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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Nitrite Removal by Autotrophic Denitrification Using Sulfur Particles
Kang, Woo-Chang ; Oh, Sang-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 221~226
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.221
Swine wastewater contains high amounts of organic matter and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The biological nitrogen removal can be achieved by nitrification and denitrification processes. Nitrification-denitrification can be performed via nitrite which is called as the short-cut process. This Short-cut process saves up to 25% of oxygen and 40% of external carbon during nitrification and denitrification. In this study, the batch tests were conducted to assess the different parameters for the nitrite sulfur utilizing denitrification, such as alkalinity, temperature, initial nitrite concentration, and dissolved oxygen. The experimental results showed that the nitrite removal efficiency of the reactor was found to be over 95% under the optimum condition (
and sufficient alkalinity). Autotrophic nitrate denitrification was inhibited at low alkalinity condition showing only 10% removal efficiency, while nitrite denitrification was achieved over 95%. The nitrite removal rates were found similar at both
. In addition, nitrite removal efficiencies were inhibited by increasing oxygen concentration, but sulfate concentration increased due to sulfur oxidation under an aerobic condition. Sulfate production and alkalinity consumption were decreased with nitrite compared those with nitrate.
Effects of Fertigation with Pig Slurry on Growth and Yield of Red pepper
Lim, Tae-Jun ; Lee, In-Bog ; Kang, Seok-Beom ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Hong, Soon-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 227~231
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.227
Slurry composting biofiltration(SCB) is considered as a treatment to produce a better fertilizer resource than raw pig slurry as it reduces odor and improves nutrients imbalance. For the agricultural use of SCB slurry as a nutrient source with minimum environmental impact, it is important to investigate the effect of different rate of SCB slurry application on nutrient (particularly for nitrogen) uptake and growth of crops. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of fertigation using pig slurry(PS) on growth and yield of red pepper and to evaluate the appropriate PS concentration in fertigation for soils with different nitrate concentration. To evaluate the effects of fertigation applied PS as a substitute of chemical fertilizer(CF), a single application of three different concentrations of PS:
(86 mg/L) and
(131 mg/L) were compared with CF
(89 mg/L) as a control nitrogen fertilizer. Statistical analysis showed that the growths of red pepper were not affected by treatments. In addition, the yields were no significant difference among treatments, though the highest yield was obtained in PS
by 20,580 kg/ha. In soil chemical properties, nitrate nitrogen on soil of between PS N1.0 and CF
treatment showed similar patterns although they were higher than the preplant nitrogen content. Also, there was no significant difference in yield of red pepper between PS and CF treatment applied as fertigation on soils where nitrate nitrogen contents of each soil contains 10, 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively. Consequently, the application of PS, such as SCB, as a substitute of CF is available for growth and yield of red pepper, there could be accordingly estimated the optimal fertigation concentration of PS for red pepper cultivation.
Removal of Nutrients Using an Upflow Septic Tank(UST) - Aerobic Filter(AF) System
Park, Sang-Min ; Jun, Hang-Bae ; Bae, Jong-Hun ; Park, Woo-Kyun ; Park, Noh-Back ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 232~238
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.232
The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system. This system was developed to improve a nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency and generate less solid using upflow septic tank(UST) - aerobic filter(AF) system. The UST equipped with an aerobic filter, the filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the UST to induce the denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen(TN) were above 96% and 73% at recycle ratio of 200%, respectively. Critical coagulant dose without the biochemical activity was found to be 40 mg/L. Removal efficiency of total phosphorus(TP) in influent was above 90% by chemical and biological reactions. Although the phosphorus concentration was low under the high alkalinity in raw sewage, the pH value was unchanged by the coagulant dose.
Control of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus Persicae) by Combination of Plant Oil Formulations and Low-dosed Imidacloprid
Yang, You Ri ; Kim, Seon-Hwa ; Park, Myung-Ryeol ; Kim, Ik-Soo ; Kim, In-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 239~246
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.239
Aphids are one of the major pests in agricultural crops. A number of synthetic pesticides have been used for control of aphids in agriculture, but increasing public concerns over their adverse effects on the environment have required more environmentally-friendly methods for pest management. In this study, we examined plant oil formulations for the control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Oil formulations were prepared by hydrolyzing the plant oils in ethanolic KOH solution and diluted at the rate of 1:500 for aphid control. The oil formulations showed aphid mortalities ranging from 24.44 to 43.33% in vitro. Significantly increased aphid mortalities were observed by the treatment of oil formulations combined with low-dosed imidacloprid. No significant difference in the aphid mortality was observed between the oil formulations. Mass spectrometry analyses of aphids treated with the low dosedimidacloprid plus the plant oil formulations detected similar concentrations of imidacloprid between the treatments. In field trial bioassays against aphids, significantly decreased aphid population were observed in the pepper plants treated with soybean oil formulation combined with the low-dosed imidacloprid, while aphid population dramatically increased in the pepper plants treated with the low-dosed imidacloprid alone. These results suggested that the plant oil formulations can be used as an environmentally-friendly method for enhancing the insecticidal effectiveness, which may play a role in reducing the use of synthetic pesticide in agriculture.
Determination of Buprofezin Residues in Rice and Fruits Using HPLC with LC/MS Confirmation
Lee, Young-Deuk ; Jang, Sang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 247~256
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.247
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine buprofezin residues in hulled rice and fruits. The buprofezin residue was extracted with acetone and the extract was stepwise purified by liquid-liquid partition and Florisil column chromatography. For rice samples, acetonitrile/n-hexane partition was additionally employed to remove nonpolar lipids. Reversed phase HPLC using an octadecylsilyl column was successfully applied to separate buprofezin from sample co-extractives, as detected by ultraviolet absorption at 250 nm. Recovery experiment at the limit of quantitation validated that the proposed method could evidently determine the buprofezin residue at the level of 0.02 mg/kg. Mean recoveries from hulled rice, apple, pear, and persimmon samples fortified at three tenfold levels were in the range of 80.8~85.2%, 89.1~98.4%, 88.8~95.7% and 90.8~96.2%, respectively. Relative standard deviations of the analytical method were all less than 5%, irrespective of sample types. A selected-ion monitoring LC/mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization was also provided to sensitively confirm the suspected residue.
Residual Analysis of Insecticides (Lambda-cyhalothrin, Lufenuron, Thiamethoxam and Clothianidin) in Pomegranate Using GC-μECD or HPLC-UVD
Hem, Lina ; Park, Jong-Hyouk ; Shim, Jae-Han ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 257~265
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.257
In this study, the residual levels of four insecticidal compounds (lambda-cyhalothrin, lufenuron, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin) were monitored in the pomegranate, in order to assess the risk to consumers posed by the presence of such residues. The insecticides were applied at the recommended dose rates onto pomegranate trees. The samples were then collected at harvesting time after several treatments (two, three, and four treatments). After sample preparation progressed through the clean-up procedure, lufenuron, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin residues were analyzed via a HPCL-UVD, and the lambda-cyhalothrin residue was analyzed via a GC-
. The versatility of this method was evidenced by its excellent linearity (>0.9998 to 1) at broad concentration ranges. The mean recoveries evaluated from the untreated sample spiked with two different fortification levels ranged from 72.45 to 113.90%, and the repeatability (as a relative standard deviation) resulted from triplicate recovery tests was in a range from 0.80 to 11.75%. The residues of all insecticides determined from treated pomegranate samples and their LOD levels (lunfenuron, 0.01; lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.005; thiamethoxam, 0.01; clothianidin, 0.02 mg/kg) were much lower than their MRLs (0.5 mg/kg).
Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Agricultural Products
Choi, Hoon ; Park, Sung-Kug ; Kim, Dong-Sul ; Kim, Mee-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 266~272
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.266
The present study was carried out to assess exposure & risk for Korean by total and inorganic As intake through agricultural products. Total arsenic analysis was performed using microwave device and ICP-MS. 50% MeOH extraction and anion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS method has been used to determine arsenic species. 329 samples covering 20 kinds of agricultural products were collected from various retail outlets and markets across Korea. The concentration of total As was in the range of 0.001~0.718 mg/kg, while inorganic and organic arsenic species in all samples was not determined. For risk assessment, probable daily intake was calculated and compared with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, 15
/kg b.w./week for inorganic arsenic) established by JECFA. The median daily exposure to total and inorganic As by intake of agricultural products except rice was ranged 0.0002~0.012, 0.0001~0.001
/kg b.w./day, corresponding to 0.01~0.5%, 0.002~0.1% of PTWI, respectively. The median level of total and inorganic As intake through rice was 0.603 and 0.041
/kg b.w./day, and 28.1% and 1.9% of PTWI, respectively. Therefore, the level of overall exposure to arsenic for Korean through agricultural products was below the recommended JECFA levels, indicating of least possibility of risk.
Seasonal Monitoring of Residual Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Soil, Surface Water and Sediment Adjacent to a Poultry Manure Composting Facility
Lee, Sang-Soo ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Kwon-Rae ; Kwon, Oh-Kyung ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Ok, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 273~281
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.273
Concentration of antibiotics including a tetracycline group (TCs) of tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC), a sulfonamide group (SAs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), and sulfamethazine (SMT), an ionophore group (IPs) of lasalocid (LSL), monensin (MNS), and salinomycin (SLM), and a macrolide group (MLs) of tylosin (TYL) was determined from samples collected from the agricultural soil, stream water, and sediment. For the agricultural soil samples, the concentration of TCs had the highest value among all tested antibiotic's groups due to its high accumulation rate on the surface soils. The lower concentrations of SAs in the agricultural soils may be resulted from its lower usage and lower distribution coefficient (Kd) compared to TCs. The concentration of TCs in stream water was significantly increased through June to September. It would be likely due to soil loss during an intensive rainfall event and a reduction of water level after the monsoon season. A significant amount of TCs in the sediment was also detected due to its accumulation from runoff, which occurred by complexation of divalent cations, ion exchange, and hydrogen bonding among humic acid molecules. To ensure environmental or human safety, continuous monitoring of antibiotics residues in surrounding ecosystems and systematic approach to the occurrence mechanism of antibiotic resistant bacteria are required.
Environmentally-friendly Control of Soil Nematode by Crashed-rape (Brassica naptus) seed
Kim, Hee-Kwon ; Ma, Kyung-Cheol ; Kim, Myeong-Seok ; Bang, Geuk-Pil ; Kim, Joung-Keun ; Park, Min-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 282~286
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.282
The present studies were carried out for three years from 2007 until 2009 to control nematode and to increase yield of cucumber by crashed-rape seed application at polyethylene film house. Crashed-rape seed has a lot of glucosinolate. Myrosinase decompose gulcosinolate into isothiocyanate and thiocyanate when crashedrape seed go to decay at soil. Those chemical compounds act on poison to nematode at soil. When the crashedrape seed treated at soil, an amount of thiocyanate at soil was risen up. Thiocyanate of plot treated with 200 and 400 kg crashed-rape seed per 10a was 30 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. Nematode(meloidogyne spp) population at soil was 13 to 17 nematodes per dried soil 300g. Yield of cucumber increased 6 to 15 percent to be compared with control. While, Nematode(meloidogyne spp) population of control plot were 463 nematodes per dried soil 300 g. This level was much higher than 150 nematodes which can be brought about injury to plant. Even if the more an amount of crashed-rape seed application, the higher yield of cucumber and control effect of nematode. Consider economical efficiency, 200 kg of crashed-rape seed per 10a was the most effective. Therefore, we suggest applying 200 kg of crashed-rape seed per 10a to control soil nematode when culture cucumber at plastic film house.
Effects of Cover Plants on Soil Biota: A Study in an Apple Orchard
Eo, Jin-U ; Kang, Seok-Beom ; Park, Kee-Choon ; Han, Kyoung-Suk ; Yi, Young-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 287~292
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.287
We aimed to investigate the responses of soil organisms to cover plants and to provide information for the selection of proper plant species. We studied the effects of 7 cover plants, including rye, oat, rattail fescue, Chinese milk vetch, red clover, crimson clover, and hairy vetch, on soil organisms in an apple orchard. An increase in the microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and in the number of nematodes and microarthropods in the soil under the cover plants reflects elevated activities of soil organisms. A decrease in the level of some marker PLFA, which is an indicator of environmental stress, suggests that cover plants provide favorable environments for soil organisms. The population of fungi and animals that feed on fungi increased in the soil surface under red clover. The population density of nematodes and mites increased in the soil surface under rattail fescue, and that of mites and omnivorous nematodes increased in the soil surface under Chinese milk vetch. The level of microbial PLFA in the soil surfaces under the tested cover plants was higher than that under clean culture system. These results suggest that proper selection of the cover plants can facilitate the creation of favorable environments for soil organisms.
Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community in Soils Cultivating Bt Chinese Cabbage
Sohn, Soo-In ; Oh, Young-Ju ; Oh, Sung-Dug ; Kim, Min-Kyung ; Ryu, Tae-Hoon ; Lee, Ki-Jong ; Suh, Seok-Choel ; Baek, Hyeong-Jin ; Park, Jong-Sug ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 293~299
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.293
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of Bt Chinese cabbage on the soil microbial community. Microbial communities were isolated from the rhizosphere of one Bt Chinese cabbage variety and four varieties of conventional ones and were subjected to be analyzed using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. The total counts of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of transgenic and conventional Chinese cabbages were observed to have an insignificant difference. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial community structures were very similar to each other and this genetic stability of microbial communities was maintained throughout the culture periods. Analysis of dominant isolates in the rhizosphere of transgenic and conventional Chinese cabbages showed that the dominant isolates from the soil of transgenic Chinese cabbage belonged to the Bacilli and Alphaproteobacteria, while the dominant isolates from the soil of conventional cabbage belonged to the Holophagae and Planctomycetacia, respectively. These results indicate that the Bt transgenic cabbage has no significant impact on the soil microbial communities.
Pathogenicity Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana against Paratlanticus ussuriensis
Bang, Hea-Son ; Jung, Myung-Pyo ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ; Han, Min-Su ; Kang, Kee-Kyung ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Nam, Sung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 300~303
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.300
Laboratory trial on the control effect of Beauveria bassiana against Paratlanticus ussuriensis was carried out with fungi collected from South Korea, China and Peru. All B. bassiana species from collected at each site had a strong fungicidal activity against P. ussuriensis. The Abbott's formula was the highest showing 100% mortality and the others also showed over 60% mortality. It took 3 to 6 days until katydid attained to death after inoculation with all B. bassiana treatments. From this trial, B. bassiana fungus was found to have some effects as pathogenicity of entomopathogenic activity against P. ussuriensis. So B. bassiana could be considered as one of the environment-friendly and effective pesticides for the control of P. ussuriensis.
Driving Projects of Urban Agriculture for the Energy Independence
Na, Young-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 29, issue 3, 2010, Pages 304~308
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2010.29.3.304
This study compared and analyzed existing studies and released papers to identify the "definition and scope of urban agriculture" which correspond to the circumstances of Korea based on the fact that urban agriculture was selected as one of the measures to pursue green growth by the Presidential Committee on Green Growth (PCGG) and the discussions and deliberations among PCGG, government, academia, civic organizations, and experts. It also aims to present the ways of policy to facilitate the development of urban agriculture based on the mentioned identification. This research proposes the definition of urban agriculture as 'all agricultural activities that incorporates multi-functional public benefits of agriculture performed within the administrative district of a city. However, the scope of urban agriculture should exclude the agricultural sites, the methods, and the activities that are against the multi-functional public benefits of agriculture, which will be determined depending on the spaces, methods, and purposes of planting food crops. In order to facilitate the development of urban agriculture, the government should implement the policy measures as following: (1) to analyze spaces for farming, and provide the spaces to the citizens; (2) to prepare legislation and institution that will allow citizens to use the farming spaces continuously; (3) to develop Korean-style urban agriculture model that fully reflects the features of Korean cities; (4) to develop a system where the urban citizens can easily learn and experience the urban agriculture; and, (5) to provide incentives that will attract active participation of urban citizens such as carbon mileage. (6) to analyze effect of urban agriculture to save energy and food self-sufficiency.