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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Environmental Agriculture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content Changes in Paddy Soil and Water As Affected by Organic Fertilizer Application
Lee, Kyung-Do ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ; Gil, Geun-Hwan ; Song, In-hong ; Kang, Jong-Gook ; Hwang, Seon-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.1
BACKGROUND: With increasing public awareness to environment-friendly agriculture, many efforts have been run to develop organic farming technologies in Korea as of late 90s. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different organic farming practices on soil chemical properties and water quality in paddy fields. METHODS AND RESULTS: Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were monitored for a two-year period (2006 to 2007) from the study organic paddy fields located in Wan-ju, Jeonbuk Province in Korea. TN and TP of organic paddy water were gradually increased for 2~3 weeks after organic manure application and then gradually decreased afterward. The overall variation of TP in the paddy fields was much greater than that of TN. The phosphorus content in organic paddy field appeared to increase with the organic farming period. CONCLUSION(s): This indicates that long-term organic farming is likely to cause phosphorus accumulation in soils and increase vulnerability to rainfall runoff. Thus, appropriate phosphorus management needs to be implemented, particularly, to reduce excessive phosphorus supply owing to nitrogen-based determination of organic manure application amount.
Growth and Soil Chemical Property of Small Apple Trees as Affected by Organic Fertilizers and Mulch Sources
Choi, Hyun-Sug ; Rom, Curt ; Lee, Youn ; Cho, Jung-Lai ; Jung, Seok-Kyu ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.9
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the fertilizer sources and ground cover mulches on nutrient release, growth, and photosynthesis in small one-year-old apple (Malus
domestica Borkh.) trees in controlled conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Treatments included no fertilizer (NF), commercial organic fertilizer (CF), and poultry litter (PL) for fertilizer treatments, and wood chips (WC), shredded paper (SP), green compost (GC), and grass clippings (GR) for cover mulch treatments. All treatments were applied proportionally based on the volume ratio equivalent to the soil. CF, PL, and GR treatments that had optimum carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ratios (less than 30:1) for N mineralization through the microbes released the greatest
concentrations in the pot media at 90 days after the treatments, but GC mulch with the optimum C:N ratio did not. CF-, PL- and GR-treated plants had the largest leaf area, thickest stem diameter, longest shoot extension, and greater dry matter production. CONCLUSION(s): CF and PL showed an suitable organic nutrient source for improving plant growth in an orchard. Interestingly, GR also could be a nutrient source for tree growth, if vegetation competition is controlled by maintaining vegetation height and recycling enough grass clippings to the soil in an orchard.
Effects of Nutrient Source on Soil Physical, Chemical, and Microbial Properties in an Organic Pear Orchard
Choi, Hyun-Sug ; Li, Xiong ; Kim, Wol-Soo ; Lee, Youn ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 16~23
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.16
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different organic treatments and a chemical fertilizer on the soil chemical, physical, and microbial properties in an organic pear orchard. METHODS AND RESULTS: Control was referred as a NPK chemical fertilizer (15N-9P-10K) and organic treatments included compost containing with oil cake, compost containing with humic acid, and compost containing with chitin substance. All treatments applied at rates equivalent to 200 g N per tree per year under the tree canopy in March 30 of 2008 and 2009. Soil bulk density, solid phase, liquid phase, and penetration resistance were not significantly different among the treatments. Organic treatment plots had greater organic matter, total nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium concentrations compared to control, and the nutrient concentrations were not consistently affected by the organic treatments. Microbial biomass nitrogen and carbon, dehydrogenase, acid-phosphatase, and chitinase activities overall increased from March to August. Organic treatments, especially compost containing with oil cake or chitin aicd, increased the microbial variables compared to control. CONCLUSION(s): All the organic treatments consistently stimulated soil biological activity. The consistent treatment effect, however, did not occur on the soil mineral nutrition as the trees actively taken up the nutrients during a growing season, which would have diminished treatment effects. Long-term study required for evaluating soil physical properties in a pear orchard.
Environmental Impact Assessment of Rapeseed Cultivation by Life Cycle Assessment
Hong, Seung-Gil ; Nam, Jae-Jak ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Ok, Yong-Sik ; Choi, Bong-Su ; Yang, Jae-E. ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Lee, Sung-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.24
BACKGROUND: High input to the arable land is contributed to increasing productivity with causing the global environmental problems at the same time. Rapeseed cultivation has been forced to reassess its positive point for utilization of winter fallow field. The Objective of this study was performed to assess the environmental impact of rapeseed cultivation with double-cropping system in paddy rice on Yeonggwang district using life cycle assessment technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: For assessing each stage of rapeseed cultivation, it was collected raw data for input materials as fertilizer and pesticide and energy consumption rate by analyzing the type of agricultural machinery and working hours by 1 ton rapeseed as functional unit. Environmental impacts were evaluated by using Eco-indicator 95 method for 8 impact categories. It was estimated that 216 kg
-eq. for greenhouse gas, 3.98E-05 kg CFC-11-eq. for ozone lazer depletion, 1.78 kg SO2-eq. for acidification, 0.28 kg
-eq. for eutrophication, 5.23E-03 kg Pb-eq. for heavy metals, 2.51E-05 kg B(a)p-eq. for carcinogens, 1.24 kg SPM-eq. for smog and 6,460 MJ LHV for energy resource are potentially emitted to produce 1 ton rapeseed during its whole cultivation period, respectively. It was considered that 90% of these potential came from chemical fertilizer. For the sensitivity analysis, by increasing the productivity of rapeseed by 1 ton per ha, potential environmental loading was reduced at 22%. CONCLUSION(s): Fertilization affected most dominantly to the environmental burden, originated from the preuse stage, i.e. fertilizer manufacturing and transporting. It should be included and assessed an indirect emission, which is not directly emitted from agricultural activities. Recycling resource in agriculture with reducing chemical fertilizer and breeding the high productive variety might be contribute to reduce the environmental loading for the rapeseed cultivation.
Performance Evaluation and Characteristic Study of the Single Anaerobic Digestion from Piggery Slurry
Park, Woo-Kyun ; Jun, Hang-Bae ; Park, Noh-Back ; Kwon, Soon-Ik ; Shin, Joung-Du ; Hong, Seung-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.31
BACKGROUND: Disposal of slurry animal manure produced by an anaerobic slurry-type barn method is not easy since the animal slurry contain high moisture content which makes solid-liquid separation a difficult process. However, recently, the interest about anaerobic digestion process as an environment-friendly waste disposal method has gained a wide interest because it can treat highly organic matter contained by the piggery slurry, decrease the odor after treatment, and enable the effective recovery of the methane gas which is a valuable energy resource. The objectives of this study were to identify the solubilization characteristics and to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of piggery slurry through full-scale anaerobic digestion experiments. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a full-scale continuous anaerobic digestion operation, the adaptability of single anaerobic digestion and its digestion efficiency were also evaluated in the farm field. The actual pH range and alkalinity concentration of piggery slurry used during the operation were comparatively higher than the concentrations of pH and alkalinity in the digestion tank which were stable at 7.5~8.0, 4,008 mg/L (as
), respectively. The removal efficiency of organic matter (TCOD) by anaerobic digestion was 75~90% and methane gas production amount was at 0.33 L/L/day, a little higher than that of ordinary animal manure. CONCLUSION(s): Our findings showed higher recovery of highly purified methane and greater efficiency of anaerobic tank digestion since its methane gas content was at 65~70%.
Functional Evaluation of Small-scale Pond at Paddy Field as a Shelter for Mudfish during Midsummer Drainage Period
Kim, Jae-Ok ; Shin, Hyun-Sang ; Yoo, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Seung-Heon ; Jang, Kyu-Sang ; Kim, Bom-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.37
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecological function of small-scale pond and movement characteristics of mudfish (Misgurnus mizolepis) during midsummer drainage period. METHODS AND RESULTS: In situ experiments were performed in the paddy field with mudfish under the condition of midsummer drainage from 13 July to 29 July 2010. The mudfish used in this experiment is approximately 1,000 individuals with a cut tail. Mudfishs were released in the rice field before midsummer drainage and caught again in the small-scale pond and the paddy field after midsummer drainage. Results showed that the abundance of mudfish was higher in drainage canal than small-scale pond at the early stage of midsummer drainage, because flow was formed toward the drainage canal. In that time, 3% of the total marked mudfish were captured at outlet of drainage canal. As the paddy was drying, 5% of total marked mudfish moved to the small-scale pond during midsummer drainage period. Contrary to the general hypothesis, the marked mudfish was not found in holes in paddy field.of total caught in the small-scale pond ingested mainly animal prey, and it`s frequency of empcy stomach was 10%.oOn the other hand, all m total collected in the paddy field showed empcy stomach. It was apparent from the experiment that m total are eeldng normally in the small-scale pond, while m total are not eat properly in paddy field. CONCLUSION(s): As the paddy was drying, mudfish moved to the small-scale pond during midsummer drainage period but mudfish was not found in holes in paddy field. It can be concluded that small-scale provides a shelter and prey to mudfish in the midsummer drainage period.
Arsenic Contamination of Polished Rice Produced in Abandoned Mine Areas and Its Potential Human Risk Assessment using Probabilistic Techniques
Lee, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Won-Il ; Jeong, Eun-Jung ; Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Paik, Min-Kyung ; Park, Byung-Jun ; Im, Geon-Jae ; Hong, Moo-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.43
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the arsenic (As) contaminations in polished rice cultivated nearby abandoned mine areas, and to estimate the potential health risk through dietary intake of As-enriched polished rice in each age-gender population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The As contents in polished rice grown fifteen abandoned mine areas were analyzed. The average daily intake (ADD) as well as probabilistic health risk were estimated by assuming probability distribution of exposure parameters. The average total As concentration in polished rice was
mg/kg with a range of 0.02~0.35 mg/kg. For health risk assessment, the ADD values in all age-gender populations did not exceed the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) of 2.1
b.w./day for inorganic As. Cancer risk probability (R) values were
for all age population and gender population, respectively. Particularly, the R value,
, for children less than six years old were estimated to be high. Hazard quotient (HQ) values were 0.23~0.31 and 0.11~0.33 for general population and age-gender population, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The average R values assessed via intake of polished rice cultivated in abandoned mine areas exceeded the acceptable cancer risk of
for regulatory purpose. Considering the HQ values smaller than 1.0, potential non-cancer toxic effects may not be caused by the long-time exposure through intake of As-contaminated polished rice.
Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit(PHRL) of Insecticide Chlorfenapyr and Fungicide Fenarimol during Cultivation of Chwinamul(Aster scaber)
Lim, Jong-Sung ; Hong, Ji-Hyung ; Lee, Cho-Rong ; Han, Kook-Tak ; Lee, Yu-Ri ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 52~59
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.52
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL) in Chwinamul, to estimate biological half-life for residue of each pesticide. Chwinamul was sprayed with pesticides of standard and double application rate. Chlorfenapyr and fenarimol were sprayed once on Chwinamul at 10 days before harvest, and it was sampled 7 times and analysed the residual change of two pesticides. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chwinamul sample was extracted with acetonitrile and partitioned with dichloromethane, and pesticide residues were determined with GCECD. Method quantitation limit (MQL) of chlorfenapyr was 0.10 mg/kg and that of fenarimol was 0.02 mg/kg. Recoveries of chlorfenapyr at two fortification levels of 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg were
, respectively. Recoveries of fenarimol at two fortification levels of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg were
, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The biological half-lives of chlorfenapyr were about 3.5 days at standard application rate, and 3.4 days at double application rate. The biological half-lives of fenarimol were about 6.0 days at standard application rate, and 5.9 days at double application rate. The PHRLs of chlorfenapyr were recommended as 13.02 and 6.25 mg/kg for 10 and 5 days before harvest, respectively. And the PHRLs of fenarimol were recommended as 2.80 and 1.67 mg/kg for 10 and 5 days before harvest, respectively.
Application of Macroporous Diatomaceous Earth Column for Residue Analysis of Insecticide Endosulfan in Herbal Medicines
Hwang, Jeong-In ; Jeon, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Kim, Ji-Hwan ; Lee, Yoon-Jeong ; Park, Ju-Young ; Kim, Do-Hoon ; Kim, Jang-Eok ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 60~67
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.60
BACKGROUND: Because dried herbal medicines have many active ingredients, it is not easy to determine the residue amount after extraction, partition and clean up of pesticides from them. Especially, liquid-liquid partition method is consuming many times and solvents. Macroporous diatomaceous earth(MDE) column was used to replace the separatory funnel for liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane to analyze the endosulfan and its metabolite. METHODS AND RESULTS: The residue analysis method using MDE column instead of liquid-liquid partition for determining insecticide endosulfan and its metabolite in 4 dried herbal medicines was developed by GC/MS. As a result, the recovery rates of the pesticides in 4 herbal medicines were ranged from 80.3 to 93.5% for
-endosulfan, from 81.0 to 100.3% for
-endosulfan and from 80.6 to 95.6% for endosulfan sulfate, respectively. The coefficients of variation for triplicate were ranged from 1.1 to 3.4%. CONCLUSION: The improved methods are more ecofriendly, safer, faster and less laborious than conventional method by KFDA.
Guidance on Estimating Soil Persistence and Degradation Kinetics from Environmental Fate Studies on Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Environmental Risk Assessment
Kwon, Jin-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 68~75
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.68
BACKGROUND: To assess and prevent the environmental impacts and risks by veterinary pharmaceuticals, Guidance on Estimating Soil Persistence and Degradation Kinetics from Environmental Fate Studies on Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Environmental Risk Assessment was proposed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proposed guidance was coined by VICH, EU guideline, OECD guideline and soil dissipation studies for the purpose of international harmonizing. Guidance was also modified from pesticide soil persistence testing guidelines of US, EU, and Korea, with practical approaches adopting in-use test guideline for Korea. CONCLUSION(S): Proposed guidance are consisted of three parts; Laboratory Soil Experiment, Field Soil Dissipation Study, and Estimation of
. Proposed guidance is to be available for the requirement for registration of veterinary pharmaceuticals with fit for purpose in Korea.
Repellent Activity of the Extracts of Acorus Gramineus against Mosquito (Culex pipinens pallens)
Lee, Seung-Ho ; Jung, Jin-Kwan ; Park, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Mun-Sik ; Han, Yeon-Soo ; Seo, Jung-Mi ; Kim, In-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 76~81
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.76
BACKGROUND: Acorus gramineus is of medicinal plants that exhibit variable biological activities for human health and against insect pests. The extracts of A. gramineus was examined in an attempt to develop a natural repellent against human disease-mediating Culex pipiens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The roots of A. gramineus dried under dark conditions were homogenized and extracted with ethanol. The extracts were subjected to repellent activity assays against C. pipiens in a hand-made acrylamide box with three accessible rooms. Significantly low number of mosquitos was found in the room previously fumigated with the extracts at 50 mg/L on the filter paper, exhibiting less than 20% of mosquitos tested. More than 50% of mosquitos tested was found in the room without the extracts, but less than 30% was found in the room that released mosquitos. GC/MS analysis detected
-asarone as a main component of the extracts. The commercial asarones (
) showed a repellent activity at 50 mg/L on the filter paper similar to the extracts. CONCLUSION(S): A. gramineus has potential for use as a mosquito repellent since
-asarone, a main component of the plant, exhibited a strong repellent activity against C. pipiens.
Epimers/Metabolites of Tetracycline Derivatives; Biological Activity and Regulation Aspects for MRL in Food
Kwon, Jin-Wook ; Yun, Hyo-In ; Lee, Kyu-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 82~88
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.82
BACKGROUND: Tetracyclines (TCs) are mainly regulated as parent compounds by bioactivity-based screening methods in food. Especially with respect to antimicrobial residues, their metabolites/epimers are also highly concerning chemicals and traditionally applied microbial detection methods are needed to improve with validation for regulatory control. METHODS AND RESULTS: Detection capability and biological activity of tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and their epimers; anhydrotetracycline (ATC), epianhydrotetracycline (EATC), epitetracycline (ETC), 4-epi-chlortetracycline (ECTC), 4-epianydrochlotetra-cycline (EACTC), 4-epioxychlortetracycline (EOTC), were measured by microbial growth inhibition screening method of Korea Food Code. CONCLUSION(S): Limited detection capabilities were found, B. megarerium and B. subtilis showed for TC and CTC, and B. subtilis for OTC. Biological potency of each epimer was also presented against various microorganisms, at the level from 50% to 96%, comparing with parent TCs. It is recommended that more advanced microbial screening methods with validation are needed, and biologically active epimers are to be considered as marker residues for MRL setting of regulatory control purpose.
Harmonization of MRL Setting for Compounds Used Both as Pesticides and as Veterinary Drugs with Regulatory Aspects - Cypermethrin in Food of Animal Origin
Kwon, Jin-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, volume 30, issue 1, 2011, Pages 89~97
DOI : 10.5338/KJEA.2011.30.1.89
BACKGROUND: Cypermethrins, possess eight isomers, used both as pesticide and as veterinary drug, were set different MRLs for livestock by CCPR and CCRVDF of Codex Alimentarius. Korea Food Code designates MRLs for livestock only as pesticide. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study presented necessaries of harmonization of MRL setting for compounds used both as pesticides and as veterinary drugs with regulatory aspects, showing an example of cypermethrin residue in livestock. CONCLUSION(S): For harmonization, following factors must be considered and recommended; designation of marker residue; alpha-cypermethrin, zeta- cypermethrin, and cypermethrin, clarification of the definition of target tissues; meat, fat, muscle, by-product, eggs, milk, and etc., method of analysis; clarification of target analytes of isomers, quantitation and calculation method as a principle of residue analysis.