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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Effect of Mixtures with Lignite and Amino Acid Solution on the Growth of Rice Plant, Chinese Cabbage and Red Pepper, and the Chemical Properties of Soil
Han, Seong-Soo ; Yoo, Ki-Yong ; Park, Min-Su ; Lee, Young-Il ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 93~101
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.093
For the study of possibility of practical use as an organic farm materials of the mixtures with lignite and amino acid solution, this experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the mixtures on the growth and the yield of rice plant, chinese cabbage, and red pepper, and the effects of the mixtures on chemical properties of soil. Also, when the mixtures of the lignite plus amino acid solution and the chemical fertilizer were applied to these three crop cultivation area, authors want to know how can the loss in quantity of chemical fertilizer affects the growth and the yield of these crops. As the results, growth of rice plant applied with the mixtures of lignite and amino acid solution was better than that applied with the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer. Especially, the growth of rice plant appeared to be good at the treatment of 150 kg/ha of the mixed lignite with amino acid solution and at that of its mixtures and standard fertilization. Growth of chinese cabbage and red pepper was good at the application of 600 kg/ha of the mixed lignite with amino acid solution and at that of its mixtures and standard fertilization. Yield of rice and chinese cabbage was good at the treatment of 150 kg/ha of the mixed lignite with amino acid solution and at that of its mixtures and standard fertilization, and yield of red pepper was good at the application of 600 kg/ha of the mixed lignite with amino acid solution and at that of its mixtures and standard fertilization. The organic matter content increased and while the exchangeable cation decreased when the lignite mixed with amino acid solution and the loss in quantity of chemical fertilizer applied at paddy field. Incase of these treatments, pH and available phosphorus increase at upland field, but did not change at paddy field.
Effects of Foliar Spray of Calcium Hydroxide on Shoot Growth and Fruit Quality in 'Daewol' Peach (Prunus persica
Park, Ji-Young ; Son, In-Chang ; Kim, Dae-Il ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 102~108
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.102
The effects of foliar spray of calcium hydroxide (
) during fruit growth period was investigated by changes of the shoot growth and fruit quality in 'Daewol' peach (Prunus persica). Since foliar spray of
1, 2, 5, and 10
at 7 day-intervals after fruit thinning, shoot growth was remarkably decreased compared with control group. An average SPAD value of fifth leaf from proximal part of the shoot was higher as 42.1 specific color difference sensor value (SCDSV) of
foliar spraying treatments than 40.9 SCDSV of control group. Photosynthesis rates were also significantly increased by treating
of higher concentration. Among fruit characteristics affecting quality, fruit weight was increased depending on concentration of
treatment. The soluble solids content was lowest in control group (8.78
) compare with higher concentrations of
foliar spraying treatment in each 9.17, 9.22, 9.71, 10.58
. The acidity and anthocyanin contents were no significant differences among treatment, but firmness of pericarp and flesh of fruits was significantly increased by
foliar spray treatment. As a results of morphological observation of leaf, thickness of palisade parenchyma was thinner in control group (63.5
) than those of each 86.5, 87.5, 93.6, 107.4
foliar spraying treatment. Higher
foliar spray also increased the thickness of cell wall of epidermis and hypodermis in 'Daewol' fruit.
Effects of Rape Residue as Green Manure on Rice Growth and Weed Suppression
Choi, Bong-Su ; Sung, Jwa-Kyung ; Lee, Sang-Soo ; Nam, Jae-Jak ; Hong, Seung-Gil ; Kim, Rog-Young ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 109~114
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.109
Rape residue as green manure is an emerging alternative of chemical fertilizer to improve soil quality and crop productivity. Objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of rape residue as green manure on reduction of chemical fertilizer and suppression of weed occurrence in rice-rape double cropping system. Greenhouse experiment was conducted with four treatments: the combination of rape residue and three different N application rates (0, 30 and 70% of recommended application rate (7.8 kg N
)) and 100% chemical fertilizer as a control. No difference in rice clum length was observed for all treatments, while panicle length was highest in a treatment of rape residue+70% chemical fertilizer (Rape+70%CF). In addition, rice grain weight at a Rape+70%CF treatment increased by 19% compared to the control. This treatment also reduced weed density and biomass by 58 and 53%, respectively, compared to the control. Our results suggest that use of rape residues as green manure is an environment friendly and effective way to reduce chemical fertilizer and to enhance crop productivity in rice-rape double cropping system in Korea.
Ethylenediamine as a Promising and Biodegradable Chelating Agent in Growth of Plant Under Zinc Stress
Lee, Sang-Man ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 115~119
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.115
Zinc (Zn) is an essential element required for growth and development of plants. However, Zn can be toxic to plants when it presents excessive amount. Phytoextraction is an economic and environment-friendly technique using plants to clean-up metal-contaminated soils. However, the technique cannot be applied in highly metal-contaminated areas because plants will not normally grow in such conditions. Therefore, this research focuses on identifying chelating agents which are biodegradable and applicable to highly metalcontaminated areas. Zn as a target metal and cysteine (Cys), histidine (His), malate, citrate oxalate, succinate, and ethylenediamine (EDA) as biodegradable chelating agents were selected. Plants were grown on agar media containing various chelating agents with Zn to analyze the effect on plant growth. Malate and His slightly increased the inhibitory effect of Zn on root growth of plants, whereas Cys, citrate, oxalate, and succinate did not show significant effects. However, EDA strongly diminished the inhibitory effect of Zn on root growth. The effect of EDA is correlated with decreased Zn uptake into the plants. In conclusion, as biodegradable chelating agents, EDA is a good candidate for growth of plants in highly Zn-contaminated areas.
Variation of Protein, Oil, Fatty Acid, and Sugar Contents in Black Soybean Cultivars According to Different Latitudes
Hong, Seung-Beom ; Lee, Su-Jin ; Kim, Young-Hak ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Yoon, Kwang-Hee ; Lee, Sung-In ; Nam, Mi-Young ; Song, Lee-Seul ; Baek, In-Youl ; Kim, Hyeun-Kyeung ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 120~128
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.120
This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of crude protein, crude oil, fatty acid, and sugar contents in five Korean domestic black soybean cultivars grown at different latitudinal locations, a high latitude, Suwon (
16'N) and a low latitude, Milyang (
30'N). The crude protein content was highest in Geomjeongkong # 3 (43.9%) and crude oil content was highest in Geomjeongkong # 4 (21.8%) among the five cultivars. Crude protein and oil contents in black soybean cultivars except Geomjeongkong # 4 were not significantly different between high latitude and low latitude. In most black soybean cultivars grown at high latitude, oleic acid content was higher, while linoleic acid, and linolenic acid contents were lower compared to low latitude. Sucrose content in Geomjeongkong # 3, raffinose contents in Geomjeongkong # 3, # 4, Ilpumgeomjeongkong, and Cheongjakong, and stachyose content in Geomjeongkong # 1 grown at low latitude was higher compared to high latitude. The variations of crude protein, crude oil and fatty acid contents seemed to be affected by genotype than growing locations according to different latitude as they did not show the significant interaction between cultivars and locations. In contrast, the variations of glucose, sucrose, and stachyose contents maybe affected by environmental condition as different latitude than the genotype because they showed the significant interaction between cultivars and locations.
Variation of Anthocyanin, and Isoflavone Contents in Korean Black Soybeans Grown at Different Latitudinal Locations
Hong, Seung-Beom ; Lee, Su-Jin ; Kim, Young-Hak ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Yoon, Kwang-Hee ; Lee, Sung-In ; Nam, Mi-Young ; Song, Lee-Seul ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 129~137
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.129
This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of anthocyanin, and isoflavone contents in five cultivars and two lines of Korean domestic black soybeans grown at different latitudinal locations, a high latitude, Suwon (
16'N) and a low latitude, Milyang (
30'N). Delphinidin-3-glucoside (D3G) contents of anthocyanin in Geomjeongkong # 3 and Ilpumgeomjeongkong, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) content in Milyang # 113, petunidin-3-glucoside (Pt3G) contents in Milyang # 113, and Ilpumgeomjeongkong, and total anthocyanins in Milyang # 113 were highest among the seven black soybean cultivars and lines. D3G, C3G, and total anthocyanins in Geomjeongkong # 3, C3G, and total anthocyanins in Ilpumgeomjeongkong grown at high latitude were higher compared to low latitude. Daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and total isoflavone contents in Geomjeongkong # 4 were highest among the seven cultivars and lines. Daidzein contents of isoflavone in Geomjeongkong # 3, Milyang # 112, and Milyang # 113 grown at high latitude were higher compared to low latitude. Glycitein contents in Geomjeongkong # 3, and # 4 grown at high latitude were higher compared to low latitude, while it in Milyang # 113 grown at low latitude was higher compared to high latitude. Genistein contents in most black soybeans except Milyang # 113, and total isoflavone contents in Geomjeongkong # 4 and Cheongjakong grown at low latitude were higher compared to high latitude. The variations of anthocyanin except Pt3G and isoflavone contents seemed to be affected by environmental conditions like different latitude than the genotype because they showed the significant interaction between cultivars and locations.
Effects of Composts on the Growth, Yield and Effective Components of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)
Han, Hyo-Shim ; Woo, Seo ; Kim, Dong-Kwan ; Heo, Buk-Gu ; Lee, Kyung-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 138~145
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.138
Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) is an important medicinal plant that has been historically used in herbal medicine and in the health food throughout Asia etc. Recently, the demands on rhizome of turmeric are increasing greatly by well-being boom, but there is not enough to meet the demands. To fulfill increasing demands, cultivation system strategies using the organic fertilizers are required to produce a greater amount of rhizome with good quality and yield. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of composts, NPK fertilizer(control, F), NPK + swine manure(SM) and NPK + fermentation manure from the wasted oriental medicine materials(OMWM), on rhizome yield and the content of bioactive components for quality. Our results showed that two compost applications can increase both rhizomes(24.1-25.9%) and curcumin(21.7-41.0%) yields, respectively, compared to F control. The content of amino acids increased significantly by SM and OMWM treatments. SM and OMWM application also increased the total phenol yields 7.8 and 8.7 g/10a compared with control 6.3 g/10a, the flavonoid yields 6.3 and 7.3 g/10a compared with control 5.3 g/10a, and also antioxidant activity 21.7 and 41%, respectively, as compared to the control. Especially, OMWM was more effective in total rhizomes yields and bioactivities and in the biosynthesis of curcumin and bioactive components than SM treatments, but the biological pathway was not clear, still. This experiment suggests that curcumin or bioactive components affected by adding SM and OMWM could increase the yields and quality of turmeric.
Treatment Efficiency of Pollutants in Constructed Wetlands under Different Hydroponic Wastewater Injection Methods and Characteristic of Filter Media
Seo, Dong-Cheol ; Park, Jong-Hwan ; Cheon, Yeong-Seok ; Park, Seong-Kyu ; Kim, Ah-Reum ; Lee, Won-Gyu ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Lee, Seong-Tae ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Heo, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 146~151
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.146
In order to improve T-N and T-P removal in HF (horizontal flow)-HF hybrid constructed wetlands by natural purification method for treating the hydroponic wastewater in greenhouses, the efficiency of water treatment as affected by the injection method of hydroponic wastewater, the addition of special filter media, the particle size of filter media, and the injection ratio of hydroponic wastewater in
HF beds were investigated in small-scale HF-HF hydroponic wastewater treatment apparatus. Removal rate of T-P in the water in HF-HF hydroponic wastewater treatment apparatus with calcite as affected by addition method of special filter media was higher than that in HF-HF hydroponic wastewater treatment apparatus with other filter media. Removal rate of BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P in the water in mixed filter media with calcite were 86, 84, 87, 50 and 97%, respectively. Removals of pollutants except for T-P in the water were slightly different. Therefore, it should be considered that the removal rate of T-P was good for calcite in HF-HF hydroponic wastewater treatment apparatus. To improve T-N and T-P removal, the optimum particle size of filter media was 1.2 mm, and the optimum injection ratio (
HF bed :
HF bed) of hydroponic wastewater was 60:40.
Adsorption Characteristics of Cadmium ions from Aqueous Solution using by-product of Brewing
Kim, Min-Su ; Ham, Kwang-Joon ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Gang, Seon-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 152~158
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.152
Biosorption is considered to be an alternative method to replace the present adsorbent systems for the treatment of metal contaminated wastewater. In this study, by-product which was abandoned from brewing factory was used to remove metal component in aqueous solution. The experimental results showed that the range of the removal efficiency is 60~91% and adsorption equilibrium was reached in about 3 hr. FT-IR and stereo microscope has been used to observe the surface conditions and changes in functional groups by calcination. At the end of elution, the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in water was increased 11 and 7 times compare raw sample to calcinated samples. The Langmuir isotherm adequately described the adsorption of waste materials and the maximum adsorption capacity was 28.17 mg/g for Cd. The overall results suggested that waste material might can be used for biosorption of Cd.
Induced Drought Tolerance by the Insecticide Imidacloprid in Plant
Han, Song-Hee ; Kim, Chul-Hong ; Lee, Jang-Hoon ; Kim, In-Seon ; Kim, Young-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 159~164
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.159
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which has been used widely in various crops to control insects. In the present study, we demonstrated that pre-treatment of imidacloprid significantly induced tolerance to drought in plant. Relative water content, chlorophyll levels, and recovery rate upon rehydration after drought stress in tobacco plants pre-treated with imidacloprid were higher levels than the control plants. Induced drought tolerance by imidacloprid treatments in red pepper was also demonstrated by measurement of recovery rate and fresh weight upon drought stress. Taken together, our results suggest that imidacloprid, in addition to exerting direct insecticidal activity, may also protect plants by induced tolerance to drought in plant.
Determination of Captan, Folpet, Captafol and Chlorothalonil Residues in Agricultural Commodities using GC-ECD/MS
Lee, Su-Jin ; Hwang, Young-Sun ; Kim, Young-Hak ; Kwon, Chan-Hyeok ; Do, Jung-A ; Im, Moo-Hyeog ; Lee, Young-Deuk ; Choung, Myoung-Gun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 165~175
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.165
A gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed to determine residues of captan, folpet, captafol, and chlorothalonil, known as broad-spectrum protective fungicides for the official purpose. All the fungicide residues were extracted with acetone containing 3% phosphoric acid from representative samples of five agricultural products which comprised rice, soybean, apple, pepper, and cabbage. The extract was diluted with saline, and dichloromethane partition was followed to recover the fungicides from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was additionally employed for final cleanup of the extracts. The analytes were then determined by gas chromatography using a DB-1 capillary column with electron capture detection. Reproducibility in quantitation was largely enhanced by minimization of adsorption or thermal degradation of analytes during GLC analysis. Mean recoveries generated from each crop sample fortified at two levels in triplicate ranged from 89.0~113.7%. Relative standard deviations (RSD) were all less than 10%, irrespective sample types and fortification levels. As no interference was found in any samples, limit of quantitation (LOQ) was estimated to be 0.008 mg/kg for the analytes except showing higher sensitivity of 0.002 mg/kg for chlorothalonil. GC/Mass spectrometric method using selected-ion monitoring technique was also provided to confirm the suspected residues. The proposed method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the residues of captan, folpet, captafol, and chlorothalonil in agricultural commodities for routine analysis.
Biodegradation of Endosulfan by Klebsiella oxytoca KE-8 Immobilized on Activated Carbon
Jo, Min-Sub ; Lee, Jung-Bok ; Kim, Jang-Eok ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ; Jeon, Chun-Pyo ; Choi, Chung-Sig ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 176~183
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.176
Endosulfan degrading ability of Klebsiella oxytoca KE-8 immobilized by entrapment with activated carbon was examined. Endosulfan degradation by the immobilized bacterial strains on several different activated carbon based support materials was investigated. Based on results, activated carbon (
mesh) was chosen as a support material. The immobilized Klebsiella oxytoca KE-8 with the cell density of 4 mg
(dry weight) degraded 22.18 ug
endosulfan within 5 days at pH 7.0,
in batch shake flask cultures. Also, we an experimented recycle packed bed column mode and continuous packed bed column mode for endosulfan degradation. Under optimum operation condition, the immobilized cells in a laboratory scale pack bed column with support beads were able to degrade endosulfan completely in defined minimal salt medium at a maximum rate of 129.6 ug
per day. Moreover, the endosulfan degradation activity could be demonstrated at
for one month without significant decrease in activity. Results of this study suggest that immobilized cells of Klebsiella oxytoca KE-8 might be applicable to endosulfan contaminated site.
Biotransformation of Aldrin and Chlorpyrifos-methyl by Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
Park, Byeoung-Soo ; Lee, Sung-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 184~188
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.184
A cyanobacteria species, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, was tested to assess its biotransformation ability on two widely used insecticides, aldrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl, in the culture medium. The blue-green alga metabolized aldrin mainly to dieldrin by an epoxidation reaction with the participation of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase in the cyanobacteria. The blue-green alga also produced chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon as a primary metabolite from chlorpyrifos-methyl via a desulfuration reaction, presumably conducted by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase. Therefore, two insecticides might be possibly dissipated by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases in the blue-green algae in the contaminated environments.
Effect of the Various Heavy Metals on the Growth and Phosphorus (P) Removal Capacity of the Phosphorus Accumulating Microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.)
Kim, Hee-Jung ; Yoo, Ri-Bi ; Han, Seok-Soon ; Woo, Sun-Hee ; Lee, Moon-Soon ; Baek, Ki-Tae ; Chung, Keun-Yook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 189~196
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.189
The removal of phosphorus (P) in the wastewater is essential for the prevention of eutrophication in the river and stream. This study was initiated to evaluate the effect of the various heavy metals on the growth and P removal capacity of Pseudomonas sp., which was well known as phosphorus accumulating microorganism(PAO's) in the EBPR(Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal) process. The five heavy metals used in the study were Cu, As, Zn, Ni, and Cd. The growth rate of Pseudomonas sp. was the greatest at
, but the removal efficiency of P was the highest at
(median Inhibition Concentration) values of Pseudomonas sp. for the Cu, As, Zn, Ni, and Cd were 2.35, 11.04, 1.80, 4.92, and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, it appears that the sensitivity of the heavy metals to Pseudomonas sp. was in the following order: Cd> Zn> Cu> Ni> AS. Also, the P removal efficiencies by Pseudomonas sp. were correspondingly decreased as the concentrations of heavy metals were increased.
Optimum Recovery of Biogas from Pig Slurry with Different Compositions
Park, Woo-Kyun ; Jun, Hang-Bae ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Chae, Kyu-Jung ; Park, Noh-Back ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 197~205
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.197
This study was conducted to investigate the optimum conditions for efficient methane production through anaerobic digestion of pig waste slurry. The examined parameters were organic matter content of the pig slurry, the ratio of seed sludge to pig slurry, and stirring intensity of the digestion reactor. The effects of types of slurry produced from different purpose-based pigs fed with different feeds were also tested. The methane concentration in the produced biogas was 45% when the ratio of seed sludge to pig slurry was 50% and total solid (TS) concentration was 1%, and it increased in proportional to TS concentration increases from 3 to 7%. At 3 and 5% of TS concentration, increasing mixing velocity from 80 to 160 rpm resulted in higher biogas production amount. However, mixing amount of seed sludge did not cause any significant effect on biogas production. Overall, the most efficient biogas production was achieved at 3-5% TS concentration in combination with 50% seed sludge inoculation and mixing velocity at 120 rpm. Among pig slurry types, gestating sow waste slurry showed the highest biogas production probably due to higher the degradation rate than other types of pig waste slurry being affected by the feeds components.
Flora and Life Form of Habitats for Nannophya pygmaea Rambur
Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Han, Min-Su ; Choi, Chul-Mann ; Pang, Hye-Sun ; Jung, Myung-Pyo ; Na, Young-Eun ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 2, 2010, Pages 206~213
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.2.206
The aim of this study was to provide basic informations for restoring a habitat of Nannophy pygmaea Rambur. Environments and flora of the habitats were investigated in Youngdong, Sanbuk, and Nongam South Korea. The habitats were abandoned paddy fields with tree-unshaded space and with the water depths of about 2 - 10 cm all the year round. The water quality was recorded 5.44 - 7.33 in pH, 0.017 - 0.480 dS/m in EC, 1.34 - 4.94 mg/L in T-N and 0.06 - 0.46 mg/L in T-P. The pH and EC showed a wide range values, and T-N and T-P showed a high values comparatively. This result implies that a water quality does not important as the condition for a habitat of the species. A total of 86 vascular plant taxa belonging to 35 families, 60 genera, 67 species, 2 subspecies, 14 varieties and 3 forma were recognized in the habitats. Twenty two species (25.6%) overlapped among the habitats; Equisetum arvense, Salix koreensis, Persicaria thunbergii, Stellaria alsine var. undulata, Hypericum laxum, Kummerowia striata, Epilobium pyrricholophum, Oenanthe javanica, Mosla dianthera, Utricularia vulgaris var. japonica, Plantago asiatica, Eupatorium lindleyanum, Juncus diastrophanthus, J. effusus var. decipiens, J. papillosus, Aneilema keisak, Alopecurus aequalis, Arthraxon hispidus, Carex dickinsii, Cyperus sanguinolentus, Eleocharis acicularis for. longiseta and E. congesta. Biological type was determined to be HH-R5-D4-e(t) type; HH 39 taxa (45.3%), R5 42 taxa (48.8%), D4 59 taxa (68.6%) and e (or t) 23 taxa (26.7%).