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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Growth, Yield and Yield Components among Rice Cultivars for Organic Farming in No-tillage Paddy
Son, Daniel ; Lee, Young-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.001
Organic farming system in rice paddy is rapidly expanding in Korea. This study was to find out optimum japonica rice cultivars for organic farming. A field research was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of japonica rice cultivars under no-tillage paddy at Doo-ryangmyeon, Sacheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The experimental soil was Juggog series (silty clay loam: 56.0% silt, 31.2% clay and 12.8% sand). In experiment, ten lines of Japanese rice cultivars were tested under no-tillage amended with rye (NTR) and no-tillage without cover crop treatment (NTNT). In addition, two Korean japonica rice cultivars as check cultivars were used in this study. The grain yield in NTR was significantly higher in 6.13 Mg
for Kinuhikari, 5.30 Mg
for Komekogane, 5.25 Mg
for Kosihikari, 5.22 Mg
for Mazizbare and 5.12 Mg
for Akitakomachi compared to two Korean rice cultivars (4.57 Mg
for Hwayoungbyeo and 4.00 Mg
for Ilmibyeo) in that order. While, grain yield in NTNT was significantly higher in 4.90 Mg
for Akitakomachi 3.81 Mg
for Hinohikari, 3.74 Mg
for Umezkusi, 3.67 Mg
for Kosihikari and 3.54 Mg
for Dondokuri compared to 3.02 Mg
for Ilmibyeo and 2.36 Mg
for Hwayoungbyeo, respectively. The number of panicle per
and grain number per panicle were indispensible for increasing the yield of rice. These results were able to find out optimum japonica rice cultivar Akitakomachi for organic farming in no-tillage paddy.
Effects of Continuously Cropped Soil Extracts on Cell Viability and Seedling Growth of Peony(Paeonia lactiflora)
Park, Jun-Hong ; Choi, Seong-Yong ; Park, So-Deuk ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Park, Man ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 7~11
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.007
This experiment was conducted to investigate the growth inhibition effects caused by continuous cropping soil in peony(Paeonia lactiflora Pallas). The effect of extracts from continuous cropping soil of peony was tested with bio-assay method using callus cells induced from peony filament tissues and seedlings derived from peony zygotic embryos. The cell viability and seedling growth were significantly inhibited by methanol extract in continuous cropping soil. Methanol extract from continuous cropping soil was successively fractionated with solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The seedling growth was inhibited by ethyl acetate fraction obtained in methanol extract.
Effect of Nitrogen Fertigation by Soil Testing on the Growth and Yield of 'Campbell Early'(Vitis labrusca L.) Grapevine in Field Cultivation
Kang, Seok-Beom ; Lee, In-Bog ; Lim, Tae-Jun ; Park, Jin-Myeon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 12~19
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.012
Optimum nitrogen fertigation level by soil testing was determined on the growth and yield of eleven-year-old 'Campbell Early' (Vitis labrusca L.) grapevine in a sandy loam soil from 2005 to 2007. Fifty percent of the annual application of the nitrogen rate (195 kg/ha/yr) was top-dressed as basal fertilizer in all treatments, and the remainders were drip-irrigated with fertigation rate at 25 (12.5% of total N, N 1/4 level of the remainder), 50 (25% of total N, N 1/2 level), and 100 mg/L (50% of total N, N 1 level) in intervals of twice (2.1 mm/times) a week for 12 weeks, and the effect of N drip fertigation was compared to control which the N remainder was applied with surface application as an additional fertilizer. The results showed that chlorophyll content reading in SPAD value and N contents of leaves increased as nitrogen fertigation level increased. Also observed was the growth of the internode and stem diameter of shoots which were longest at N 1/2 level among the treatments conducted both in 2005 and 2006. It was also noted that yield of the fruit was different every year, where average yield for three years was recorded highest in N 1/4 level, and lowest in N 1 level compared to control(surface application). Soluble solid content and titratable acidity of fruit juice were also not significant during the treatments, the maturation of fruits tended to be retarded in N 1 level. The study proved that N 1/4 (N 25 mg/L) levels of fertigation based on soil testing was most efficient in obtaining optimum yield and also, fertigation of grapevine at open field condition reduces the use of nitrogen fertilizer.
Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Donggui Series in Jeju Island
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Moon, Kyung-Hwan ; Jeon, Seung-Jong ; Lim, Han-Cheol ; Kang, Ho-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 20~26
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.020
This study was conducted to reclassify Donggui series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Donggui series in Jeju Island. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Donggui series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon has very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam A horizon (0~17 cm), gravelly very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam BA horizon (17~42 cm), gravelly very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay loam Bt1 horizon (43~80 cm), brown (7.5YR 4/6) silty clay Bt2 horizon (80~105 cm), and brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay Bt3 horizon (105~150 cm). It is developed in lava plain and are derived from basalt and pyroclastic materials. The typifying pedon contains 1.3~2.1% oxalate extractable (Al + 1/2 Fe), less than 85% phosphate retention, and higher bulk density than 0.90
. That can not be classified as Andisol. But it has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to 150 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. That can be classified as Ultisol, not as Andisol and Inceptisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udalf. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludalf. It has 18-35% clay at the particle-size control section, and have thermic soil temperature regime. Therefore Donggui series can be classified as fine loamy, mixed, thermic family of Typic Hapludalfs, not as fine silty, mixed, thermic family of Dystric Eutrudepts.
Taxonomical Classification and Genesis of Anryong Series Distributed on Mountain Foot Slope
Song, Kwan-Cheol ; Hyun, Byung-Keun ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Park, Chan-Won ; Jang, Byoung-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 27~32
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.027
This study was conducted to reclassify Anryong series based on the second edition of Soil Taxonomy and to discuss the formation of Anryong series distributed on the mountain foot slope. Morphological properties of typifying pedon of Anryong series were investigated and physico-chemical properties were analyzed according to Soil survey laboratory methods manual. The typifying pedon of Anryong series has brown (7.5YR 4/4) loam Ap horizon (0-22 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) cobbly clay loam BAt horizon (22-35 cm), strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) cobbly clay loam Bt1 horizon (35-55 cm), reddish brown (5YR 5/4) cobbly clay loam Bt2 horizon (55-82 cm), and brown (7.5YR 5/4) cobbly clay loam Bt3 horizon (82-120 cm). The typifying pedon has an argillic horizon from a depth of 22 to 120 cm and a base saturation (sum of cations) of less than 35% at 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon. It can be classified as Ultisol, not as Alfisol. It has udic soil moisture regime, and can be classified as Udult. Also that meets the requirements of Typic Hapludults. It has 18-35% clay at the particle-size control section, and have mesic soil temperature regime. Therefore Anryong series can be classified as fine loamy, mesic family of Typic Hapludults, not as fine loamy, mesic family of Ultic Hapludalfs. Anryong series occur on mountain foot slope positions in colluvial materials derived from acid and intermediate crystalline rocks. They are developed as Ultisols with clay mineral weathering, translocation of clays to accumulate in an argillic horizon, and leaching of base-forming cations from the profile for relatively long periods under humid and temperate climates in Korea.
Determination of Nitrogen Fertilizer Recommendation Rates Estimated by Soil-Testing for Different Types of Paddy Soils
Moon, Young-Hun ; Kwon, Young-Rip ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Dong-Chil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.033
To improve the existing nitrogen recommendation method based on chemical properties of soils and to establish new recommendation rates of nitrogen fertilizer due to different types of soils, the application rates of nitrogen fertilizer were examined in different soils of 12 experimental rice paddy fields. The application rates of nitrogen fertilizer estimated by soil-testing were higher than the rates of nitrogen standard recommendation that has been used. The application rates for minimum rice productivity ranged from a low of 168 kg/10a in sandy soil to a high of 315 kg/10a in saline soil. Amounts of nitrogen absorption in rice were proportional to the application amounts of nitrogen fertilizer in soils. Nitrogen use efficiency was the highest, 36.7%, in immatured paddy field and it was inversely proportional to the application amounts of nitrogen. the rice tasty value was the highest in the soils without nitrogen application, and also it was the lowest in the saline soils with or without nitrogen application. As comparing with the nitrogen application rates obtained by the existing nitrogen recommendation method, optimal nitrogen application rates estimated by the standardization of nitrogen application efficiency rate, environmental index, and rice quality were 1.0 fold in the well adapted soil and sandy soil fields, 0.92 fold in the immatured soil field, and 0.83 fold in the saline soil field.
Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activities of Green Peppers Cultivated under Conventional and Environmental-Friendly Farming conditions
Choi, Jang-Yeol ; Choi, Yeo-Jin ; Lee, Seong-Gene ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 39~46
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.039
Environmental-friendly agriculture (EFA) is defined as the cultivation of crops with reduced amounts or without chemical-synthetic pesticides. Recently, the use of chemical pesticides has decreased significantly; therefore, we cultivated peppers following EFA- and conventional methods and compared their antioxidant activities. To accomplish this, the environmental-friendly cultivated peppers (EFPE) and conventionally cultivated peppers (CCPE) were extracted with 70% methanol and the effects of the extracts on the cell viability, intracellular ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity of HepG2 cells were evaluated. EFPE showed a stronger protective effect against oxidative stress induced-cell death than that of CCPE. EFPE also reduced intracellular ROS generation (42.7% to 26.4%) following treatment with hydrogen peroxide more effectively than that of CCPE (24.2% to 6.3%). Furthermore, EFPE and CCPE showed protective effects against lipid peroxidation and induced catalase activity, although these effects were not statistically significant. Taken together, these results suggest that EFPE showed stronger antioxidant activities than CCPE, and thus represent evidence that EFA with biocontrol materials may improve the functional properties of crops and/or secondary metabolites with antioxidant activities when compared with conventional agricultural practices.
Stabilization of As Contaminated Soils using a Combination of Hydrated Lime, Portland Cement, FeCl
O and NaOH
Moon, Deok-Hyun ; Oh, Da-Yeon ; Lee, Seung-Je ; Park, Jeong-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 47~53
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.047
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a stabilization treatment for As contaminated soil. A combination of hydrated lime, Portland cement,
, and NaOH were used as stabilizing agents. The effectiveness of stabilization treatment was evaluated by the Korean Standard Test (KST) method (1N HCl extraction). Sequential extractions were performed to investigate the As distribution after treatment. Following the application of the treatment, curing periods of up to 7 and 28days were investigated. The experimental results showed that a combination of hydrated lime/Portland cement was more effective than treatments of hydrated lime or Portland cement at immobilizing As in the contaminated soil. The treatment of 25wt% hydrated lime and 5wt% Portland cement was effective in reducing As leachability less than the Korean warning standard of 20 mg/kg. However, the treatments of hydrated lime and Portland cement failed to meet the Korean warning standard even when up to 30 wt% was used. The treatment utilizing hydrated lime and
was not effective in properly reducing As leachability. The addition of
was negative in terms of pH condition. Moreover, the treatment with hydrated lime/NaOH was effective in reducing As leachability but not as much as hydrated lime/Portland cement. The sequential extraction results indicated that the residual phase was greatly increased upon the treatment of hydrated lime/Portland cement. It was concluded that the hydrated lime/Portland cement treatment was the best among the other combinations studied at achieving trace As concentrations.
Effect of Liquid Pig Manure and Synthetic Fertilizer on Rice Growth, Yield, and Quality
Kwon, Young-Rip ; Kim, Ju ; Ahn, Byung-Koo ; Lee, Sang-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 54~60
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.054
We have researched the changes in nutrient content in each phase of fermentation in crops treated with liquefied pig fertilizer, and have determined the best method for applying livestock excrement to cultured crops. In the execution of this experiment, rice was cultivated to full maturity at a paddy field in Jeollabuk-Do Agriculture Research and Extension Services(Jeon-buk series) from 2007 to 2008. The rice plant nitrogen absorption quantity change, according to the growth stages of the cultivated rice, was 20.3% in the rice treated with the liquid pig manure and 22.2% the chemical fertilizer at highest congelation. The chemical fertilizer showed a higher absorption quantity than the liquid manure compost. The nitrogen density at highest congelation was 1.5% in the chemical fertilizer, and 1.8% in the pig manure liquid compost not a significant difference. The stem height at harvest time was 73.8 cm in the crops treated with the liquid pig manure compost. Those treated with the chemical fertilizer, yielded a height of 4.2 cm less than the crops treated with the liquid pig manure compost. The yield was 507 kg/10a in the liquid pig manure compost treated rice, compared with the chemical fertilizer, which showed a value of 1.2% lower. The protein content was 6.3% in the rice treated with the chemical fertilizer, but 6.4% in the rice treated with the liquid pig manure compost. This is not a significant difference. However, the lodging rice plant treated with the chemical fertilizer control showed a protein content of 6.8%, which was even higher than the normal rice. The head rice ratio in the brown rice and the polished rice ended up to be lower in the crop treated with the liquid pig manure than that treated with the chemical fertilizer, Quality, the palatability value, was similar in both groups. The above result indicate that, the effect of liquid pig manure compost corresponds to the effect of chemical fertilizer, when each are scattered uniformly.
Effect of Various Biodegradable Chelating Agents on Growth of Plants under Lead stress
Lee, Sang-Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 61~65
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.061
Phytoextraction is a method of phytoremediation using plants to remediate metal-contaminated soils. Recently, various chelating agents were used in this method to increase the bioavailability of metals in soils. Even though phytoextraction is an economic and environment-friendly method, this cannot be applied in highly metal-contaminated areas because plants will not normally grow in such conditions. This research focuses on identifying chelating agents which are biodegradable and applicable to highly metal-contaminated areas. Lead (Pb) as a target metal and cysteine (Cys), histidine (His), citrate, malate, oxalate, succinate, and ethylenediamine (EDA) as biodegradable chelating agents were selected. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as a comparative standard. Plants were grown on agar media containing various chelating agents with Pb to analyze the effect on root growth. Cys strongly increased the inhibitory effect of Pb on root growth of plants, while, His did not affect on it significantly. The inhibitory effect of oxalate is weak, and malate, citrate, and succinate did not show significant effects. Both EDTA and EDA diminished the inhibitory effect of Pb on root growth. The effect of EDA is correlated with decreased Pb uptake into the plants. In conclusion, as biodegradable chelating agents, EDA is a good candidate for highly Pb-contaminated area.
Suggestion for Establishment of Temporary MRLs and Safe use Guideline of the Organophosphorus Insecticides in Jinpi
Lee, Ju-Hee ; Shin, Kab-Sik ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Hwang, Jeong-In ; Lee, Byung-Hee ; Kang, In-Hoo ; Kang, Shin-Jung ; Kim, Tae-Hwa ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 66~71
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.066
Jinpi(Aurantii nobilis Pericarpium) is one of the most important material of oriental herbal medicine which is made from the peel of mandarin by washing with hot water and drying. Pesticides have necessarily used for mandarin cultivation according to their preharvest intervals (PHIs) but their maximum residue limits (MRLs) and PHIs for Jinpi are not established yet. This study is to know residue amount of organophosphorus insecticides in Jinpi and to establish the MRLs and PHIs for fenitrothion and phenthoate in Jinpi. Fenitrothion was sprayed once, twice and three times with 7 days interval before harvest. Its residue amount ranged from 0.14 to 1.17 mg/kg in mandarin, 0.59 to 4.02 mg/kg in its peel and 1.66 to 22.38 mg/kg in Jinpi. In case of phenthoate, it was sprayed with 10 days interval for 10 days before harvest. Its residue amounts in mandarin, its peel, and Jinpi ranged from 0.16 to 0.65, 0.69 to 2.41 and 1.69 to 11.3 mg/kg, repectively. Proposed MRLs of fenitrothion and phenthoate for Jinpi are suggested to 22.39 and 11.30 mg/kg, respectively. So we recommend PHIs of the pesticides that fenitrothion can be sprayed 3 times 7 days before harvest and in case of phenthoate, sprayed 3 times 10 days before harvest.
Development of Electro-Biosensor for the Residual Pesticides using Organic Carbon and Cobalt Phthalocyanine
Yu, Young-Hun ; Cho, Hyung-Jun ; Park, Won-Pyo ; Hyun, Hae-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 72~76
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.072
We have developed the bio-electrode measuring the variance of the amount of acetylcholine affected by residual pesticide. The working electrode of the biosensor was made by combination of cobalt phthalocyanine and carbon organic compounds. The biosensors were constructed by screen-printing method. The principle of working electrode is similar to thiocholine sensor. We have fabricated the biosensor using standard screen printing method. Generally, the biosensor made by printing method formed thick film biosensor. When the electrodes were made by electrochemical cells, the generation of current by the addition of enzyme substrate was inhibited by standard solutions of organo-phosphate pesticides. The detection limit of sensor is about 0.5
for carbofuran. We could improve the responsibility of the sensor by controlling the cobalt phthalocyanine and thiocholine concentration ratio. Also we have tested the EPN and Chlorpyrifos pesticides and found that the biosensor is applicable to fast determination of residual pesticides.
Molecular Cloning and Expression of Sequence Variants of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Genes from Wheat
Baek, Kwang-Hyun ; Skinner, Daniel Z. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 77~85
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.077
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very harmful to living organisms due to the potential oxidation of membrane lipids, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. transformed E.coli strain QC 871, superoxide dismutase (SOD) double-mutant, with three sequence variant MnSOD1, MnSOD2, and MnSOD3 manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene isolated from wheat. Although all QC 871 transformants grown at
expressed mRNA of MnSOD variants, only MnSOD2 transformant had functional SOD activity. MnSOD3 expressed active protein when grown at
, however, MnSOD1 did not express functional protein at any growing and induction conditions. The sequence comparison of the wheat MnSOD variants revealed that the only amino acid difference between the sequence MnSOD2 and sequences MnSOD1 and 3 is phenylalanine/serine at position 58 amino acid. We made MnSOD2S58F gene, which was made by altering the phenylalaine to serine at position 58 in MnSOD2. The expressed MnSOD2S58F protein had functional SOD activity, even at higher levels than the original MnSOD2 at all observed temperatures. These data suggest that amino acid variation can result in highly active forms of MnSOD and the MnSOD2S58F gene can be an ideal target used for transforming crops to increase tolerance to environmental stresses.
Antifungal Properties of Rhizopus oligosporus Against Apple Anthracnose Fungi
Bajpai, Vivek K. ; Choi, Seak-Won ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 1, 2010, Pages 86~91
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.1.086
This study was carried out to assess the antifungal potential of R. oligosporus and its ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract against the fungal pathogens causing anthracnose disease in apple fruits using disc diffusion, antagonistic effect and morphological abnormalities in fungal mycelia. The percentage of inhibition of antifungal effect of the ethyl acetate extract (5
) of the R. oligosporus against C. acutatum KACC 40848, C. gloeosporioides KACC 40897, C. higginsianum KACC 40806, C. orbiculare KACC 40808, C. coccodes KACC 40008, C. musae KACC 40947, C. boninense KACC 40893, C. liliacearum KACC 40981, C. caudatum KACC 41028 and Colletotrichum sp. KACC 40811 was found to be 44.4, 35.5, 40, 31.1, 33.3, 37.7, 40, 51.1, 28.8 and 28.8%, respectively. Also the fungus R. oligosporus showed potential antagonistic effect of antifungal activity against the tested pathogens of Colletotrichum spp. Further, R. oligosporus had a potential detrimental effect on the morphology of the tested fungi of Colletotrichum spp. such as wrinkle abnormalities, abnormal cell formation, lysis of mycelium, empty cell formation, distorted cell formation and breakage of the mycelium. These findings strongly support the role of R. oligosporus to serve as a potential antifungal agent to control plant pathogenic fungi causing anthracnose disease in apple fruits.