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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Dec 1984
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1984
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Degradation of the Herbicide Alachlor by Soil Microorganisms II. Synthesis and Phytotoxicity of Major Degradation Products
Lee, Jae-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 1~9
Two of the degradation products of alachlor in soil. product 1, 2,6-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide and product 2,2-hydroxy-2',6'-diethyl-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide were synthesized from alachlor reacting with 3N-hydrochloric acid in the presence of zinc powder at room temperature and a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution at
for 78 hr, respectively. At the concentrations of both
, product 2 exhibited almost the same phytotoxicity to rice seedlings, in particular, as alachlor, whereas product 1 lost its phytotoxic effectiveness. It seems that substitution of chlorine atom by hydroxyl group did not affect the phytotoxicity of alachlor, whereas substitution by hydrogen atom did.
Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of Phorate by Radishes and Carrots
Lee, Hae-Keun ; Hong, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 10~15
To get information on the behavior of phorate in vegetables under the subtropical conditions, phorate granule (10%) was applied to silt loam soil at the rate of 40㎏ a.i./ha and incorporated to 10㎝ soil depth just befere sowing. Insecticide residues in vegetables were determined with GLC and confirmed qualitatively with TLC. Phorate and its metabolites were absorbed by the radish and carrot roots and rapidly translocated into foliages. The compounds detected in vegetables were phorate, phorate sulfoxide, and phorate sulfone. Residue levels of compounds in radishes were higher in foliages than in roots and much more residues were present in leaf lamina than in midribs. The concentration of the total residues in vegetable roots was rapidly decreased with the time, while the amount of total residues in radish roots was increased with the time. Therefore, the rapid decline of residue levels in vegetables was mainly attributed to the dilution of insecticide residues by the rapid growth of these vegetables.
Persistence of Organophosphorus Insecticides in/on Mulberry Leaves with Reference to Silkworm Mortality
Oh, B.Y. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Park, Y.S. ; Lee, B.M. ; Paik, H.J. ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 16~21
The present study was aimed to investigate persistence of dichlorvos EC, fenitrothion EC, fenthion EC, and phenthoate EC in and on mulberry leaves with special reference to silkworm mortality and cocoon production under greenhouse condition. The halflives of fenitrothion, fenthion, and phenthoate in and on mulberry leaves were ranged from two to three days, while that of dichlorvos was less than 9 hours. The insecticide residues in and on mulberry leaves persisted longer in spring cropping season than in autumn cropping season. Elapsed periods from last application of each insecticide to leaf harvest for silkworm feed and maximum residue limits for safe cocoon production as well as relations between insecticide residues in and on mulberry leaves and silkworm mortality were produced.
Pollution of Agricultural Environment I. Adsorption of Several Herbicide on Soils and Theoretical Evaluation
Han, Dae-Sung ; Kim, Jeong-Je ; Shin, Young-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 22~29
The Freundlich-type adsorption isotherms were obtained in this study on the adsorption of linuron, bentazon, trifluralin and butachlor by soils. A strong correlation was shown between soil organic matter content and the adsorption of linuron. Soils with high organic matter content adsorbed more linuron. There was no significant correlation between the adsorption of bentazon and clay content. There was a tendency that increase in organic matter content acts against the adsorption of bentazon. Repulsive forces seemed to exist between negatively charged soil particle surfaces and betazon molecules which become weakly charged negative ions in soil solution. Organic matter content and cation exchange capacity appeared to be enhancing the adsorption of trifluralin and butachlor. Clay content was not significantly correlated with the adsorption of these herbicides. Trifluralin was adsorptive to the greatest extent, followed by linuron and butachlor, bentazon being the least.
Bioconcentration of Diazinon and Fenitrothion in Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Lee, Su-Rae ; Yoo, Byung-Sun ; Chun, Hye-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 30~35
A freshwater fish carp(Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to two organophosphorus insecticides in laboratory to investigate the potential of its bioconcentration. The results are summarized as follows: Bioconcentration factor of diazinon and fenitrothion after 24-hour exposure at 1 ppm concentration was 31 and 57, respectively, for the whole fish. The factor varied among different tissues of the fish in the decreasing order of viscera>rests>gills>muscle. When the fish was exposed to fenitrothion for 28 days at three different concentrations of 6, 30 and 150 ppb, bioconcentration factor in the whole fish ranged from 96 to 138, with a decreasing tendency at higher water concentration. The pesticide was continuously absorbed by the fish, but reaching an equilibrium at the tissue concentration of about 3.5 ppm.
Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Major Enviromental Components of Nakdong River
Park, Chang-Kyu ; Han, Dae-Sung ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 36~44
Waters, sediments and crucian carps samples collected bimonthly from Nakdong river during- the period of August 1982 to June 1983 were analyzed for organophosphorus pesticide residues by GLC equipped with a flame photometric detector. Among the environmental samples, IBP, diazinon, phenthoate, parathion, malathion and fenitrothion residues were found only in waters and crucian carps and sediments samples were devoid of the residues. In addition, seasonal variations of the residues in waters and crucian carps were observed. Waters and crucian carps samples collected in August, when pesticides are generally in great demand, contained all the organophosphorus pesticide residues while no organophosphorus were detected in waters and crucian carps samples collected in February, April or December. The most abundant residues in the two environmental samples were diazinon and IBP and residue levels of parathion, malathion and fenitrothion were found extremely low.
Acute Aquatoxicity of Chemicals to Carp and Changes of Toxicity Values Dependent on Treatment
Lee, Sung-Kyu ; Park, Chul-Won ; Roh, Jung-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 45~51
This study was performed to evaluate the aquatoxicity of 5 chemicals (butachlor, isoprothiolane, probenazole, carbofuran, and cartap) to carp (Cyprinus carpio), discuss the impact on the
values of the chemicals with the exposure time. In butachlor, we also compared the acute toxicity values between two exposure system, the continuous flow system and static state system, and measured the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the two systems. The acute toxicity values (96 hr-LC50 values) of the 5 chemicals were 0.25 ppm in butachlor, 10.0 ppm in isoprothiolane, 6.2 ppm in probenazole, 1.40 ppm in carbofuran, and 0.64 ppm in cartap, respectively. We also found that the
values were downed with increase of the exposure time.
Effect of Antibiotic Fermentation Residues on Rice and Tomato Growth
Lim, Soo-Kil ; Yang, Han-Chul ; Kim, Sung-Bok ; Kwon, Hyok-Ji ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 52~56
In order to evaluate the applicability of two kinds of antibiotic fermentation residues on rice and tomato growth, yield, yield components, and some indicators for plant growing status were checked including analysis of physico-chemical properties of these two antibiotic fermentation residues. The results obtained are as follows: 1) These two antibiotic fermentation residues contain high organic matter (
), phosphorus (
) and exchangeable cations (
,), showing their pH values of
range. 2) Both have developed net positive charge rather high and stiffly that exhibits high negative ion adsorption capacities, accordingly showing higher zero point of charges(
) than those of common soils. 3) The effect of the two kinds of antibiotic fermentation residues on rice growth was more or less the same comparable to the effect of the other fertilizers applied, showing the maximum yield at the application rate of 40 ㎏/10a. 4) The effect of these antibiotic fermentation residues on tomato growth was also similar to effects on rice plant showing the yield increment upon fertilizer application including two antibiotic fermentation residues but no significant differences among fertilizers. 5) According to the plant growing status, plant height, dry matter, number of effective tillers and grain number per panicle of rice and plant height and fresh weight of plant of tomato showed similar trend with yield of both plants.
Dynamics of Nitrogen in Poultry Manure during its Processing
Oh, Wang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 57~62
Laboratory experiments of poultry manure incubated for three days at
were conducted to learn some informations on the relief of nitrogen loss during processing. Results obtained are as follows: 1) Blending phosphoric acid, triplesuperphosphate or superphosphate to poultry manure could reduce the volatilization of ammonia and saved nitrogen in the manure by 80 to 90 percent, though nonblending saved the nitrogen only by 40 to 60 percent during three days incubation. 2) The additives must be blended thoroughly to the manure to obtain the least loss of nitrogen during the incubation. 3) The severe loss of nitrogen was occurred from the drying process of fermented manure of both treatment, that is
percent loss at the blended treatment with phosphoric acid, triplesuperphosphate or superphosphate, and
percent loss at non-blended. 4) Drying the fermented manure under the fixed temperature of about
for three days saved more nitrogen than dried manure under the temperature gradually raised from the room temperature to about
for three days.
The Assessment of Ultraviolet Radiation in Vegetable Growth
Kim, Hyeong-Ok ; Moon, Doo-Khil ; Lee, Shin-Chan ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Song, Pill-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 63~70
The terrestrial UV flux rapidly increased in late spring, as measured by the chemical actinometry at two elevations (near sea level and 1,100m above sea level) on Jeju Island. More intense UV fluxes were observed at higher altitudes. Any harmful effects of solar UV-B on the growth of soybean were not detected in UV-B-exclusion experiment. To ascertain the effect of UV radiation on vegetative growth, intact (㏖ wt 124000) and large (
) phytochromes were irradiated with UV-B radiation. In intact phytochrome, the Pfr form accounts for 60% of the total phytochrome under stationary state conditions, whereas it accounts for 50% in large phytochrome. Calculated quantum yields for the forward and the backward phototransformations of phytochrome by UV were
in intact phytochrome, and
in large phytochrome, respectively.
The Blue Color Deficient Sunlight and the Growth of Pepper
Jung, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 71~78
The light quality obtained from sunlight by removing the spectral region below about 500 nm(blue light region) showed a remarkable effect on the growth of pepper. The physiological characteristics evaluated with the conventionally adopted indices at the vegetative stage revealed that the filtered sunlight improved and accelerated growth in general. In addition, the photosynthetic pigment level comprising chlorophylls,
and 5 xanthophyll components as major pigments was increased significantly in the leaves grown under the orange-colored light. The increase of pigment content was prominent for every carotenoid component rather than for chlorophylls. The strong growth activity produced by the elected spectral quality for this work was properly demonstrated by the fruit yield ratio (filtered light/white light) which was found to be 1.35. Also confirmed was that removing the blue light region from solar radiation did not result in worsening of the food quality of matured pepper. The logic behind selection of the above light quality and some data presented was discussed on various photobiological aspects.
Significance and Territory of Environmental Agriculture
Cho, Jae-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 79~84
Environment and Living Organisms
Lee, Jong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 3, issue 1, 1984, Pages 85~93