fungus. Conidiophores were produced on the gray to whitish sporodochial structures scattered on PDA plates which gave rise to conidiogenous cells. The structures of the conidia produced on PDA plates were subcylindrical to obovoid, fusoid, tapered and 4 to
Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus cereus A-139 Producing Auxin from East Coast Sand Dunes
So, Jai-Hyun ; Kim, Duk-Jin ; Shin, Jae-Ho ; Yu, Choon-Bal ; Rhee, In-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 447~452
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.447
A bacterium, which was named to be Bacillus cereus A-139, secreting auxin was isolated from the east coast sand dunes in Korea. The secretion of auxin was confirmed by HPLC. When cultured in LB broth, Bacillus cereus A-139 produced
g/mL auxin after 8 days in LB broth. Bacillus cereus A-139 produced
g/mL auxin and
g/mL by the addition of 2% tryptone and 0.1% tryptophan, respectively. The root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana was retarded by Bacillus cereus A-139 culture broth up to 57% but the formation of lateral roots was increased up to almost twice after 4 days incubation. Also the formation of lateral roots of mung bean was increased up to 57% after 10 days incubation.
Bioconcentration of Pirimiphos-methyl in Killifish (Oryzias latipes)
Seo, Jong-Su ; Chang, Hee-Ra ; Hamer, Mick ; Kim, Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 453~461
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.453
Killifish (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to an organophosphate pesticide, pirimiphos-methyl, in a flow-through system to determine the bioconcentration factor (BCF) following GLP (Good Laboratory Practice). This study was conducted at two different concentrations (1 and
-labeled pirimiphos-methyl for 28 days uptake and 14 days depuration according to the OECD 305 test guideline. The
for total radioactive residues in whole fish were 1,251 and 1,277 for low and high concentrations, respectively. The
based on the uptake and depuration rate constants were 1,200 for both low and high concentrations. During the depuration phase, the accumulated test substance was rapidly depurated from fish. Greater than 95% of the residue at steady-state was depurated after 2 days. Although the measured BCF values were high, pirimiphos-methyl could be evaluated as a low risk from bioaccumulation by aquatic organisms due to the short depuration period and low amount of bound residue (1.5%). We suggest that in evaluating bioaccumulation, not only the BCF should be considered, but also depuration time and bound residue in aquatic organisms give an indication of the potential environmental risks.
Apoptotic effect of formaldehyde in cultured human hepatocyte cell lines
Park, Soo-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 462~467
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.462
Exposure of formaldehyde (FA), one of the major compounds in pesticides and in the onset of sick house syndrome, has been implicated in the development of diverse diseases. Liver is a very important organ to body metabolism and drug detoxification. Apotosis of hepatocytes is associated with the onset of liver diseases such as hepatitis. However, the apoptotic effect of FA in hepatocytes is not clear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of FA on the apoptosis in HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line. As a result, FA (>
) decreased cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in HepG2 cells, which was blocked by the treatment of vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In addition, FA decreased glutathione (GSH) contents and Bcl-2 levels, while increasing lipid peroxide formation and Bax levels. It also cleaved caspase-3 form, which was blocked by the treatment of vitamin E and NAC. It is insisted that FA induced apoptosis via oxidative stress in human hepatocytes.
Response of Ussur Brown Katydid, Paratlanticus ussuriensis to Light-Emitting Diodes(LED)
Jung, Myung-Pyo ; Bang, Hea-Son ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Han, Min-Su ; Na, Young-Eun ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Lee, Deog-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 28, issue 4, 2009, Pages 468~471
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2009.28.4.468
This study was conducted to determine the phototactic response of Paratlanticus ussuriensis to different wavelength of light by the use of LEDs and to provide a basic information for developing an improved trap with the longer trapping efficiency to control environment-friendly this katydid. P. ussuriensis were attracted to the single LED light source, especially, blue and white. For the multiple LED light sources, the movement of P. ussuriensis was not significantly different among LED-light bands. Overall, P. ussuriensis had a tendency to move to light source although they were not attracted to a specific wavelength of light. These methods may be used as information for conducting a phototactic response of other insects.